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Anemone

Anemone

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Anemone is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of about 120 species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of flowering plants in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae are a family of about 1700 species of flowering plants in about 60 genera, distributed worldwide....

 in the north and south temperate zones. They are closely related to Pasque flowers (Pulsatilla) and Hepatica
Hepatica
Hepatica is a genus of herbaceous perennials in the buttercup family, native to central and northern Europe, Asia and eastern North America...

s (Hepatica); some botanists include both of these genera within Anemone.

Name


According to the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary , published by the Oxford University Press, is the self-styled premier dictionary of the English language. Two fully bound print editions of the OED have been published under its current name, in 1928 and 1989. The first edition was published in twelve volumes , and...

, Greek
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek is the stage of the Greek language in the periods spanning the times c. 9th–6th centuries BC, , c. 5th–4th centuries BC , and the c. 3rd century BC – 6th century AD of ancient Greece and the ancient world; being predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek...

 anemōnē means "daughter of the wind", from ánemos "wind" + feminine patronymic
Patronymic
A patronym, or patronymic, is a component of a personal name based on the name of one's father, grandfather or an even earlier male ancestor. A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic. Each is a means of conveying lineage.In many areas patronyms...

 suffix -ōnē. But others suggest that this is a folk etymology, and that the word actually comes from a Semitic language
Semitic languages
The Semitic languages are a group of related languages whose living representatives are spoken by more than 270 million people across much of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa...

.

Description


Anemone are perennials that have basal leaves with long leaf-stems
Petiole (botany)
In botany, the petiole is the stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. The petiole usually has the same internal structure as the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile, or clasping when they partly surround the...

 that can be upright or prostrate. Leaves are simple or compound with lobed, parted, or undivided leaf blades. The leaf margins are toothed or entire.

Flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s with 4-27 sepals are produced singly, in cymes of 2-9 flowers, or in umbels, above a cluster of leaf- or sepal-like bract
Bract
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis, or cone scale. Bracts are often different from foliage leaves. They may be smaller, larger, or of a different color, shape, or texture...

s. Sepals may be any color. They are bisexual 10 to 200 stamens and many simple pistils. The pistils have one ovule. The flowers have nectaries, but petal
Petal
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They often are brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals lying...

s are missing in the majority of species.

The fruits are ovoid to obovoid shaped achene
Achene
An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes are monocarpellate and indehiscent...

s that are collected together in a tight cluster, ending variously lengthened stalks; though many species have sessile clusters terminating the stems. The achenes are beaked and some species have feathery hairs attached to them.

Species


There are approximately 150 species of Anemone, including:
  • Anemone baicalensis
    Anemone baicalensis
    Anemone baicalensis is a species of flowering plant in the genus Anemone. It is native to forests, scrub, and grassy places at 500-3100 m. altitude in Siberia, Mongolia, northern China, and North Korea in Northeast Asia.- References :...

  • Anemone blanda
    Anemone blanda
    Anemone blanda is a tuberous perennial valued for its daisy-like spring-blooming flowers, native to southeastern Europe, Turkey, Lebanon, and Syria.-External links:**...

    – Greek Windflower
  • Anemone canadensis
    Anemone canadensis
    Anemone canadensis is a herbaceous perennial native to moist meadows, thickets, streambanks, and lakeshores in North America, spreading rapidly by underground rhizomes, valued for its white flowers.-Description:Shoots with deeply divided and toothed basal leaves grow from caudices on long,...

  • Anemone caroliniana
    Anemone caroliniana
    Anemone caroliniana is a herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 10 to 40 cm tall, from short tuber-like rhizomes that are 10-30 mm long. Stem leaves without petioles...

  • Anemone chinensis
    Anemone chinensis
    Anemone chinensis is a basionym of the currently known Pulsatilla chinensis and is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. There it has the name bái tóu wēng .-External links:**...

  • Anemone coronaria
    Anemone coronaria
    Anemone coronaria is a species of flowering plant in the genus Anemone, native to the Mediterranean region.-Description:...

    – Poppy Anemone
  • Anemone cylindrica
    Anemone cylindrica
    Anemone cylindrica is a very upright growing, clump forming herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 30 to 100 cm tall, flowering early summer but often found flowering till late summer, the flowers are greenish-white. After flowering the fruits are...

  • Anemone deltoidea
    Anemone deltoidea
    Anemone deltoidea is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family known by the common names Columbian windflower and western white anemone. It is native to the forests of the west coast of the United States. This is a rhizomatous perennial herb growing between 10 and 30 centimeters tall...

  • Anemone drummondii
    Anemone drummondii
    Anemone drummondii is a species of anemone known by the common name Drummond's anemone. This wildflower is native to western North America from California to Alaska. It is a squat perennial with short erect stems and small, soft, wrinkled leaves. Each clumping plant produces several showy flowers,...

  • Anemone hortensis
    Anemone hortensis
    Anemone hortensis, commonly called Broad Leaved Anemone, is a perennial herbaceous plant with an underground rhizome, belonging to the genus Anemone of the Ranunculaceae family. The Genus name “Anemone” comes from the Greek ἄνεμος , as an ancient legend tells that the flowers opens only when the...

  • Anemone hupehensis
    Anemone hupehensis
    Anemone hupehensis, Anemone hupehensis var. japonica, and Anemone × hybrida are herbaceous perennials in the buttercup family.Anemone × hybrida is a hybrid of Anemone hupehensis var...

    – Chinese Anemone
    • var. japonica – Japanese Anemone
  • Anemone lancifolia
    Anemone lancifolia
    Anemone lancifolia is an herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 20 to 30 cm tall, growing from a horizontally orientated rhizome, flowering mid spring to early summer. The flowers have white sepals that are 12-20 mm long. This species much resembles...

  • Anemone leveillei – Woodland Anemone
  • Anemone multifida
    Anemone multifida
    Anemone multifida is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family known by the common names cutleaf anemone, Pacific anemone and globe anemone. It is native to northern North America from Alaska to New York and as far south as Arizona and New Mexico. It is also known from parts of South...

  • Anemone narcissiflora
    Anemone narcissiflora
    Anemone narcissiflora is a herbaceous perennial in the genus Anemone and the buttercup family.-Description:...

    – Narcissus Anemone
  • Anemone nemorosa
    Anemone nemorosa
    Anemone nemorosa is an early-spring flowering plant in the genus Anemone in the family Ranunculaceae, native to Europe. Common names include wood anemone, windflower, thimbleweed and smell fox, an allusion to the musky smell of the leaves...

    – European Wood Anemone
  • Anemone occidentalis
    Anemone occidentalis
    Anemone occidentalis is a herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Other authorities place it in the genus Pulsatilla. Individuals are 10 to 60 cm tall, from caudices, with 3 to 6 leaves at the base of the plant that are 3-foliolate, each leaflet pinnatifid to...

    – Western Pasqueflower
  • Anemone oregana
    Anemone oregana
    Anemone oregana is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family known by the common names blue windflower, Oregon anemone, and western wood anemone. It is native to the forests of the west coast of the United States. This is a perennial herb growing from a thick rhizome to a maximum height...

  • Anemone parviflora
    Anemone parviflora
    Anemone parviflora is a herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 10 to 30 cm tall, from a thin, 2 mm thick rhizome. Stem leaves without petioles, basal leaves few with long petioles and deeply 3-parted...

  • Anemone quinquefolia
    Anemone quinquefolia
    Anemone quinquefolia is an early-spring flowering plant in the genus Anemone, native to North America. It is commonly called Wood Anemone, like Anemone nemorosa, a closely related European species...

    – American Wood Anemone
  • Anemone ranunculoides
    Anemone ranunculoides
    Anemone ranunculoides, the yellow anemone, yellow wood anemone or buttercup anemone, is a species of herbaceous perennial plant that grows in forests across most of Continental Europe, and less frequently in the Mediterranean region...

    – Yellow Woodland Anemone
  • Anemone riparia
    Anemone riparia
    Anemone riparia is an upright growing herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 30 to 100 cm tall, flowering early summer but often found flowering till mid August, the flowers are greenish-white, white or even sometimes red tinted, 2-3 cm wide...

  • Anemone rivularis – Riverside Windflower
  • Anemone sylvestris
    Anemone sylvestris
    Anemone sylvestris is a perennial plant flowering in spring, native to meadows and dry deciduous woodlands of central and western Europe. It spreads rapidly by root suckers and stolons....

    – Snowdrop Windflower
  • Anemone thomsonii
    Anemone thomsonii
    Anemone thomsonii is a species of Anemone from East Africa....

  • Anemone trifolia
    Anemone trifolia
    Anemone trifolia is a perennial herbaceous plant in the genus Anemone .- Description :The plant has stems growing 10–30 cm tall and bear single, white flowers two centimetres in diameter, with five to nine elliptical tepals. The fruit is a cluster of 2 mm achenes...

  • Anemone tuberosa
    Anemone tuberosa
    Anemone tuberosa is a herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 10 to 30, sometimes 40 cm tall, from a woody-like tuber shaped like a caudex. Plants with 1 to 3 basal leaves that are 1 or 2 times ternate...

  • Anemone virginiana
    Anemone virginiana
    Anemone virginiana is an upright growing herbaceous plant species in the genus Anemone and family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 30 to 80 cm tall, flowering early summer but often found flowering till late summer, the flowers are white or greenish-white...


Former Pulsatilla species

  • Anemone pulsatilla – Pasque Flower (see Pulsatilla vulgaris
    Pulsatilla vulgaris
    Pulsatilla vulgaris belongs to the buttercup family , native to western, central and southern Europe....

    )

Former Hepatica species

  • Anemone hepatica
    Anemone hepatica
    Anemone hepatica is a herbaceous perennial growing from a rhizome in the buttercup family , native to woodland in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.- Taxonomy :The taxonomy of the genus Anemone and its species is not fully resolved...

    – syn. Hepatica nobilis
  • Anemone acutiloba
    Anemone acutiloba
    Anemone acutiloba was placed in the genus Hepatica but has been moved to Anemone. This is an attractive flowering, clump forming herbaceous plant species in the family Ranunculaceae. Plants grow 5 to 19 cm tall, flowering early to mid spring. The flowers are greenish-white, white, purple or...


Cultivation


Many of the species are favorite garden plants, particularly since the different species can provide flowers throughout the year.

Of the late spring bulbs, A. blanda is one of the most common, and is often sold as a mixture of colours, although purple predominates. The genus contains many other spring-flowering plants, of which A. hortensis and A. fulgens have less divided leaves and splendid rosy-purple or scarlet flowers. They require similar treatment.

Among the best known summer anemone is Anemone coronaria, often called the poppy anemone, a tuberous-rooted plant, with parsleylike divided leaves, and large showy poppylike blossoms on stalks of from 15–20 cm high; the flowers are of various colours, but the principal are scarlet, crimson, blue, purple, and white. There are also double-flowered varieties, in which the stamens in the centre are replaced by a tuft of narrow petals. It is an old garden favourite, and of the double forms there are named varieties.

Anemone hupehensis, and its white cultivar
Cultivar
A cultivar'Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar. is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable...

 'Honorine Joubert', the latter especially, are amongst the finest of autumn-flowering hardy perennials; they grow well in light soil, and reach 60–100 cm in height, blooming continually for several weeks. A group of dwarf species, represented by the native British A. nemorosa and A. apennina, are amongst the most beautiful of spring flowers for planting in woods and shady places.

Anemones grow best in a loamy soil, enriched with well-rotted manure, which should be dug in below the tubers. These may be planted in October, and for succession in January, the autumn-planted ones being protected by a covering of leaves or short stable litter. They will flower in May and June, and when the leaves have ripened should be taken up into a dry room till planting time. They are easily raised from the seed, and a bed of the single varieties is a valuable addition to a flower-garden, as it affords, in a warm situation, an abundance of handsome and often brilliant spring flowers, almost as early as the snowdrop
Snowdrop
Galanthus is a small genus of about 20 species of bulbous herbaceous plants in the Amaryllis family, subfamily Amaryllidoideae...

 or crocus
Crocus
Crocus is a genus in the iris family comprising about 80 species of perennials growing from corms. Many are cultivated for their flowers appearing in autumn, winter, or spring...

. Anemone thrives in partial shade, or in full sun provided they are shielded from the hottest sun in southern areas. A well-drained slightly acid soil, enriched with compost, is ideal.

It is best to harvest cut flowers early in the morning while it is still cold out side while the bloom is still closed. To open your flowers place in room temperature water out of direct sun. Anemones are a great cut flower and will give you around nine days of vase life
Vase life
Vase life is the period of time during which a cut flower or cut foliage retains its appearance in a vase. This is a major consideration in identifying plant species suitable for use in the cut flower industry, plants with a long vase life being far more desirable than those with a short vase life....

 when properly cared for. Anemone blooms can be purchased from a florist between November and June depending upon availability.

Diseases and pests



Anemone species are sometimes targeted by cutworms, the larva
Larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

e of noctuid
Noctuidae
The Noctuidae or owlet moths are a family of robustly-built moths that includes more than 35,000 known species out of possibly 100,000 total, in more than 4,200 genera. They constitute the largest family in the Lepidoptera....

 moth
Moth
A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly, both being of the order Lepidoptera. Moths form the majority of this order; there are thought to be 150,000 to 250,000 different species of moth , with thousands of species yet to be described...

s such as Angle Shades
Angle Shades
The Angle Shades is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is a common and familiar European species and is often strongly migratory....

 and Heart and Dart
Heart and Dart
The Heart and Dart is a moth of the family Noctuidae. A familiar moth to many, it is considered one of the most common of the European region....

.