America's Cup

America's Cup

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Encyclopedia
The America’s Cup is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match race
Match race
A match race is a race between two competitors, going head-to-head.The term may be best known as a race between two sailing boats racing around a course...

s between two yacht
Yacht
A yacht is a recreational boat or ship. The term originated from the Dutch Jacht meaning "hunt". It was originally defined as a light fast sailing vessel used by the Dutch navy to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries...

s. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club
Yacht club
A yacht club is a sports club specifically related to sailing and yachting.-Description:Yacht Clubs are mostly located by the sea, although there are some that have been established at a lake or riverside locations...

 that currently holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club that is challenging for the cup. The America's Cup is the oldest active trophy
Trophy
A trophy is a reward for a specific achievement, and serves as recognition or evidence of merit. Trophies are most often awarded for sporting events, from youth sports to professional level athletics...

 in international sport
Sport
A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

.

The trophy was originally awarded in 1851 by the Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

 for a race around the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest island of England, located in the English Channel, on average about 2–4 miles off the south coast of the county of Hampshire, separated from the mainland by a strait called the Solent...

, which was won by the schooner America
America (yacht)
The America was a 19th century racing yacht that was the first to win the eponymous international sailing trophy now known as the America's Cup; in 1851 the trophy was known as the Royal Yacht Squadron's "One Hundred Guinea Cup", but was later renamed after the original winning yacht...

. The trophy was renamed the America's Cup after the boat and was donated to the New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

 (NYYC) under the terms of the Deed of Gift, which made the cup available for perpetual international competition.

Any yacht club that meets the requirements specified in the Deed of Gift has the right to challenge the yacht club that holds the Cup. If the challenging club wins the match, it gains stewardship of the cup.

The history and prestige associated with the America's Cup attracts not only the world's top sailors and yacht designers but also the involvement of wealthy entrepreneurs and sponsors. It is a test not only of sailing skill and boat and sail design, but also of fund-raising and management skills.

The trophy was held by the NYYC from 1857 (when the syndicate that won the Cup donated the trophy to the club) until 1983 when the Cup was won by the Royal Perth Yacht Club
Royal Perth Yacht Club
The Royal Perth Yacht Club is a yacht club in Perth, Western Australia. -Early history:The "Perth Yacht and Boat Club" in 1880 was able to build a jetty at the foot of William Street in Perth Water. Perth Yacht Club received the Royal Charter in 1890. The club shifted to Crawley in 1953 when the...

, represented by the yacht Australia II
Australia II
Australia II is the Australian 12-metre-class challenge racing yacht that was launched in 1982 and won the 1983 America's Cup for the Royal Perth Yacht Club...

, ending the longest winning streak in the history of sport.

From the third defense of the Cup in 1876 through the twentieth defense in 1967, there was always only one potential challenger. In 1970, for the first time, there were multiple potential challengers, so the NYYC agreed that the challengers run a challenger selection series with the winner becoming the challenger for that year and competing against the defender in the America's Cup match. From 1983 until 2007, Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton Malletier – commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton , or shortened to LV – is a French fashion house founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label is well known for its LV monogram, which is featured on most products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes,...

 sponsored the Louis Vuitton Cup
Louis Vuitton Cup
The Louis Vuitton Cup is a yachting competition connected with the America's Cup. The Louis Vuitton Cup was used as the selection series to select the team to sail as the challenger in the America's Cup...

 as a prize for the winner of the challenger selection series.

From the first defense in 1870, matches were raced between yachts 65 – on the waterline owned by wealthy sportsmen. This culminated with the J-Class
J-class yacht
The J-Class serves as a rating for large sailing yachts designed between 1930 and 1937. Reserved for a wealthy elite of yachtsmen, these boats were used to compete with the best sailing talents in three races of the America's Cup.-The 1930s:...

 regattas of the 1930s. After World War II and almost twenty years without a challenge, the NYYC made changes to the Deed of Gift to allow smaller, less expensive 12-metre class
12-metre class
The 12 Metre Class is a rating class for racing boats designed to the International rule. It enables fair competition between boats that rate in the class whilst retaining the freedom to experiment with the details of their designs. The first 12 Metres were built in 1907. The 12 Metre Class was...

 yachts to compete; this class was used until it was replaced in 1990 by the International America’s Cup Class.

The 2010 America's Cup was raced in 90 ft (27.4 m) multihull yachts in a best-of-three race regatta in Valencia, Spain in February 2010. Challenger BMW Oracle Racing
BMW Oracle Racing
Oracle Racing is an American sailboat racing syndicate initially formed to compete for the 2003 America’s Cup. They competed again in the 2007 event before winning the 33rd America's Cup regatta in 2010 - representing the Golden Gate Yacht Club....

 beat defender Alinghi
Alinghi
Alinghi is the syndicate set up by Ernesto Bertarelli, racing under the colors of the Société Nautique de Genève, to challenge for the America's Cup. Bertarelli had raced several smaller yachts named Alinghi previously, but 2003 was his first attempt at the America's Cup...

 2-0 and won the Cup for the Golden Gate Yacht Club
Golden Gate Yacht Club
The Golden Gate Yacht Club is a yacht club founded in 1939 and is the current holder of the America's Cup won by its racing team BMW Oracle Racing.In 1939 the first members built a clubhouse on a barge in the San Francisco Marina...

.

The 2013 America's Cup will be held in San Francisco, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

.

History



The Cup itself is an ornate sterling silver
Sterling silver
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by mass of silver and 7.5% by mass of other metals, usually copper. The sterling silver standard has a minimum millesimal fineness of 925....

 bottomless ewer, one of several off-the-shelf trophies crafted in 1848 by Garrard & Co
Garrard & Co
Garrard & Co is a luxury jewellery and silver company founded by George Wickesin London in 1735. Its current base is at Albemarle Street in Mayfair, London, its USA flagship store is in New York. The company also has a presence in Tokyo, New York, Dubai, Moscow and Hong Kong...

. Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey bought one and donated it for the Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

's 1851 Annual Regatta around the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest island of England, located in the English Channel, on average about 2–4 miles off the south coast of the county of Hampshire, separated from the mainland by a strait called the Solent...

.

It was originally known as the "R.Y.S. £100 Cup", standing for a cup of a hundred GB Pounds or "sovereigns" in value. The Cup was subsequently mistakenly engraved as the "100 Guinea Cup" by the America syndicate, but was also referred to as the "Queen's Cup" and the "America's Cup" (a guinea
Guinea (British coin)
The guinea is a coin that was minted in the Kingdom of England and later in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom between 1663 and 1813...

 is an obsolete monetary unit of one pound and one shilling, now £1.05). Today, the trophy is officially known as the "America's Cup" and is affectionately called the "Auld Mug" by the sailing community. It is inscribed with names of the yachts that competed for it, and has been modified twice by adding matching bases to accommodate more names.

1851 America wins the Cup


In 1851 Commodore John Cox Stevens
John Cox Stevens
John Cox Stevens is best known for founding and serving as the first Commodore of the New York Yacht Club as well as being a member of the America syndicate which won the first America's Cup trophy in 1851....

, a charter member of the fledgling New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

 (NYYC), formed a six-person syndicate to build a yacht with intention of taking her to England and making some money competing in yachting regattas and match races. The syndicate contracted with pilot-boat designer George Steers
George Steers
George Steers was a designer of yachts best known for the famous racing yacht America. He founded a shipyard with his brother, George Steers and Co, and died in an accident just as he was landing a major contract to build boats for the Russian Czar....

 for a 101 ft (30.78 m) schooner
Schooner
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts with the forward mast being no taller than the rear masts....

, which was christened America
America (yacht)
The America was a 19th century racing yacht that was the first to win the eponymous international sailing trophy now known as the America's Cup; in 1851 the trophy was known as the Royal Yacht Squadron's "One Hundred Guinea Cup", but was later renamed after the original winning yacht...

and launched on May 3, 1851.

On August 22, 1851, America raced against 15 yachts of the Royal Yacht Squadron in the Club's annual 53 nautical miles (98.2 km) regatta
Regatta
A regatta is a series of boat races. The term typically describes racing events of rowed or sailed water craft, although some powerboat race series are also called regattas...

 around the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest island of England, located in the English Channel, on average about 2–4 miles off the south coast of the county of Hampshire, separated from the mainland by a strait called the Solent...

. America won, finishing 8 minutes ahead of the closest rival. Apocryphally, Queen Victoria
Victoria of the United Kingdom
Victoria was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India....

, who was watching at the finish line, asked who was second, the famous answer being: "Ah, Your Majesty, there is no second."

The surviving members of the America syndicate donated the Cup via the Deed of Gift of the America's Cup to the NYYC on July 8, 1857, specifying that it be held in trust as a perpetual challenge trophy to promote friendly competition among nations.


1870–1881 First challenges


No challenge to race for the Cup was issued until railroad tycoon James Lloyd Ashbury
James Lloyd Ashbury
James Lloyd Ashbury was a British yachtsman and Conservative Party politician.-Early life:The son of John Ashbury, founder of the Ashbury Railway Carriage and Iron Company Ltd of Manchester, James trained as an engineer and joined the family company. When his father died in 1866 he inherited the...

's topsail schooner Cambria (188 tons, 1868 design) beat the Yankee schooner Sappho (274.4 tons, 1867 design) in the Solent in 1868. This success encouraged the Royal Thames Yacht Club
Royal Thames Yacht Club
The Royal Thames Yacht Club is the oldest sailing club in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are located at 60 Knightsbridge, London, England, overlooking Hyde Park....

 in believing that the Cup could be brought back home, and officially placed the first challenge in 1870. Ashbury entered Cambria in the NYYC Queen's Cup race in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 on August 8 against a fleet of seventeen schooners, with time allowed based on their tonnage
Tonnage
Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo carrying capacity of a ship. The term derives from the taxation paid on tuns or casks of wine, and was later used in reference to the weight of a ship's cargo; however, in modern maritime usage, "tonnage" specifically refers to a calculation of the volume...

. The Cambria only placed eighth, behind the aging America (178.6 tons, 1851) in fourth place and Franklin Osgood's Magic (92.2 tons, 1857) in the fleet's lead.

Trying again, Ashbury offered a best-of-seven match race
Match race
A match race is a race between two competitors, going head-to-head.The term may be best known as a race between two sailing boats racing around a course...

 challenge for October 1871, which the NYYC accepted provided a defending yacht could be chosen on the morning of each race. Ashbury's new yacht Livonia (264 tons) was beaten twice in a row by Osgood's new centreboard
Centreboard
A centreboard or centerboard is a retractable keel which pivots out of a slot in the hull of a sailboat, known as a centreboard trunk or centerboard case...

 schooner Columbia
Columbia (1871 yacht)
Columbia was the successful defender of the second America's Cup race in 1871 against English challenger Livonia.-Design:Columbia, a wooden centerboard schooner, was designed and built in 1871 by Joseph B. Van Deusen in Chester, PA for owner Franklin Osgood of the New York Yacht...

(220 tons), which withdrew in the third race after dismasting. The yacht Sappho then stepped in as defender to win the fourth and fifth races, thereby successfully defending the Cup.

The next challenge came from the Royal Canadian Yacht Club
Royal Canadian Yacht Club
The Royal Canadian Yacht Club is a boating club based in Toronto, Canada.It was founded in 1852 as the Toronto Boat Club, a recreational club and unofficial auxiliary of the Royal Navy on Lake Ontario. In 1854, the club successfully petitioned Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom for the right to...

 and was the first to be disputed between two yachts only. The schooner Madeleine (148.2 tons, 1868), a previous defender from the 1870 fleet race, easily defeated the challenger Countess of Dufferin (221 tons, 1876 design by Alexander Cuthbert). Cuthbert filed the second Canadian challenge, bankrolling, designing and sailing the first sloop
Sloop
A sloop is a sail boat with a fore-and-aft rig and a single mast farther forward than the mast of a cutter....

 challenge for the America's Cup in 1881. The small 65 ft (19.81 m) Canadian challenger Atalanta (84 tons, 1881), representing the Bay of Quinte Yacht Club
Bay of Quinte Yacht Club
Bay of Quinte Yacht Club is a boating club based in Belleville, Ontario, Canada, located on the shores of the Bay of Quinte. It was founded in 1876 and unsuccessfully challenged for the America's Cup in 1881.-External links:*...

, suffered from lack of funds, unfinished build and incompetent land transport from Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

. In contrast, the NYYC cautiously prepared its first selection trials. The iron sloop Mischief
Mischief (yacht)
The yacht Mischief was the victorious American defender of the fourth America's Cup race in 1881 against Canadian challenger Atalanta.-Design:...

(79 tons, 1879 design by Archibald Cary Smith) was chosen from four sloop candidates, and successfully defended the cup.


1885–1887 The NYYC Rule


In response to the incompetent Canadian challenges, the Deed of Gift was amended in 1881 to require that challenges be accepted only from yacht clubs on the sea and that challenger yachts must sail to the venue on their own hull. Furthermore, Archibald Cary Smith and the NYYC committee devised a new rating rule that would govern the next races. They included sail area and waterline length into the handicap, with penalties on waterlines longer than 85 ft (25.91 m). Irish yacht designer John Beavor-Webb
John Beavor-Webb
John Beavor-Webb was an Irish naval architect. He was a designer of sailing yachts, notably the America's Cup challengers Genesta and Galatea , before emigrating to the United States where he designed steamyachts of very large size like J.P. Morgan's Corsair II and Corsair III .-References:...

 launched the challengers Genesta
Genesta (yacht)
Genesta was the unsuccessful English challenger in the fifth America's Cup in 1885 against the American defender Puritan.-Design:The cutter Genesta was designed by John Beavor-Webb and built by the D&W Henderson shipyard on the River Clyde in 1884, for owner Sir Richard Sutton of the Royal Yacht...

(1884) and Galatea
Galatea (yacht)
"Galatea" was the unsuccessful British challenger of the sixth America's Cup race in 1886 against American defender "Mayflower".-Design:Galatea, a keel cutter, was designed by John Beavor-Webb and built in 1885 for owner Lieutenant William Henn, R.N...

(1885), which would define the British "plank-on-edge" design of a heavy, deep and narrow-keel hull, making for very stiff yachts ideal for the British breeze. The boats came to New York in 1885 and 1886 respectively, but neither would best the sloops Puritan
Puritan (yacht)
Puritan was the 1885 America's Cup defender.-Design:She was built at the George Lawley & Son yard in Boston, Massachusetts and launched May 26, 1885....

or Mayflower
Mayflower (yacht)
Mayflower was the victorious U.S. defender of the sixth America's Cup in 1886 against English challenger Galatea.-Design:The sloop Mayflower was the second America's Cup defender designed by Edward "Ned " Burgess, built by George Lawley & Son and launched in 1886 for owner General Charles J. Paine...

, whose success in selection trials against many other candidates proved Boston designer Edward Burgess
Edward Burgess
Edward Burgess was an American yacht designer, born June 30, 1848 in West Sandwich, Massachusetts.Edward is fifth son of Benjamin Franklin Burgess and Cordelia Williams Ellis. The Burgess family were merchants who made their money in the West Indies trade and lost it in 1879...

 was the master of the "compromise sloop" (lightweight, wide and shallow hull with centerboard). This design paradigm proved ideal for the light Yankee airs.

In 1887, Edward Burgess repeated his success with the Volunteer
Volunteer (yacht)
"Volunteer" was the victorious American defender of the seventh America's Cup race in 1887 against Scottish challenger "Thistle".-Design:"Volunteer," a centerboard compromise sloop, was designed by Edward Burgess and built by Pusey & Jones Shipbuilding Company at Wilmington, Delaware in 1887 for...

against Scottish yacht designer George Lennox Watson
George Lennox Watson
George Lennox Watson was a Scottish naval architect. He was born in Glasgow, son of Thomas Lennox Watson, a doctor at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, and grandson of Sir Timothy Burstall, engineer and entrant at the 1829 Rainhill Trials.-Early life:...

's challenger Thistle
Thistle (yacht)
Thistle was the unsuccessful Scottish challenger of the seventh America's Cup in 1887 against American defender Volunteer.-Design:The cutter Thistle was designed by George Lennox Watson, with interiors by his brother Thomas Lennox Watson, and built at the D&W Henderson shipyard in Partick on the...

, which was built in secret. Even when the Thistle was dry-docked in New York before the races, her hull was draped to protect the secret of her lines, which borrowed from American design. Both Volunteer and Thistle were completely unfurnished below decks to save weight.

1889–1903 The Seawanhaka Rule


In 1887, the NYYC adopted the Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club's rating rule, in which Bristol, RI naval architect Nathanael Herreshoff
Nathanael Herreshoff
Nathanael Greene Herreshoff I , was an American naval architect-mechanical engineer. "Captain Nat," as he was known, revolutionized yacht design, and produced a succession of undefeated America's Cup defenders between 1893–1920....

 found loopholes that he would use to make dramatic improvements in yacht design and to shape the America's Cup's largest and most extreme contenders. Both Herreshoff and Watson proceeded to merge Yankee sloop design and British cutter design to make very deep S-shape fin-keeled hulls. Using steel, tobin bronze, aluminium, and even nickel for novel construction, they significantly lengthened bow and stern overhangs, further extending the sailing waterline as their boats heeled over, thus increasing their speed.

The next America's Cup challenge was initially limited to 70 ft (21.34 m) waterline in 1889, but the mutual-agreement clauses of a new 1887 Deed of Gift caused the Royal Yacht Squadron to withdraw the Earl of Dunraven
Windham Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl
Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl KP PC , styled Viscount Adare between 1850 and 1871, was an Irish journalist, landowner, entrepreneur, sportsman and Conservative politician. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies under Lord Salisbury from 1885 to...

's promising Watson-designed challenger Valkyrie while she was crossing the Atlantic. Dunraven challenged again in 1893, pleading for a return to the longer 85 ft (25.9 m) limit. In a cup-crazed Britain, its four largest cutters ever were being built, including Watson's Valkyrie II
Valkyrie II (yacht)
Valkyrie II was the unsuccessful British challenger of the eighth America's Cup race in 1893 against American defender "Vigilant".-Design:Valkyrie II was a gaff-rigged cutter...

for Dunraven's challenge. Meanwhile, the NYYC's wealthiest members ordered two cup candidates from Herreshoff, and two more from Boston yacht designers. Charles Oliver Iselin, who was running the syndicate behind one of the Herreshoff designs called Vigilant
Vigilant (yacht)
Vigilant was the victorious United States defender of the eighth America's Cup in 1893 against British challenger Valkyrie II. Vigilant was designed by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff and built in 1893 by the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company of Bristol, Rhode Island...

, gave the naval architect leave to design the yacht entirely as he willed. Herreshoff helmed the Vigilant himself and beat all his rivals in selection trials, and defended the Cup successfully from the Valkyrie II.

Urged to challenge again in yet larger boat sizes, Dunraven challenged again in 1895 with a 90 ft (27.43 m) waterline limit. The Watson-designed challenger Valkyrie III
Valkyrie III (yacht)
"Valkyrie III" was the unsuccessful British challenger of the ninth America's Cup race in 1895 against American defender "Defender".-Design:"Valkyrie III," a keel cutter, was designed by George Lennox Watson and built at the D&W Henderson on the River Clyde in 1893 for a syndicate of owners...

received many innovations: She would be wider than the defender, and featured the first steel mast. The NYYC ordered another defender from Herreshoff, which he had built in a closed-off hangar and launched at night so as to conceal her construction: The Defender
Defender (yacht)
Defender was the 1895 America's Cup defender.-Design:Defender was designed by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff and built by the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company in 1895. It was Herreshoff's second victorious America's Cup defender design....

used an aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

 topside riveted to steel frames and manganese bronze below waters. This saved 17 tons of displacement, but later subjected the boat to extreme electrolysis
Electrolysis
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of using a direct electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction...

 after the Cup races. Valkyrie III lost the first race, was deemed disqualified in the second race following a collision with Defender before the start line despite finishing first, and in turn withdrew from the contest. The unraveling of the races left Dunraven in a bitter disagreement with all parties over fairness of the Cup Committee concerning claims. After he asserted that he had been cheated, his honorary membership of the NYYC was revoked.

The climate was estranged until Scottish businessman Sir Thomas Lipton became the financial backer for the Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club is located in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, on the south shore of Belfast Lough.-History:The Club was established in 1866 as the Ulster Yacht Club, on the impetus of Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. In 1869 it received a Royal...

's 1899 challenge. William Fife
William Fife
William Fife III OBE , also known as Wm. Fife, Jr., was the third generation of a family of Scottish yacht designers and builders....

 was chosen to design the challenging yacht because of past success in American waters. The yachts increased yet again in size, and this time Herreshoff fitted a telescopic steel mast to his defender Columbia
Columbia (1899 yacht)
Columbia was the defender of the tenth America's Cup race in 1899 against British challenger Shamrock as well as the defender of the eleventh America's Cup race in 1901 against British challenger, Shamrock II...

, but his largest contribution was to recruit Scottish-American skipper Charlie Barr
Charlie Barr
Charlie Barr , was an accomplished sailing skipper who captained the winning yacht in the America's Cup three times.-Early life:...

. The latter had helmed Fife designs in Yankee waters before, and he had shown perfect coordination with his hand-picked Scandinavian crew. Barr successfully helmed Columbia to victory, and Lipton's noted fair play provided unprecedented popular appeal to the sport and to his tea brand
Lipton
Lipton is a brand of tea currently owned by Unilever.-History of Lipton Tea:Lipton was created at the end of the 19th century by a grocer, Sir Thomas Lipton, in Glasgow, Scotland. In 1893, he established the Thomas J. Lipton Co., a tea packing company with its headquarters and factory in Hobo ken,...

.

Although upset with the Shamrock, Lipton challenged again in 1901, turning this time to George Lennox Watson for a "cup-lifter": Shamrock II, Watson's fourth and final challenger, was the first cup contender to be thoroughly tank-tested. To defend the Cup, businessman Thomas W. Lawson
Thomas W. Lawson (businessman)
Thomas William Lawson was an American businessman and author. A highly controversial Boston stock promoter, he is known for both his efforts to promote reforms in the stock markets and the fortune he amassed for himself through highly dubious stock manipulations.The Scituate, Massachusetts...

 funded for Boston designer Bowdoin B. Crowninshield
Bowdoin B. Crowninshield
Bowdoin Bradlee Crowninshield was an American naval architect who specialized in the design of racing yachts.-Life:Born October 13, 1867 in New York, Crowninshield grew up in Marblehead, Massachusetts, into the wealthy Crowninshield family with long-standing ties to the sea...

 a daring project: his yacht Independence was capable of unrivaled performance because of her extremely long sailing waterline, but she was largely overpowered and unbalanced and suffered from structural issues. Furthermore, Lawson's failure to commit to the NYYC's terms for defending the Cup defaulted the Independence''ʼs elimination. Herreshoff had again received a commission from the NYYC, but had failed to secure Charlie Barr to skipper his new yacht Constitution. Instead, the Columbia''ʼs syndicate kept Barr's crew and tried another defense. Unexpectedly, Barr led the Columbia''ʼs crew to win the selection trials, and to successfully defend the cup again.

Lipton persisted in a third challenge in 1903. With the aim to fend off Lipton's challenges indefinitely, the NYYC garnered a huge budget for a single cup contender, whose design would be commissioned to Herreshoff again. Improving on the
Independence and his previous designs, the new defender Reliance
Reliance (yacht)
Reliance was the 1903 America's Cup defender, the fourth America's Cup defender from the famous designer Nat Herreshoff, and reportedly the largest gaff-rigged cutter ever built....

remains the largest race sloop ever built. She featured a ballasted rudder, dual-speed winches below decks, and a cork-decked aluminium topside that hid running rigging. The design focus on balance was exemplary, but the extreme yacht also required the skills of an excellent skipper, which defaulted choice options to Charlie Barr. Facing the equally bold challenger Shamrock III, Barr led the Reliance to victory in just three races.

1914–1937 The Universal Rule


Despite the immense success of the
Reliance, she was used only one season, her design and maintenance keeping her from being used for any other purpose than for a cup defense. The extremity of both 1903 cup contenders encouraged Nathanael Herreshoff to make boats more wholesome and durable by devising a new rule. Proposing in the same year the Universal Rule
Universal Rule
The Universal Rule determined a yachts eligibility to race in the America's Cup from 1914 to 1937. Ships built according to the rule reached their peak in the large J-class yachts....

, he added the elements of overall length and displacement into the rating, to the benefit of heavy, voluminous hulls and also divided boats into classes, without handicapping sail area. This went against the American Yacht Clubs' and the British Yacht Racing Association
Royal Yachting Association
The Royal Yachting Association is the national governing body for certain watersports in the United Kingdom. Activities it covers include:* Sailing* Windsurfing* Motor cruising* Sportsboats* Personal watercraft* Powerboat racing...

's general desire to promote speed at all costs for cup boats, but the NYYC adopted Herreshoff's proposal. Lipton long pleaded for a smaller size of yachts in the new rule, and the NYYC conceded to seventy-five footers in 1914. Lipton turned to Charles Ernest Nicholson
Charles Ernest Nicholson
-Biography:He was born in 1868.Nicholson's first design of note was the Redwing class. The Bembridge sailing club met in October 1896 to agree the need for a shallow draughted yacht - to allow for the shoal waters of Bembridge Harbour - which could be sailed single-handed, to replace the expensive...

 for his fourth challenge, and got a superb design under the inauspicious shape of Shamrock IV
Shamrock IV
Shamrock IV was a yacht owned by Sir Thomas Lipton and designed by Charles Ernest Nicholson. She was the unsuccessful challenger in the 1920 America's Cup....

, with a flat transom
Transom (nautical)
In naval architecture, a transom is the surface that forms the stern of a vessel. Transoms may be flat or curved and they may be vertical, raked forward, also known as a retroussé or reverse transom, angling forward from the waterline to the deck, or raked aft, often simply called "raked", angling...

. She was the most powerful yacht that year, and the NYYC turned out three cup candidates to defend the cup: of George Owen's
Defiance
Defiance (yacht)
Defiance was a yacht built by George Owen for a syndicate of New York City, Philadelphia, and Boston sportsmen headed by George M. Pynchon to compete in the trials to select the defender for the 1914 America's Cup. The outbreak of World War I in 1914 caused the Cup races for that year to be delayed...

and William Gardner's Vanitie
Vanitie
Vanitie was a yacht owned by Alexander Smith Cochran that was selected to take part in selection trials for the America's Cup in 1914 against Sir Thomas Lipton's yacht Shamrock IV.-History:...

, it was Herreshoff who designed the wisest of all contenders. His last design for the cup, Resolute
Resolute (yacht)
Resolute was a yacht designed and built by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff for a syndicate of New York Yacht Club members headed by Henry Walters to contend the 1914 America's Cup...

, was small, which earned significant time allowance over other yachts. Barr had died, but his crew manned the Resolute, which faced stiff competition from Vanitie, but went on to win the selection trials, before the Cup was suspended as World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 broke out. The
Shamrock IV waited in New York City's Erie Basin dry dock until 1920, when she received some adjustments to her build and ballast, just before the races were held. Despite Shamrock IV''ʼs severe rating, she took the first two races from Resolute, and came closer to winning back the Cup than any challenger before her. The defender Resolute ended the Old World's dreams by winning every subsequent race of the event.

Shamrock IV was never raced again, but the Universal Rule drew significant appeal, especially in the small M-Class. Undoubting that the new rule meant a serious opportunity for the British to challenge the cup, Lipton challenged the America's Cup for the fifth and last time at age 79, in 1929. The J-Class
J-class yacht
The J-Class serves as a rating for large sailing yachts designed between 1930 and 1937. Reserved for a wealthy elite of yachtsmen, these boats were used to compete with the best sailing talents in three races of the America's Cup.-The 1930s:...

 was chosen for the contest, to which were added Lloyds
Lloyd's Register
The Lloyd's Register Group is a maritime classification society and independent risk management organisation providing risk assessment and mitigation services and management systems certification. Historically, as Lloyd's Register of Shipping, it was a specifically maritime organisation...

' A1 scantling rules in order to ensure that the yachts would be seaworthy and evenly matched, given the Deed of Gift requirement for yachts to sail to the match on their "own bottom." The waterline length was set between 76 ft (23.16 m) and 88 ft (26.82 m), and there would be no time allowance. Novel rigging technology now permitted the bermuda rig
Bermuda rig
The term Bermuda rig refers to a configuration of mast and rigging for a type of sailboat and is also known as a Marconi rig; this is the typical configuration for most modern sailboats...

 to replace the gaff rig
Gaff rig
Gaff rig is a sailing rig in which the sail is four-cornered, fore-and-aft rigged, controlled at its peak and, usually, its entire head by a spar called the gaff...

. Nicholson was chosen to design challenger Shamrock V, and despite the Wall Street Crash, four NYYC syndicates responded to the threat and built a cup contender each. The venue was moved to Newport, Rhode Island
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

, where, the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company's new naval architect Starling Burgess used his success in the M-Class and his experience as a wartime plane designer to build the Vanderbilt syndicate's defender
Enterprise, the smallest J-Class. Meanwhile, Herreshoff's son, Lewis Francis Herreshoff
Lewis Francis Herreshoff
Lewis Francis Herreshoff , was a boat designer, naval architect, editor and author of books and magazine articles. Early in his career he worked for the Herreshoff Manufacturing and for naval architect Starling Burgess....

, designed a radical boat:
Whirlwind, despite being the most advanced boat with her double-ended "canoe" build and electronic instruments, maneuvered too clumsily. The old 75-footers Resolute
Resolute (yacht)
Resolute was a yacht designed and built by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff for a syndicate of New York Yacht Club members headed by Henry Walters to contend the 1914 America's Cup...

and Vanitie were rebuilt and converted to the J-Class to serve as trial horses. Enterprise''ʼs skipper Harold Vanderbilt won the selection trials with great difficulty. When Shamrock V was revealed, she was an outdated wooden boat with a wooden mast and performed poorly to windward. Enterprise was then fitted with the world's first duralumin
Duralumin
Duralumin is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The main alloying constituents are copper, manganese, and magnesium. A commonly used modern equivalent of this alloy type is AA2024, which contains 4.4% copper, 1.5% magnesium, 0.6% manganese and 93.5%...

 mast, the most lightweight at 4000 lb (1,814.4 kg), and beat her opponent soundly.

Lipton died in 1931, and English aviation industrialist Sir Thomas Sopwith bought Shamrock V with the intent of preparing the next challenge. To Nicholson's skills, he added aeronautical expertise and materials that would intensify the rivalry into a technological race. In 1934, the Royal Yacht Squadron issued a challenge for Sopwith's newly built challenger Endeavour
Endeavour (Yacht)
Endeavour is a J-class yacht built for the 1934 America's Cup by Camper and Nicholson in Gosport, Portsmouth Harbour, England. She was built for Thomas Sopwith who used his aviation design expertise to ensure the yacht was the most advanced of its day with a steel hull and mast...

. Being steel-plated, she was less disfavoured than Shamrock V, especially after a minimum mast weight limit was set to 5500 lb (2,494.8 kg), as this made American duralumin technology less advantageous for this contest. Endeavour received significant innovations, but Sopwith failed to secure the services of his entire Shamrock V professional crew due to a pay strike. He hired amateurs to complete his team, and while Endeavour was described unanimously as the faster boat in the Cup, taking the first two races, failed tactics and crew inexperience lost her the following four races to Vanderbilt's new defender Rainbow.

To challenge again, Sopwith prepared himself a year early. Nicholson designed and built in 1936 the Endeavour II to the maximum waterline length allowed, and numerous updates to the rig made her even faster than her predecessor. A change in the America's Cup rules now allowed a contending yacht to be declared 30 days before the races, so both Endeavour and Endeavour II were shipped to Newport, where the RYS held selection series before declaring Endeavour II as the challenger. Meanwhile, Harold S. Vanderbilt, taking all syndicate defense costs to himself, commissioned Starling Burgess, yacht broker Drake Sparkman
Sparkman & Stephens
Sparkman & Stephens is a naval architecture and yacht brokerage firm with main offices on 5th Avenue in New York City, USA and offices in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida and Newport, Rhode Island, USA. The firm performs design and engineering of new vessels for pleasure, commercial, and military use....

, and ocean yacht designer Olin Stephens
Olin Stephens
Olin James Stephens II was an American yacht designer of the 20th century. Stephens was born in New York, but spent his summers with his brother Rod, learning to sail on the New England coast. He also attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a term.Stephens' name had a long history...

 to provide designs. They anonymously built six boat models, which were thoroughly tested in water tanks, until model 77-C was selected for its projected performance in light airs. The resulting defender Ranger
Ranger (yacht)
The J-class yacht Ranger successfully defended the 1937 America's Cup, defeating the British challenger Endeavour II 4-0 at Newport, Rhode Island. It was the last time J-class yachts would race for the America's Cup.-Construction:...

was even more accomplished than her challenger, and Vanderbilt helmed his last J-Class boat to straight victory.

1956–1987 The Twelve-Meter Rule


The J-class yacht
J-class yacht
The J-Class serves as a rating for large sailing yachts designed between 1930 and 1937. Reserved for a wealthy elite of yachtsmen, these boats were used to compete with the best sailing talents in three races of the America's Cup.-The 1930s:...

s from the 1930s remained the default for the Cup, but post-war economic realities meant that no one could afford to challenge in this hugely expensive class. As twenty years had passed since the last challenge, the NYYC looked for a cheaper alternative in order to restart interest in the Cup. In 1956 Henry Sears
Henry Sears
Henry Sears was an American commander and a commodore of the New York Yacht Club who competed in the America's Cup and discovered multiple species of marine fish.-Early life:...

 led an effort to replace the J-class yachts with 12-metre class
12-metre class
The 12 Metre Class is a rating class for racing boats designed to the International rule. It enables fair competition between boats that rate in the class whilst retaining the freedom to experiment with the details of their designs. The first 12 Metres were built in 1907. The 12 Metre Class was...

 yachts, which are approximately 65 to 75 ft (19.8 to 22.9 m) in overall length.

The first post-war challenge was in 1958, again from the British. Briggs Cunningham
Briggs Cunningham
Briggs Swift Cunningham II was an American entrepreneur and sportsman, who raced automobiles and yachts. Born into a wealthy family, he became a racing car constructor, driver, and team owner as well as a sports car manufacturer and automobile collector.He skippered the victorious yacht Columbia...

, the inventor of the cunningham
Cunningham (sailing)
In sailing, a cunningham or cunningham's eye is a type of downhaul used on a Bermuda rigged sailboat to change the shape of a sail. Sailors also often refer to the cunningham as the "smart pig"....

 sail control device, as skipper with Sears as navigator led Columbia to victory against Sceptre, which was designed by David Boyd at Alexander Robertson and Sons Ltd (Yachtbuilders)
Alexander Robertson and Sons Ltd (Yachtbuilders)
Alexander Robertson started repairing boats in a small workshop at Sandbank, Argyll and Bute in 1876, and went on to become one of the foremost wooden boat builders on Scotland's River Clyde. The 'golden years' of Robertson's yard were in the early 1900s when they started building IYRU 12mR & 15mR...

, for a Royal Yacht Squadron Syndicate, chaired by Hugh Goodson.

The first Australian challenge
1962 America's Cup
The 1962 America's Cup was the second to be sailed in 12-meter yachts, marked the first challenge for the Cup from a country other than Great Britain or Canada, and was the first challenge from a country in the southern hemisphere...

 was in 1962, when Gretel lost to the NYYC's Weatherly. A second Boyd/Robertson challenger, Sovereign, lost to the Olin Stephens–designed Constellation in 1964. In 1967, another Australian challenger, Dame Pattie
Dame Pattie
Dame Pattie is an International 12-metre class racing yacht built for the America's Cup challenge series in 1967. She was designed by Warwick Hood and built by W.H. Barnett in New South Wales, Australia....

,
lost to the innovative Olin Stephens design Intrepid
Intrepid (yacht)
The Intrepid is a 12-metre class yacht which won the America's Cup in 1967 and again in 1970.-Design:Intrepid was designed by Olin Stephens, and was built of double-planked mahogany on white oak frames. She featured important innovations both above and below the waterline. The rudder was separated...

(which won again in 1970, to become the second yacht, after Columbia
Columbia (1899 yacht)
Columbia was the defender of the tenth America's Cup race in 1899 against British challenger Shamrock as well as the defender of the eleventh America's Cup race in 1901 against British challenger, Shamrock II...

, to defend the Cup twice).

For the 1970 America's Cup, interest in challenging was so high that the NYYC allowed the Challenger of Record (the original yacht club presenting the challenge accepted for the match) to organize a regatta among multiple challengers with the winner being substituted as challenger and going on to the Cup match. This innovation has been used ever since, except for the default Deed of Gift matches in 1988 and 2010.


Alan Bond
Alan Bond (businessman)
Alan Bond is an Australian businessman noted for his criminal convictions and high-profile business dealings, including what was at the time the biggest corporate collapse in Australian history. Bond was born in the Hammersmith district of London, England, and emigrated to Australia with his...

, a flamboyant and controversial Australian businessman, made three unsuccessful challenges between 1974 and 1980. In 1974 the Cup was successfully defended by Courageous, which successfully defended again in 1977, at which time she was skippered by Ted Turner
Ted Turner
Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III is an American media mogul and philanthropist. As a businessman, he is known as founder of the cable news network CNN, the first dedicated 24-hour cable news channel. In addition, he founded WTBS, which pioneered the superstation concept in cable television...

. In 1980 the Cup was defended by Freedom.

Bond returned in 1983 for a successful fourth challenge, complete with a symbolic golden wrench which he claimed would be used to unbolt the cup from its plinth, so that he could take it back to Australia. In 1983 there were seven challengers for the cup competing for the inaugural Louis Vuitton Cup
Louis Vuitton Cup
The Louis Vuitton Cup is a yachting competition connected with the America's Cup. The Louis Vuitton Cup was used as the selection series to select the team to sail as the challenger in the America's Cup...

, the winner of which would go on to the America's Cup match against the NYYC's yacht selected in their trials. Bond's yacht, Australia II
Australia II
Australia II is the Australian 12-metre-class challenge racing yacht that was launched in 1982 and won the 1983 America's Cup for the Royal Perth Yacht Club...

, designed by Ben Lexcen
Ben Lexcen
Ben Lexcen AM born Robert Miller was an Australian yachtsman and marine architect. He is famous for the winged keel design applied to Australia II which, in 1983, became the first non-American yacht to win the prestigious America's Cup in 132 years.-Early life:Born in the coastal town of...

, skippered by John Bertrand, and representing the Royal Perth Yacht Club
Royal Perth Yacht Club
The Royal Perth Yacht Club is a yacht club in Perth, Western Australia. -Early history:The "Perth Yacht and Boat Club" in 1880 was able to build a jetty at the foot of William Street in Perth Water. Perth Yacht Club received the Royal Charter in 1890. The club shifted to Crawley in 1953 when the...

, easily won the Louis Vuitton challenger series, and Dennis Conner
Dennis Conner
Dennis Conner is an American yachtsman, noted for winning the bronze medal at the 1976 Olympics, two Star World Championships, and four wins in the America's Cup.-America's Cup:...

 in "Liberty" was selected for the Cup defense. In the Cup match, the Australians recovered from a bad start to win the America's Cup 4-3 in a best-of-seven format, thereby breaking the 132-year winning streak.

Representing the San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club is a yacht club located in San Diego Bay. Its address is 1011 Anchorage Lane, San Diego, CA 92106. It is located in Point Loma across from a spit of land known as Shelter Island.- Facilities :...

, Conner returned to win the 1987 America's Cup
1987 America's Cup
The 1987 America's Cup was the twenty-seventh challenge for the America's Cup and the first time for 132 years that it had not been defended by the New York Yacht Club....

 held off Fremantle, Australia. His yacht Stars & Stripes 87
Stars & Stripes 87
Stars & Stripes 87 was the 12 Meter challenge boat sailed by Dennis Conner in his bid to reclaim the America’s Cup from the Royal Perth Yacht Club of Australia in 1987.-Design and Development:...

earned the right to challenge by winning the 1987 Louis Vuitton Cup
1987 Louis Vuitton Cup
The 2nd Louis Vuitton Cup was held in Fremantle, Australia in 1987. The winner, Stars & Stripes, went on to challenge for and win the 1987 America's Cup.-The teams:...

 against an unprecedented field of 13 challenger syndicates. In the America's Cup regatta he faced defender Iain Murray
Iain Murray (sailor)
Iain Murray is an Australia sailor. He is most noted for his appearances in 12-Metre Class yachts in the 1983 and 1987 America's Cup regattas, but is also a champion 18ft Skiff skipper. The modern version of the 18ft Skiff was designed by Murray...

 sailing Kookaburra III
Kookaburra III
Kookaburra III was the Australian 12 Meter yacht sailed by Iain Murray in the 1987 America's Cup held off of Fremantle, Australia. She won the Defender Selection and represented Australia in the America's Cup, where she lost to American challenger Dennis Conner and his Stars and Stripes...

, who had defeated Alan Bond's Australia IV in the defender selection trials. Stars & Stripes 87 defeated Kookaburra III four races to nil.

Technology was now playing an increasing role in yacht design. The 1983 winner, Australia II, had sported an innovative winged keel
Winged keel
A winged keel is a sailboat keel, usually of moderate aspect ratio, that uses a nearly horizontal foil, the "wing", at the bottom to provide additional performance. Note that the wing is upside down with relation to the boat...

, and the New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

 boat that Conner had beaten in the Louis Vuitton Cup final in Fremantle
Fremantle, Western Australia
Fremantle is a city in Western Australia, located at the mouth of the Swan River. Fremantle Harbour serves as the port of Perth, the state capital. Fremantle was the first area settled by the Swan River colonists in 1829...

 was the first 12-metre class
12-metre class
The 12 Metre Class is a rating class for racing boats designed to the International rule. It enables fair competition between boats that rate in the class whilst retaining the freedom to experiment with the details of their designs. The first 12 Metres were built in 1907. The 12 Metre Class was...

 to have a hull of fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

, rather than aluminum or wood.

The 12-meter-class rules stipulated the hull had to be the same thickness throughout and could not be made lighter in the bow and stern. The other challengers demanded that core samples be taken from the plastic hull to show its thickness. At one press conference Dennis Conner asked, "Why would you build a plastic yacht ... unless you wanted to cheat?" Despite attempts to defuse the situation, the "cheating comment" added to the controversy surrounding the Louis Vuitton challenge races. Chris Dickson
Chris Dickson (sailor)
Christopher Stuart Dickson, born 3 November 1961 in Auckland, is an internationally known sailor from New Zealand. He was world youth champion three years in succession and later became world match race champion three times...

, skipper of the "Plastic Fantastic", took the controversy in stride and with humor, and Conner has subsequently stated his regret over his comment. New Zealand syndicate head Sir Michael Fay's comment was that core samples would be taken "over my dead body". Eventually some small holes were drilled to test the hull, and ultrasonic testing was done to rule out air pockets in the construction. The boat was found to be within class rules, and the issue was set aside. Fay ceremoniously lay down in front of the measurer before the samples were taken.

1988 The Mercury Bay Challenge



In 1987, soon after Conner had won back the Cup with Stars and Stripes
Stars & Stripes (yacht)
Stars & Stripes is the name of a series of racing yachts operated by Dennis Conner to compete in the America's Cup. The name "Stars & Stripes" refers to the nickname often used for the flag of the United States.- 12-metre class yachts :1987 America's Cup...

but before the San Diego Yacht Club had publicly issued terms for the next regatta, a New Zealand syndicate, again led by merchant banker Sir Michael Fay
Michael Fay (banker)
Sir Michael Fay is a New Zealand merchant banker and partner in the merchant bank Fay Richwhite. He was educated at St Peter's College, Auckland, St Patrick's College, Silverstream and Victoria University of Wellington ....

, lodged a surprise Deed-of-Gift challenge. Fay challenged with a gigantic yacht named New Zealand (KZ1) or the Big Boat, which with a 90 feet (27.4 m) waterline, was the largest single-masted yacht possible under the original rules of the cup trust deed. This was an unwelcome challenge to the San Diego Yacht Club, who wanted to continue to run Cup regattas using 12-meter yachts. A legal battle ensued over the challenge, with Justice Carmen Ciparik of the New York State Supreme (trial) Court (which administers the Deed of Gift) ruling that Fay's challenge on behalf of Mercury Bay Boating Club (MBBC) was valid. The court ordered SDYC to accept it and negotiate mutually agreeable terms for a match, or to race under the default provisions of the Deed, or to forfeit the Cup to MBBC.

Forced to race, and lacking time for preparation, Conner and SDYC looked for a way to prevail. They recognized that a catamaran
Catamaran
A catamaran is a type of multihulled boat or ship consisting of two hulls, or vakas, joined by some structure, the most basic being a frame, formed of akas...

 was not expressly prohibited under the rules. Multihulls, due to a lower wetted surface area and vastly lower mass, are inherently faster than equal-displacement monohulls. Conner, however, left nothing to chance and commissioned a cutting-edge design with a wing
Wing
A wing is an appendage with a surface that produces lift for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid...

 sail, named—as his 12-meter yachts had been—Stars and Stripes.

The two yachts raced under the simple terms of the Deed in September, 1988. New Zealand predictably lost by a huge margin. Fay then took SDYC back to court, arguing that the race had been unfair, certainly not the "friendly competition between nations" that the Deed of Gift envisioned. Ciparik agreed and awarded New Zealand the Cup. However, Ciparik's decision was overturned on appeal and SDYC's win was reinstated. Fay then appealed to New York's highest court and lost. Thus SDYC successfully defended the Cup in what observers described as the most controversial Cup match to that point. (The 2010 America's Cup was a direct descendant of the 1988 Cup, as it featured two gigantic multi-hull yachts and generated even more legal activity and controversy.)

1992–2007 The IACC Rule


In the wake of the 1988 challenge, the International America's Cup Class (IACC) was introduced, replacing the 12-metre class that had been used since 1958.


In 1992, USA-23 of the America³
America³
America is the name of both a racing yacht and syndicate that vied for the America's Cup in 1992 and 1995.-1992 Cup victory:The program was operated by Bill Koch and Harry "Buddy" Melges in the 1992 America's Cup...

team, skippered by billionaire
Billionaire
A billionaire, in countries that use the short scale number naming system, is a person who has a net worth of at least one billion units of a given currency, usually the United States dollar, Euro, or Pound sterling. Forbes magazine updates a complete list of U.S. dollar billionaires around the...

 Bill Koch
Bill Koch (businessman)
William Ingraham "Bill" Koch is an American businessman, sailor, and collector. His boat was the winner of the America's Cup in 1992. His last name is pronounced "coke." Per Forbes William Koch's net worth was $3.4 billion in 2010 on oil and other investments-Early life and business...

 and sailing legend Harry “Buddy” Melges
Buddy Melges
Harry "Buddy" Melges, Jr., is one of the most successful competitive sailors in history, with dozens of national and international championships in many different classes, including ice-boating as well as conventional sailing...

, defeated the Italian challenger Il Moro ITA-25, owned by billionaire Raul Gardini's Il Moro di Venezia
Il Moro di Venezia
Il Moro di Venezia was the name for five International America’s Cup Class boats built for the 1992 Italian team, Il Moro Challenge, headed by industrialist Raul Gardini...

, 5-1.

In 1995
1995 America's Cup
The 29th America's Cup was contested between the winner of the 1995 Citizen Cup, Team Dennis Conner, with the yacht Stars & Stripes , and the winner of the 1995 Louis Vuitton Cup, Team New Zealand, with the yacht Black Magic .-Races:-Team New Zealand:-Team Dennis Conner:-References:*...

, the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
The Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron is one of New Zealand's more prestigious yacht clubs, and the club behind New Zealand's America's Cup campaigns, under the guise of Team New Zealand....

 syndicate Team New Zealand, skippered by Russell Coutts
Russell Coutts
Sir Russell Coutts, KNZM, CBE is a competitive sailor. His achievements include a Gold medal in the Finn Class in the 1984 Olympic Games, winning the America's Cup four times, the ISAF World Youth championships, three World Match Racing Championships, numerous international match race wins and...

, first won the challenger series
1995 Louis Vuitton Cup
The 4th Louis Vuitton Cup was held in San Diego, United States in 1995. The winner, Team New Zealand, went on to challenge for and win the 1995 America's Cup.-The teams:...

 in NZL 32
NZL 32
NZL-32 or Black Magic, is an International Americas Cup Class yacht that won the 1995 America's Cup. She beat the American defender Young America in a 5-0 victory off San Diego, California.-History:...

, dubbed "Black Magic" because of her black hull and uncanny speed. Black Magic then easily defeated Dennis Connor's Stars & Stripes
Stars & Stripes (yacht)
Stars & Stripes is the name of a series of racing yachts operated by Dennis Conner to compete in the America's Cup. The name "Stars & Stripes" refers to the nickname often used for the flag of the United States.- 12-metre class yachts :1987 America's Cup...

 team, 5–0, to win the cup for New Zealand. Although team Young America's cup candidate yacht USA-36 was defeated in defender trials by Stars & Stripes' USA-34
Stars & Stripes (yacht)
Stars & Stripes is the name of a series of racing yachts operated by Dennis Conner to compete in the America's Cup. The name "Stars & Stripes" refers to the nickname often used for the flag of the United States.- 12-metre class yachts :1987 America's Cup...

, the San Diego Yacht Club elected to defend the cup with USA-36 crewed by Stars & Stripes. The run-up to the 1995 Cup was notable for the televised sinking of oneAustralia during the fourth round robin of the Louis Vuitton challenger selection series
Louis Vuitton Cup
The Louis Vuitton Cup is a yachting competition connected with the America's Cup. The Louis Vuitton Cup was used as the selection series to select the team to sail as the challenger in the America's Cup...

, with all hands escaping uninjured. The 1995 challenger selection series also had the first mostly female (with one man) crew sailing the yacht USA-43, nicknamed "Mighty Mary".

In March 1997, a person entered the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron's clubroom and damaged the America's Cup with a sledgehammer. The attacker, a recidivist petty criminal, claimed the attack was politically motivated; he was convicted and sent to prison. The damage was so severe that it was feared that the cup was irreparable. London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

's Garrards
Garrard & Co
Garrard & Co is a luxury jewellery and silver company founded by George Wickesin London in 1735. Its current base is at Albemarle Street in Mayfair, London, its USA flagship store is in New York. The company also has a presence in Tokyo, New York, Dubai, Moscow and Hong Kong...

 silversmiths, who had manufactured the cup in 1848, painstakingly restored the trophy to its original condition over three months, free of charge. In 2003, an extra 20 cm was added to the cup's base to accommodate the names of future winners.

At Auckland in 1999–2000
2000 America's Cup
The 30th America's Cup was contested between the holder, Team New Zealand, and the winner of the 2000 Louis Vuitton Cup, Prada Challenge.-Races:-Team New Zealand:* Sailed in Race 5-Prada Challenge:-References:*...

, Team New Zealand, led by Sir Peter Blake
Peter Blake (yachtsman)
Sir Peter James Blake, KBE was a New Zealand yachtsman who won the Whitbread Round the World Race, the Jules Verne Trophy – setting the fastest time around the world of 74 days 22 hours 17 minutes 22 seconds on catamaran Enza, and led his country to successive victories in the America’s Cup...

, and again skippered by Russell Coutts
Russell Coutts
Sir Russell Coutts, KNZM, CBE is a competitive sailor. His achievements include a Gold medal in the Finn Class in the 1984 Olympic Games, winning the America's Cup four times, the ISAF World Youth championships, three World Match Racing Championships, numerous international match race wins and...

, defeated the Italian Prada Challenge from the Yacht Club Punta Ala. The Italians had previously beaten the AmericaOne syndicate from the St Francis Yacht Club in the Louis Vuitton Cup final. This was the first America's Cup to be contested without an American challenger or defender.

In 2003, several strong challengers vied for the right to sail for the cup in Auckland during the challenger selection
2003 Louis Vuitton Cup
The 6th Louis Vuitton Cup was held in Auckland, New Zealand in 2003. The winner, Alinghi, went on to challenge for the 2003 America's Cup.-The teams:The Yacht Club Punta Ala was the challenger of record.-Alinghi:...

 series. Notably, a number of original members of Team New Zealand, including previous helmsman Coutts, were key members of the Swiss challenge Alinghi
Alinghi
Alinghi is the syndicate set up by Ernesto Bertarelli, racing under the colors of the Société Nautique de Genève, to challenge for the America's Cup. Bertarelli had raced several smaller yachts named Alinghi previously, but 2003 was his first attempt at the America's Cup...

sponsored by pharmaceutical billionaire Ernesto Bertarelli
Ernesto Bertarelli
Ernesto Bertarelli is a Swiss-Italian billionaire and entrepreneur.Together with his extended family, Bertarelli was ranked 81st in the 2011 annual ranking of the world's wealthiest people compiled and published by Forbes magazine, The family's wealth was estimated at US$10.0...

 and representing the Société Nautique de Genève
Société Nautique de Genève
The Société Nautique de Genève is a yacht club based in Geneva . It was founded in 1872 with the goal of developing nautical sports and high level sailors...

 (SNG). Alinghi beat all her rivals in the Louis Vuitton Cup with surprising ease and in turn won the America's Cup 5-0, helped by multiple gear failures on Team New Zealand's yacht.

SNG staged its 2007 defense of the cup
2007 America's Cup
The 2007 America's Cup was the thirty-second challenge for the America's Cup and was won by Alinghi in the 7th race. The Cup is the most famous and most prestigious regatta and Match Race in the sport of sailing....

 in Valencia
Valencia (city in Spain)
Valencia or València is the capital and most populous city of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain, with a population of 809,267 in 2010. It is the 15th-most populous municipality in the European Union...

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, the first time since the original 1851 Isle of Wight race that the America's Cup has been held in Europe, or in a country different from that of the defender. Eleven challenging yacht clubs from 9 countries submitted formal entries. The challenger selection series, the Louis Vuitton Cup 2007, ran from April 16 to June 6, 2007. Emirates Team New Zealand won the challenger series finale 5-0 against Italians Luna Rossa and met Alinghi
Alinghi
Alinghi is the syndicate set up by Ernesto Bertarelli, racing under the colors of the Société Nautique de Genève, to challenge for the America's Cup. Bertarelli had raced several smaller yachts named Alinghi previously, but 2003 was his first attempt at the America's Cup...

between June 23 and July 3, 2007. SNG successfully defended the America's Cup with a margin of 5-2. The racing was much closer than the final score suggests, including a 1-second winning margin by Alinghi in the seventh and final race.

2010 The Golden Gate Challenge


After Société Nautique de Genève
Société Nautique de Genève
The Société Nautique de Genève is a yacht club based in Geneva . It was founded in 1872 with the goal of developing nautical sports and high level sailors...

 successfully defended the trophy in the 32nd America's Cup, they accepted a challenge from Club Náutico Español de Vela (CNEV) a Spanish yacht club formed expressly for the purpose of challenging for the cup and keeping the regatta in Valencia. When SNG and CNEV published their protocol for the 33rd America's Cup challenge, there was widespread consternation over its terms, with some teams and yacht clubs calling it the worst protocol in the history of the event. Golden Gate Yacht Club
Golden Gate Yacht Club
The Golden Gate Yacht Club is a yacht club founded in 1939 and is the current holder of the America's Cup won by its racing team BMW Oracle Racing.In 1939 the first members built a clubhouse on a barge in the San Francisco Marina...

 (GGYC) filed its own challenge for the Cup and also filed a court case asking that CNEV be removed as being unqualified under the Deed of Gift, and that GGYC be named the challenger, being the first club to file a conforming challenge.

There followed a long and acrimonious legal battle, with the New York Court of Appeals
New York Court of Appeals
The New York Court of Appeals is the highest court in the U.S. state of New York. The Court of Appeals consists of seven judges: the Chief Judge and six associate judges who are appointed by the Governor to 14-year terms...

 finally deciding on April 2, 2009 that CNEV did not qualify as valid challenger, and that the GGYC was thus the rightful challenger.

Since the two parties were unable to agree otherwise, the match took place as a one-on-one Deed of Gift match with no other clubs or teams participating.

The match was sailed in gigantic, specialized 90 ft (27.4 m) multihull
Multihull
A multihull is a ship, vessel, craft or boat with more than one hull.-Description:Multihulls include: Proas, which have two differently shaped or sized hulls with lateral symmetry; catamarans, which have two hulls with longitudinal symmetry; and trimarans, which have a main hull in the center and...

 yachts in a best-of-three regatta in Valencia, Spain from February 8 to 14, 2010. The rigid wing sail of the challenging trimaran
Trimaran
A trimaran is a multihulled boat consisting of a main hull and two smaller outrigger hulls , attached to the main hull with lateral struts...

 USA-17 provided a decisive advantage, and it convincingly won the 2010 America's Cup 2-0 against the defending catamaran
Catamaran
A catamaran is a type of multihulled boat or ship consisting of two hulls, or vakas, joined by some structure, the most basic being a frame, formed of akas...

 Alinghi 5
Alinghi 5
The Alinghi 5 is a LWL, beam sloop-rigged catamaran built by Alinghi for the 33rd America's Cup.It was launched on 8 July 2009 being lifted from the construction shed in Villeneuve, Vaud by a Mil Mi-26 helicopter and carried thereby to Lake Geneva. It was subsequently carried to Genoa, Italy...

.

2013 The AC72 rule


The Challenger of Record for the 34th America's Cup
34th America's Cup
The 34th America's Cup will be sailed in 2013 in San Francisco, California with 72-foot wing-sail catamarans. Golden Gate Yacht Club is the defender of the America's Cup, after their racing team, BMW Oracle Racing defeated the Swiss Alinghi team of Société Nautique de Genève in the 2010 America's...

 was Club Nautico di Roma
Club Nautico di Roma
Club Nautico di Roma is a private yacht club located in Rome, Italy.It was established in November 2006.It promotes and organizes various water-sports related events, in sailing, motor boating, fishing and scuba diving....

, whose team Mascalzone Latino had competed in the challenger selection series for the 2007 America's Cup
2007 America's Cup
The 2007 America's Cup was the thirty-second challenge for the America's Cup and was won by Alinghi in the 7th race. The Cup is the most famous and most prestigious regatta and Match Race in the sport of sailing....

. On May 12, 2011, they withdrew from the competition, citing challenges in agreeing with their sponsors on a budget sufficient to fund a competitive team. The Challenger of Record is now the Royal Swedish Yacht Club.

In September 2010 GGYC and BMW Oracle Racing
BMW Oracle Racing
Oracle Racing is an American sailboat racing syndicate initially formed to compete for the 2003 America’s Cup. They competed again in the 2007 event before winning the 33rd America's Cup regatta in 2010 - representing the Golden Gate Yacht Club....

 announced that the next Cup match would take place in 2013 in a new class of boat, the AC72, a wing-sailed catamaran. Paralleling the "ACTS" of AC32, a new series, the America's Cup World Series
America's Cup World Series
The America's Cup World Series is a series of match race regattas leading up to the 2013 America's Cup.-The Yachts:The World Series will use AC45 catamarans, a one-design wingsail catamaran with foils designed specifically for the event by Mike Drummond and the Oracle Racing engineering team...

 would be run in various world venues in 2011, 2012, and 2013 before the challenger selection series, defender selection series, and America's Cup Match in the summer or fall of 2013. The 2013 America's Cup match will be held in San Francisco.

Challengers and defenders

RuleYearVenueDefending clubDefenderChallenging clubChallenger Score
Fleet racing
Fleet racing
Fleet racing is a form of competitive sailing that involves sailboats racing one another over a set course. It is the most common form of sailboat racing and contrasts with match racing and team racing....

1851
America (yacht)
The America was a 19th century racing yacht that was the first to win the eponymous international sailing trophy now known as the America's Cup; in 1851 the trophy was known as the Royal Yacht Squadron's "One Hundred Guinea Cup", but was later renamed after the original winning yacht...

Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest island of England, located in the English Channel, on average about 2–4 miles off the south coast of the county of Hampshire, separated from the mainland by a strait called the Solent...

  Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

8 cutters and 7 schooner
Schooner
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts with the forward mast being no taller than the rear masts....

s, runner-up Aurora
  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

John Cox Stevens
John Cox Stevens
John Cox Stevens is best known for founding and serving as the first Commodore of the New York Yacht Club as well as being a member of the America syndicate which won the first America's Cup trophy in 1851....

 syndicate, America
America (yacht)
The America was a 19th century racing yacht that was the first to win the eponymous international sailing trophy now known as the America's Cup; in 1851 the trophy was known as the Royal Yacht Squadron's "One Hundred Guinea Cup", but was later renamed after the original winning yacht...

0-1
1870 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

17 schooners, winner Franklin Osgood's Magic   Royal Thames Yacht Club
Royal Thames Yacht Club
The Royal Thames Yacht Club is the oldest sailing club in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are located at 60 Knightsbridge, London, England, overlooking Hyde Park....

James Lloyd Ashbury, Cambria 1-0
Schooner
match
1871 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Franklin Osgood, Columbia
Columbia (1871 yacht)
Columbia was the successful defender of the second America's Cup race in 1871 against English challenger Livonia.-Design:Columbia, a wooden centerboard schooner, was designed and built in 1871 by Joseph B. Van Deusen in Chester, PA for owner Franklin Osgood of the New York Yacht...

(2-1) and
William Proctor Douglas, Sappho (2-0)
  Royal Harwich Yacht Club James Lloyd Ashbury, Livonia 4-1
1876 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

John Stiles Dickerson, Madeleine   Royal Canadian Yacht Club
Royal Canadian Yacht Club
The Royal Canadian Yacht Club is a boating club based in Toronto, Canada.It was founded in 1852 as the Toronto Boat Club, a recreational club and unofficial auxiliary of the Royal Navy on Lake Ontario. In 1854, the club successfully petitioned Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom for the right to...

Charles Gifford, Countess of Dufferin 2-0
65' sloop
1881 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Joseph Richard Busk, Mischief
Mischief (yacht)
The yacht Mischief was the victorious American defender of the fourth America's Cup race in 1881 against Canadian challenger Atalanta.-Design:...

  Bay of Quinte Yacht Club
Bay of Quinte Yacht Club
Bay of Quinte Yacht Club is a boating club based in Belleville, Ontario, Canada, located on the shores of the Bay of Quinte. It was founded in 1876 and unsuccessfully challenged for the America's Cup in 1881.-External links:*...

Alexander Cuthbert, Atalanta 2-0
NYYC 85'
1885 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

John Malcolm Forbes
John Malcolm Forbes
John Malcolm Forbes was a businessman and sportsman. He was born in Milton, Massachusetts in 1847 into the wealthy Forbes family of Boston. In addition, he was highly regarded as a yachtsman and horseman.-Horses:...

 syndicate, Puritan
Puritan (yacht)
Puritan was the 1885 America's Cup defender.-Design:She was built at the George Lawley & Son yard in Boston, Massachusetts and launched May 26, 1885....

  Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

Sir Richard Sutton, Genesta
Genesta (yacht)
Genesta was the unsuccessful English challenger in the fifth America's Cup in 1885 against the American defender Puritan.-Design:The cutter Genesta was designed by John Beavor-Webb and built by the D&W Henderson shipyard on the River Clyde in 1884, for owner Sir Richard Sutton of the Royal Yacht...

2-0
1886 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Charles Jackson Paine
Charles Jackson Paine
Charles Jackson Paine was an American railroad executive, soldier, and yachtsman who was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.-Biography:...

, Mayflower
Mayflower (yacht)
Mayflower was the victorious U.S. defender of the sixth America's Cup in 1886 against English challenger Galatea.-Design:The sloop Mayflower was the second America's Cup defender designed by Edward "Ned " Burgess, built by George Lawley & Son and launched in 1886 for owner General Charles J. Paine...

  Royal Northern Yacht Club Lt. & Mrs. William Henn, Galatea
Galatea (yacht)
"Galatea" was the unsuccessful British challenger of the sixth America's Cup race in 1886 against American defender "Mayflower".-Design:Galatea, a keel cutter, was designed by John Beavor-Webb and built in 1885 for owner Lieutenant William Henn, R.N...

2-0
1887 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Charles Jackson Paine
Charles Jackson Paine
Charles Jackson Paine was an American railroad executive, soldier, and yachtsman who was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.-Biography:...

, Volunteer
Volunteer (yacht)
"Volunteer" was the victorious American defender of the seventh America's Cup race in 1887 against Scottish challenger "Thistle".-Design:"Volunteer," a centerboard compromise sloop, was designed by Edward Burgess and built by Pusey & Jones Shipbuilding Company at Wilmington, Delaware in 1887 for...

  Royal Clyde Yacht Club James Bell syndicate, Thistle
Thistle (yacht)
Thistle was the unsuccessful Scottish challenger of the seventh America's Cup in 1887 against American defender Volunteer.-Design:The cutter Thistle was designed by George Lennox Watson, with interiors by his brother Thomas Lennox Watson, and built at the D&W Henderson shipyard in Partick on the...

2-0
SCYC 85'
1893 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Charles Oliver Iselin syndicate, Vigilant
Vigilant (yacht)
Vigilant was the victorious United States defender of the eighth America's Cup in 1893 against British challenger Valkyrie II. Vigilant was designed by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff and built in 1893 by the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company of Bristol, Rhode Island...

  Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

Earl of Dunraven
Windham Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl
Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl KP PC , styled Viscount Adare between 1850 and 1871, was an Irish journalist, landowner, entrepreneur, sportsman and Conservative politician. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies under Lord Salisbury from 1885 to...

, Valkyrie II
Valkyrie II (yacht)
Valkyrie II was the unsuccessful British challenger of the eighth America's Cup race in 1893 against American defender "Vigilant".-Design:Valkyrie II was a gaff-rigged cutter...

3-0
SCYC 90'
1895 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

William K. Vanderbilt syndicate, Defender
Defender (yacht)
Defender was the 1895 America's Cup defender.-Design:Defender was designed by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff and built by the Herreshoff Manufacturing Company in 1895. It was Herreshoff's second victorious America's Cup defender design....

  Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

Earl of Dunraven
Windham Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl
Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl KP PC , styled Viscount Adare between 1850 and 1871, was an Irish journalist, landowner, entrepreneur, sportsman and Conservative politician. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies under Lord Salisbury from 1885 to...

 syndicate, Valkyrie III
Valkyrie III (yacht)
"Valkyrie III" was the unsuccessful British challenger of the ninth America's Cup race in 1895 against American defender "Defender".-Design:"Valkyrie III," a keel cutter, was designed by George Lennox Watson and built at the D&W Henderson on the River Clyde in 1893 for a syndicate of owners...

3-0
1899 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

J. Pierpont Morgan syndicate, Columbia
Columbia (1899 yacht)
Columbia was the defender of the tenth America's Cup race in 1899 against British challenger Shamrock as well as the defender of the eleventh America's Cup race in 1901 against British challenger, Shamrock II...

Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club is located in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, on the south shore of Belfast Lough.-History:The Club was established in 1866 as the Ulster Yacht Club, on the impetus of Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. In 1869 it received a Royal...

Sir Thomas Lipton, Shamrock
Shamrock (yacht)
Shamrock was the unsuccessful Irish challenger for the 10th America's Cup in 1899 against the United States defender, Columbia.-Design:Shamrock was designed by third-generation Scottish boatbuilder, William Fife III, Jr., and built in 1898 by J...

3-0
1901 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

J. Pierpont Morgan syndicate, Columbia
Columbia (1899 yacht)
Columbia was the defender of the tenth America's Cup race in 1899 against British challenger Shamrock as well as the defender of the eleventh America's Cup race in 1901 against British challenger, Shamrock II...

Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club is located in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, on the south shore of Belfast Lough.-History:The Club was established in 1866 as the Ulster Yacht Club, on the impetus of Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. In 1869 it received a Royal...

Sir Thomas Lipton, Shamrock II 3-0
1903 New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Cornelius Vanderbilt III
Cornelius Vanderbilt III
Cornelius Vanderbilt III was a distinguished American military officer, inventor, engineer, and yachtsman, and a member of the prominent American Vanderbilt family.-Biography:...

 syndicate, Reliance
Reliance (yacht)
Reliance was the 1903 America's Cup defender, the fourth America's Cup defender from the famous designer Nat Herreshoff, and reportedly the largest gaff-rigged cutter ever built....

Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club is located in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, on the south shore of Belfast Lough.-History:The Club was established in 1866 as the Ulster Yacht Club, on the impetus of Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. In 1869 it received a Royal...

Sir Thomas Lipton, Shamrock III 3-0
Universal
Universal Rule
The Universal Rule determined a yachts eligibility to race in the America's Cup from 1914 to 1937. Ships built according to the rule reached their peak in the large J-class yachts....

 75'
1920
1920 America's Cup
The 1920 America's Cup was the 13th challenge for the Cup and the first since 1903. It took place on the New York City harbor and consisted of a "best of five" series of races between the defender Resolute, entered by a syndicate of New York Yacht Club members headed by Henry Walters, and Shamrock...

New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Henry Walters
Henry Walters
Henry Walters was president of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad until he retired in 1902. He was founder of the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland.-Biography:...

 syndicate, Resolute
Resolute (yacht)
Resolute was a yacht designed and built by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff for a syndicate of New York Yacht Club members headed by Henry Walters to contend the 1914 America's Cup...

Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club is located in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, on the south shore of Belfast Lough.-History:The Club was established in 1866 as the Ulster Yacht Club, on the impetus of Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. In 1869 it received a Royal...

Sir Thomas Lipton, Shamrock IV
Shamrock IV
Shamrock IV was a yacht owned by Sir Thomas Lipton and designed by Charles Ernest Nicholson. She was the unsuccessful challenger in the 1920 America's Cup....

3-2
Universal
Universal Rule
The Universal Rule determined a yachts eligibility to race in the America's Cup from 1914 to 1937. Ships built according to the rule reached their peak in the large J-class yachts....


J-Class
J-class yacht
The J-Class serves as a rating for large sailing yachts designed between 1930 and 1937. Reserved for a wealthy elite of yachtsmen, these boats were used to compete with the best sailing talents in three races of the America's Cup.-The 1930s:...

1930 Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Harold S. Vanderbilt syndicate, Enterprise
J-class yacht
The J-Class serves as a rating for large sailing yachts designed between 1930 and 1937. Reserved for a wealthy elite of yachtsmen, these boats were used to compete with the best sailing talents in three races of the America's Cup.-The 1930s:...

Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club
Royal Ulster Yacht Club is located in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland, on the south shore of Belfast Lough.-History:The Club was established in 1866 as the Ulster Yacht Club, on the impetus of Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava. In 1869 it received a Royal...

Sir Thomas Lipton, Shamrock V
J-class yacht
The J-Class serves as a rating for large sailing yachts designed between 1930 and 1937. Reserved for a wealthy elite of yachtsmen, these boats were used to compete with the best sailing talents in three races of the America's Cup.-The 1930s:...

4-0
1934 Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Harold S. Vanderbilt syndicate, Rainbow
J-class yacht
The J-Class serves as a rating for large sailing yachts designed between 1930 and 1937. Reserved for a wealthy elite of yachtsmen, these boats were used to compete with the best sailing talents in three races of the America's Cup.-The 1930s:...

  Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

Sir Thomas Sopwith, Endeavour
Endeavour (Yacht)
Endeavour is a J-class yacht built for the 1934 America's Cup by Camper and Nicholson in Gosport, Portsmouth Harbour, England. She was built for Thomas Sopwith who used his aviation design expertise to ensure the yacht was the most advanced of its day with a steel hull and mast...

4-2
1937 Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Harold S. Vanderbilt, Ranger
Ranger (yacht)
The J-class yacht Ranger successfully defended the 1937 America's Cup, defeating the British challenger Endeavour II 4-0 at Newport, Rhode Island. It was the last time J-class yachts would race for the America's Cup.-Construction:...

  Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

Sir Thomas Sopwith, Endeavour II
J-class yacht
The J-Class serves as a rating for large sailing yachts designed between 1930 and 1937. Reserved for a wealthy elite of yachtsmen, these boats were used to compete with the best sailing talents in three races of the America's Cup.-The 1930s:...

4-0
IYRU 12mR
12-metre class
The 12 Metre Class is a rating class for racing boats designed to the International rule. It enables fair competition between boats that rate in the class whilst retaining the freedom to experiment with the details of their designs. The first 12 Metres were built in 1907. The 12 Metre Class was...

1958
1958 America's Cup
The 1958 America's Cup marked the first Cup match sailed in 12-metre class yachts. With twenty years having gone by since the last Cup match in 1937 the New York Yacht Club looked for a cheaper alternative to the J-class yachts in order to restart interest in the Cup. In 1956 Henry Sears lead an...

Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Henry Sears
Henry Sears
Henry Sears was an American commander and a commodore of the New York Yacht Club who competed in the America's Cup and discovered multiple species of marine fish.-Early life:...

, Columbia
  Royal Yacht Squadron
Royal Yacht Squadron
The Royal Yacht Squadron is the most prestigious yacht club in the United Kingdom and arguably the world. Its clubhouse is located in Cowes Castle on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom...

Hugh Goodson syndicate, Sceptre 4-0
1962
1962 America's Cup
The 1962 America's Cup was the second to be sailed in 12-meter yachts, marked the first challenge for the Cup from a country other than Great Britain or Canada, and was the first challenge from a country in the southern hemisphere...

Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Mercer, Walsh, Frese syndicate, Weatherly   Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron
Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron
The Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron is a yacht club located in North Sydney, Australia in the suburb of Kirribilli.The squadron was originally founded in 1862...

Sir Frank Packer, Gretel 4-1
1964 Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Eric Ridder
Eric Ridder
Eric Ridder was an American sailor and Olympic champion. He was born in Hewlett and died in Locust Valley....

 syndicate, Constellation
  Royal Thames Yacht Club
Royal Thames Yacht Club
The Royal Thames Yacht Club is the oldest sailing club in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are located at 60 Knightsbridge, London, England, overlooking Hyde Park....

Anthony Boyden, Sovereign 4-0
1967 Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

William Justice Strawbridge syndicate, Intrepid
Intrepid (yacht)
The Intrepid is a 12-metre class yacht which won the America's Cup in 1967 and again in 1970.-Design:Intrepid was designed by Olin Stephens, and was built of double-planked mahogany on white oak frames. She featured important innovations both above and below the waterline. The rudder was separated...

  Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron
Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron
The Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron is a yacht club located in North Sydney, Australia in the suburb of Kirribilli.The squadron was originally founded in 1862...

Emile Christenson, Dame Pattie
Dame Pattie
Dame Pattie is an International 12-metre class racing yacht built for the America's Cup challenge series in 1967. She was designed by Warwick Hood and built by W.H. Barnett in New South Wales, Australia....

4-0
1970 Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

William Justice Strawbridge syndicate, Intrepid
Intrepid (yacht)
The Intrepid is a 12-metre class yacht which won the America's Cup in 1967 and again in 1970.-Design:Intrepid was designed by Olin Stephens, and was built of double-planked mahogany on white oak frames. She featured important innovations both above and below the waterline. The rudder was separated...

  Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron
Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron
The Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron is a yacht club located in North Sydney, Australia in the suburb of Kirribilli.The squadron was originally founded in 1862...

Sir Frank Packer, Gretel II 4-1
1974 Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Robert Willis McCullough syndicate, Courageous
Courageous (yacht)
Courageous is a 12-metre class yacht. It was the third boat to win the America's Cup twice, in 1974 and 1977, after Intrepid in 1967 and 1970, and Columbia in 1899 and 1901. All three of these boats won for the NYYC and thus the United States...

  Royal Perth Yacht Club
Royal Perth Yacht Club
The Royal Perth Yacht Club is a yacht club in Perth, Western Australia. -Early history:The "Perth Yacht and Boat Club" in 1880 was able to build a jetty at the foot of William Street in Perth Water. Perth Yacht Club received the Royal Charter in 1890. The club shifted to Crawley in 1953 when the...

Alan Bond
Alan Bond (businessman)
Alan Bond is an Australian businessman noted for his criminal convictions and high-profile business dealings, including what was at the time the biggest corporate collapse in Australian history. Bond was born in the Hammersmith district of London, England, and emigrated to Australia with his...

, Southern Cross
4-0
1977 Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Ted Turner
Ted Turner
Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III is an American media mogul and philanthropist. As a businessman, he is known as founder of the cable news network CNN, the first dedicated 24-hour cable news channel. In addition, he founded WTBS, which pioneered the superstation concept in cable television...

, Courageous
Courageous (yacht)
Courageous is a 12-metre class yacht. It was the third boat to win the America's Cup twice, in 1974 and 1977, after Intrepid in 1967 and 1970, and Columbia in 1899 and 1901. All three of these boats won for the NYYC and thus the United States...

  Sun City Yacht Club Alan Bond
Alan Bond (businessman)
Alan Bond is an Australian businessman noted for his criminal convictions and high-profile business dealings, including what was at the time the biggest corporate collapse in Australian history. Bond was born in the Hammersmith district of London, England, and emigrated to Australia with his...

, Australia
4-0
1980
1980 America's Cup
The 1980 America's Cup was held in September 1980 at Newport, Rhode Island. The US defender, Freedom, defeated the Australian challenger, Australia, four races to one. This was the last successful defence of the cup by the New York Yacht Club and the last defender designed by the naval...

Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Freedom syndicate, Freedom
Freedom (yacht)
The 12-metre class yacht Freedom won the America's Cup in 1980, defeating the challenging yacht Australia. The Freedom was designed with an alloy rather than a wood hull by Olin Stephens and Bill Langan, and constructed at Minneford Yacht Yard...

  Royal Perth Yacht Club
Royal Perth Yacht Club
The Royal Perth Yacht Club is a yacht club in Perth, Western Australia. -Early history:The "Perth Yacht and Boat Club" in 1880 was able to build a jetty at the foot of William Street in Perth Water. Perth Yacht Club received the Royal Charter in 1890. The club shifted to Crawley in 1953 when the...

Alan Bond
Alan Bond (businessman)
Alan Bond is an Australian businessman noted for his criminal convictions and high-profile business dealings, including what was at the time the biggest corporate collapse in Australian history. Bond was born in the Hammersmith district of London, England, and emigrated to Australia with his...

, Australia
4-1
1983
1983 America's Cup
The 1983 America's Cup was the occasion of the first winning challenge to the New York Yacht Club who had successfully defended the cup over a period of 132 years...

Newport
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about south of Providence. Known as a New England summer resort and for the famous Newport Mansions, it is the home of Salve Regina University and Naval Station Newport which houses the United States Naval War...

  New York Yacht Club
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen. The members have contributed to the sport of yachting and yacht design. The organization has over 3,000 members as of 2011. ...

Freedom syndicate, Liberty   Royal Perth Yacht Club
Royal Perth Yacht Club
The Royal Perth Yacht Club is a yacht club in Perth, Western Australia. -Early history:The "Perth Yacht and Boat Club" in 1880 was able to build a jetty at the foot of William Street in Perth Water. Perth Yacht Club received the Royal Charter in 1890. The club shifted to Crawley in 1953 when the...

Alan Bond
Alan Bond (businessman)
Alan Bond is an Australian businessman noted for his criminal convictions and high-profile business dealings, including what was at the time the biggest corporate collapse in Australian history. Bond was born in the Hammersmith district of London, England, and emigrated to Australia with his...

, Australia II
Australia II
Australia II is the Australian 12-metre-class challenge racing yacht that was launched in 1982 and won the 1983 America's Cup for the Royal Perth Yacht Club...

3-4
1987
1987 America's Cup
The 1987 America's Cup was the twenty-seventh challenge for the America's Cup and the first time for 132 years that it had not been defended by the New York Yacht Club....

Fremantle
Fremantle, Western Australia
Fremantle is a city in Western Australia, located at the mouth of the Swan River. Fremantle Harbour serves as the port of Perth, the state capital. Fremantle was the first area settled by the Swan River colonists in 1829...

  Royal Perth Yacht Club
Royal Perth Yacht Club
The Royal Perth Yacht Club is a yacht club in Perth, Western Australia. -Early history:The "Perth Yacht and Boat Club" in 1880 was able to build a jetty at the foot of William Street in Perth Water. Perth Yacht Club received the Royal Charter in 1890. The club shifted to Crawley in 1953 when the...

Kevin Parry
Kevin Parry
Kevin John Parry was a businessman from Western Australia, most noted for his backing of the Taskforce '87 syndicate which unsuccessfully defended the 1987 America's Cup in Fremantle, Western Australia...

, Kookaburra III
  San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club is a yacht club located in San Diego Bay. Its address is 1011 Anchorage Lane, San Diego, CA 92106. It is located in Point Loma across from a spit of land known as Shelter Island.- Facilities :...

Sail America, Stars & Stripes 87
Stars & Stripes 87
Stars & Stripes 87 was the 12 Meter challenge boat sailed by Dennis Conner in his bid to reclaim the America’s Cup from the Royal Perth Yacht Club of Australia in 1987.-Design and Development:...

0-4
DOG match
1988
1988 America's Cup
The 1988 America's Cup was the twenty-eighth running of the America's Cup regatta, and was contested between the defender, San Diego Yacht Club represented by Stars & Stripes, and the challenger, the Mercury Bay Boating Club represented by KZ-1...

San Diego   San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club is a yacht club located in San Diego Bay. Its address is 1011 Anchorage Lane, San Diego, CA 92106. It is located in Point Loma across from a spit of land known as Shelter Island.- Facilities :...

Sail America, Stars & Stripes 88
Stars & Stripes (yacht)
Stars & Stripes is the name of a series of racing yachts operated by Dennis Conner to compete in the America's Cup. The name "Stars & Stripes" refers to the nickname often used for the flag of the United States.- 12-metre class yachts :1987 America's Cup...

Mercury Bay Boating Club Sir Michael Fay, KZ-1 2-0
IACC
1992
1992 America's Cup
The 28th America's Cup was contested between the winner of the 1992 Citizen Cup defender selection series, America³, and the winner of the 1992 Louis Vuitton Cup challenger selection series, Il Moro di Venezia.-Races:-America³:-Il Moro di Venezia:...

San Diego   San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club is a yacht club located in San Diego Bay. Its address is 1011 Anchorage Lane, San Diego, CA 92106. It is located in Point Loma across from a spit of land known as Shelter Island.- Facilities :...

Bill Koch
Bill Koch (businessman)
William Ingraham "Bill" Koch is an American businessman, sailor, and collector. His boat was the winner of the America's Cup in 1992. His last name is pronounced "coke." Per Forbes William Koch's net worth was $3.4 billion in 2010 on oil and other investments-Early life and business...

, America³
America³
America is the name of both a racing yacht and syndicate that vied for the America's Cup in 1992 and 1995.-1992 Cup victory:The program was operated by Bill Koch and Harry "Buddy" Melges in the 1992 America's Cup...

  Compagnia Della Vela di Venezia Raul Gardini, Il Moro di Venezia
Il Moro di Venezia
Il Moro di Venezia was the name for five International America’s Cup Class boats built for the 1992 Italian team, Il Moro Challenge, headed by industrialist Raul Gardini...

4-1
1995
1995 America's Cup
The 29th America's Cup was contested between the winner of the 1995 Citizen Cup, Team Dennis Conner, with the yacht Stars & Stripes , and the winner of the 1995 Louis Vuitton Cup, Team New Zealand, with the yacht Black Magic .-Races:-Team New Zealand:-Team Dennis Conner:-References:*...

San Diego   San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club
San Diego Yacht Club is a yacht club located in San Diego Bay. Its address is 1011 Anchorage Lane, San Diego, CA 92106. It is located in Point Loma across from a spit of land known as Shelter Island.- Facilities :...

Sail America, Young America Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
The Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron is one of New Zealand's more prestigious yacht clubs, and the club behind New Zealand's America's Cup campaigns, under the guise of Team New Zealand....

Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand is a sailing team based in Auckland, New Zealand representing the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron.Team New Zealand has become a household name in their home country following their consecutive wins in the America's Cup in 1995 and 2000...

, Black Magic
NZL 32
NZL-32 or Black Magic, is an International Americas Cup Class yacht that won the 1995 America's Cup. She beat the American defender Young America in a 5-0 victory off San Diego, California.-History:...

0-5
2000
2000 America's Cup
The 30th America's Cup was contested between the holder, Team New Zealand, and the winner of the 2000 Louis Vuitton Cup, Prada Challenge.-Races:-Team New Zealand:* Sailed in Race 5-Prada Challenge:-References:*...

Auckland
Auckland
The Auckland metropolitan area , in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country with residents, percent of the country's population. Auckland also has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world...

Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
The Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron is one of New Zealand's more prestigious yacht clubs, and the club behind New Zealand's America's Cup campaigns, under the guise of Team New Zealand....

Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand is a sailing team based in Auckland, New Zealand representing the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron.Team New Zealand has become a household name in their home country following their consecutive wins in the America's Cup in 1995 and 2000...

, NZL-60
  Yacht Club Punta Ala Luna Rossa
Luna Rossa Challenge
Luna Rossa Challenge is an Italian sailboat racing syndicate, created to compete for the 2000 America's CupSponsored by Prada, and beginning from 2005 also by Telecom Italia.-2000 Louis Vuitton Cup:...

, ITA-45
5-0
2003 Auckland
Auckland
The Auckland metropolitan area , in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country with residents, percent of the country's population. Auckland also has the largest Polynesian population of any city in the world...

Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
The Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron is one of New Zealand's more prestigious yacht clubs, and the club behind New Zealand's America's Cup campaigns, under the guise of Team New Zealand....

Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand is a sailing team based in Auckland, New Zealand representing the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron.Team New Zealand has become a household name in their home country following their consecutive wins in the America's Cup in 1995 and 2000...

, NZL 82
NZL 82
NZL 82 was a 2003-generation International America's Cup Class racing yacht. Raced by defenders Team New Zealand in the 2003 America's Cup Match , it was defeated 5-0 by challenger Alinghi .- Background :...

  Société Nautique de Genève
Société Nautique de Genève
The Société Nautique de Genève is a yacht club based in Geneva . It was founded in 1872 with the goal of developing nautical sports and high level sailors...

Alinghi
Alinghi
Alinghi is the syndicate set up by Ernesto Bertarelli, racing under the colors of the Société Nautique de Genève, to challenge for the America's Cup. Bertarelli had raced several smaller yachts named Alinghi previously, but 2003 was his first attempt at the America's Cup...

, SUI-64
0-5
2007
2007 America's Cup
The 2007 America's Cup was the thirty-second challenge for the America's Cup and was won by Alinghi in the 7th race. The Cup is the most famous and most prestigious regatta and Match Race in the sport of sailing....

Valencia   Société Nautique de Genève
Société Nautique de Genève
The Société Nautique de Genève is a yacht club based in Geneva . It was founded in 1872 with the goal of developing nautical sports and high level sailors...

Alinghi
Alinghi
Alinghi is the syndicate set up by Ernesto Bertarelli, racing under the colors of the Société Nautique de Genève, to challenge for the America's Cup. Bertarelli had raced several smaller yachts named Alinghi previously, but 2003 was his first attempt at the America's Cup...

, SUI-100
Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron
The Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron is one of New Zealand's more prestigious yacht clubs, and the club behind New Zealand's America's Cup campaigns, under the guise of Team New Zealand....

Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand is a sailing team based in Auckland, New Zealand representing the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron.Team New Zealand has become a household name in their home country following their consecutive wins in the America's Cup in 1995 and 2000...

, NZL-92
5-2
DOG match
2010 Valencia   Société Nautique de Genève
Société Nautique de Genève
The Société Nautique de Genève is a yacht club based in Geneva . It was founded in 1872 with the goal of developing nautical sports and high level sailors...

Alinghi
Alinghi
Alinghi is the syndicate set up by Ernesto Bertarelli, racing under the colors of the Société Nautique de Genève, to challenge for the America's Cup. Bertarelli had raced several smaller yachts named Alinghi previously, but 2003 was his first attempt at the America's Cup...

, Alinghi 5
Alinghi 5
The Alinghi 5 is a LWL, beam sloop-rigged catamaran built by Alinghi for the 33rd America's Cup.It was launched on 8 July 2009 being lifted from the construction shed in Villeneuve, Vaud by a Mil Mi-26 helicopter and carried thereby to Lake Geneva. It was subsequently carried to Genoa, Italy...

  Golden Gate Yacht Club
Golden Gate Yacht Club
The Golden Gate Yacht Club is a yacht club founded in 1939 and is the current holder of the America's Cup won by its racing team BMW Oracle Racing.In 1939 the first members built a clubhouse on a barge in the San Francisco Marina...

BMW Oracle Racing
BMW Oracle Racing
Oracle Racing is an American sailboat racing syndicate initially formed to compete for the 2003 America’s Cup. They competed again in the 2007 event before winning the 33rd America's Cup regatta in 2010 - representing the Golden Gate Yacht Club....

, USA-17
0-2
AC72
AC72
The AC72 is a wingsail catamaran box rule, which will be used to govern the races in the 2013 Louis Vuitton Cup selection series and the 2013 America's Cup.-History:...

2013
34th America's Cup
The 34th America's Cup will be sailed in 2013 in San Francisco, California with 72-foot wing-sail catamarans. Golden Gate Yacht Club is the defender of the America's Cup, after their racing team, BMW Oracle Racing defeated the Swiss Alinghi team of Société Nautique de Genève in the 2010 America's...

San Francisco
San Francisco, California
San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

  Golden Gate Yacht Club
Golden Gate Yacht Club
The Golden Gate Yacht Club is a yacht club founded in 1939 and is the current holder of the America's Cup won by its racing team BMW Oracle Racing.In 1939 the first members built a clubhouse on a barge in the San Francisco Marina...

TBD   Royal Swedish Yacht Club
Kungliga Svenska Segelsällskapet
Royal Swedish Yacht Club, KSSS , is the largest and oldest yacht club in Sweden and one of the five oldest in the world, formed May 15, 1830...

Technically this club is currently the Challenger of Record, and may or may not be the actual Challenging Club when the actual America's Cup is sailed. In accordance with the protocol agreed between the Defending Club and the Challenger of Record, there will be a Challenger selection series, and the winner of that series will then become the Challenging Club and will name the team that will sail against the team named by the Defending Club.
Artemis Racing 

In the media


Traditionally, commercial airships or blimps
Goodyear Blimp
The Goodyear Blimp is the collective name for a fleet of blimps operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company for advertising purposes and for use as a television camera platform for aerial views of sporting events...

 built by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, SUVs, race cars, airplanes, farm equipment and heavy earth-mover machinery....

, of Akron
Akron, Ohio
Akron , is the fifth largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Summit County. It is located in the Great Lakes region approximately south of Lake Erie along the Little Cuyahoga River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 199,110. The Akron Metropolitan...

, Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

, US have been named after former America’s Cup winning boats. Paul W. Litchfield, an early chairman of Goodyear, envisioned airships as “the aerial yachts of the wealthy” and, in 1928, began the tradition of naming Goodyear blimps after A.C. boats, with blimps named Stars & Stripes, Columbia, Ranger, Rainbow, Enterprise, Resolute, Reliance, Defender, Vigilant, Volunteer, Mayflower, Puritan and America.

See also

  • 18th man
    18th man
    America's Cup yachts are crewed by 17 individuals. These boats must carry what is known as the 18th man, a passenger or the equivalent weight up to 100 kg. This is a highly sought-after position, often filled by a celebrity or a representative from one of the key sponsors to the...

  • America's Cup Hall of Fame
    America's Cup Hall of Fame
    The America's Cup Hall of Fame, located at the Herreshoff Marine Museum of Bristol, Rhode Island, USA, honors individuals for outstanding achievement in the America's Cup sailing competition...

  • Citizen Cup
    Citizen Cup
    The Citizen Cup is a trophy which was awarded to the winner of a regatta held in 1992 and again in 1995 to decide on a defender of the America's Cup.-History:...

     awarded in the defenders series for the America's Cup in 1987, 1992 and 1995.
  • Little Americas Cup
    International Catamaran Challenge Trophy
    The International Catamaran Challenge Trophy is the formal name for the more familiarly known Little Americas Cup modeled loosely on the Americas Cup series for yachts, and started in 1961 as a match racing series between two catamarans...


External links