59 (number)

# 59 (number)

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Encyclopedia
59 is the natural number
Natural number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are the ordinary whole numbers used for counting and ordering . These purposes are related to the linguistic notions of cardinal and ordinal numbers, respectively...

following 58
58 (number)
58 is the natural number following 57 and preceding 59.-In mathematics:Fifty-eight has an aliquot sum of 32 and is the second composite member of the 83-aliquot tree....

and preceding 60
60 (number)
60 is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. Being three times twenty, 60 is called "three score" in some older literature.-In mathematics:...

.

## In mathematics

Fifty-nine is the 17th smallest prime number
Prime number
A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a prime number is called a composite number. For example 5 is prime, as only 1 and 5 divide it, whereas 6 is composite, since it has the divisors 2...

. The next is sixty-one, with which it comprises a twin prime
Twin prime
A twin prime is a prime number that differs from another prime number by two. Except for the pair , this is the smallest possible difference between two primes. Some examples of twin prime pairs are , , , , and...

. 59 is an irregular prime, a safe prime
Safe prime
A safe prime is a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime. The first few safe primes are...

and the 14th supersingular prime
Supersingular prime (moonshine theory)
In the mathematical branch of moonshine theory, a supersingular prime is a certain type of prime number.Namely, a supersingular prime is a prime divisor of the order of the Monster group M, the largest of the sporadic simple groups...

. It is an Eisenstein prime
Eisenstein prime
In mathematics, an Eisenstein prime is an Eisenstein integerz = a + b\,\omega\qquadthat is irreducible in the ring-theoretic sense: its only Eisenstein divisors are the units , a + bω itself and its associates.The associates and the complex conjugate...

with no imaginary part and real part of the form . Since 15! + 1 is divisible by 59 but 59 is not one more than a multiple of 15, 59 is a Pillai prime.

It is also a highly cototient number
Highly cototient number
In number theory, a branch of mathematics, a highly cototient number is a positive integer k which is above one and has more solutions to the equation...

.

There are 59 stellation
Stellation
Stellation is a process of constructing new polygons , new polyhedra in three dimensions, or, in general, new polytopes in n dimensions. The process consists of extending elements such as edges or face planes, usually in a symmetrical way, until they meet each other again...

s of the icosahedron
Icosahedron
In geometry, an icosahedron is a regular polyhedron with 20 identical equilateral triangular faces, 30 edges and 12 vertices. It is one of the five Platonic solids....

.

59 is one of the factors that divides the smallest composite Euclid number
Euclid number
In mathematics, Euclid numbers are integers of the form En = pn# + 1, where pn# is the primorial of pn which is the nth prime. They are named after the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid....

. In this case 59 divides the Euclid number 13# + 1 = 2 * 3 * 5 * 7 * 11 * 13 + 1 = 59 * 509.

### Astronomy

• Messier object
Messier object
The Messier objects are a set of astronomical objects first listed by French astronomer Charles Messier in 1771. The original motivation of the catalogue was that Messier was a comet hunter, and was frustrated by objects which resembled but were not comets...

M59
Messier 59
Messier 59 is an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo.-History:Messier 59 and the nearby elliptical galaxy Messier 60 were both discovered by Johann Gottfried Koehler in April 1779 during observations of a comet in the same part of the sky...

, a magnitude 11.5 galaxy
Galaxy
A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. The word galaxy is derived from the Greek galaxias , literally "milky", a...

in the constellation
Constellation
In modern astronomy, a constellation is an internationally defined area of the celestial sphere. These areas are grouped around asterisms, patterns formed by prominent stars within apparent proximity to one another on Earth's night sky....

Virgo
Virgo (constellation)
Virgo is one of the constellations of the zodiac. Its name is Latin for virgin, and its symbol is . Lying between Leo to the west and Libra to the east, it is the second largest constellation in the sky...

• The New General Catalogue
New General Catalogue
The New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars is a well-known catalogue of deep sky objects in astronomy. It contains 7,840 objects, known as the NGC objects...

object NGC 59, a magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy
Spiral galaxy
A spiral galaxy is a certain kind of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae and, as such, forms part of the Hubble sequence. Spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk containing stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration of stars known as...

in the constellation Cetus
Cetus
Cetus is a constellation. Its name refers to Cetus, a sea monster in Greek mythology, although it is often called 'the whale' today. Cetus is located in the region of the sky that contains other water-related constellations such as Aquarius, Pisces, and Eridanus.-Ecliptic:Although Cetus is not...

• The Saros number of the solar eclipse
Solar eclipse
As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun as viewed from a location on Earth. This can happen only during a new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. At least...

series which began in June, 1031 BC June and ended in July, 249 AD. The duration of Saros series 59 was 1280.1 years, and it contained 72 solar eclipses.
• The Saros number of the lunar eclipse
Lunar eclipse
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes behind the Earth so that the Earth blocks the Sun's rays from striking the Moon. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned exactly, or very closely so, with the Earth in the middle. Hence, a lunar eclipse can only occur the night of a...

series which began in March, 729 BC and ended in May, 569 AD. The duration of Saros series 59 was 1298.1 years, and it contained 73 lunar eclipses.

## In religion

• And with Him are the keys of the unseen treasures—none knows them but He; and He knows what is in the land and the sea, and there falls not a leaf but He knows it, nor a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor anything green nor dry but (it is all) in a clear book. (Al-An'am Surah, 59)

## In music

• Beethoven's Opus 59 consists of the three so-called Razumovsky Quartets
• 59
59 (Puffy album)
59 is an album by Japanese pop duo PUFFY, released in 2004.-Track listing:#"Teen Titans Theme"#"Sunrise"#"Joining A Fan Club"#"Kokoro ni Hana o"#"Kazemakase Futaritabi"#"Forever"#"So Long Zero"#"Teen Titans Theme"...

, an album by Puffy AmiYumi
Puffy AmiYumi
or Puffy AmiYumi is a Japanese rock duo that is currently signed with Sony Music Japan. The group continues to go by the moniker of PUFFY in Japan, but in order to avoid legal naming conflicts with Sean Combs, it has adopted the name Puffy AmiYumi outside of Japan...

• The 1960s song "The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin' Groovy)
The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin' Groovy)
"The 59th Street Bridge Song " is a song by folk music duo Simon and Garfunkel, appearing on their 1966 album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme. "59th Street Bridge" is the colloquial name of the Queensboro Bridge in New York City...

" was popularized by Simon & Garfunkel and Harpers Bizarre
Harpers Bizarre
Harpers Bizarre was an American pop-rock band of the 1960s, best known for their Broadway/Sunshine Pop sound and their remake of Simon & Garfunkel's "The 59th Street Bridge Song ."- Career :...

• The '59 Sound
The '59 Sound
The '59 Sound is the second studio album by The Gaslight Anthem, released on August 19, 2008 on SideOneDummy Records.In December 2008, eMusic named The '59 Sound the best album of 2008. NME rated it as the 47th best album of the year...

, an album by The Gaslight Anthem
The Gaslight Anthem
The Gaslight Anthem is an American rock band from New Brunswick, New Jersey, consisting of Brian Fallon , Alex Rosamilia , Alex Levine and Benny Horowitz...

; includes the song of the same name
The '59 Sound (song)
"The '59 Sound" is a 2008 song by American rock band The Gaslight Anthem. Written by the band and produced by Ted Hutt, it is the title track of the band's second full-length album. Released as the album's lead single, the song reached the U.S. Hot Modern Rock Tracks chart in early 2009...

• The album 14:59
14:59
14:59 is the third album by the band Sugar Ray, released on January 12, 1999. It entered the top 20 on the Billboard 200, peaking at #17 and certified triple-platinum by the RIAA. The album shows the band moving into a more adult contemporary style, away from their earlier alternative metal...

by Sugar Ray
Sugar Ray
Sugar Ray is a band from Orange County, California. The band, starting off more as an alternative metal band, first gained fame in 1997 with their release of the song "Fly". This song's success, coupled with its pop rock sound that was quite different from the rest of their material at the time,...

• .59 is a song by djTAKA from beatmania IIDX 2nd Style
Beatmania IIDX 2nd Style
beatmania IIDX 2nd Style saw the introduction of Battle Mode, Double mode, and Hi-Speed settings....

and Dance Dance Revolution 4thMIX
Dance Dance Revolution 4thMIX
Dance Dance Revolution 4thMix, or 4thMix, is the 4th game in the main Dance Dance Revolution series of music video games. It was released as an arcade game by Konami on August 24, 2000. Although only officially released in Japan, units exist worldwide. 4thMix features 136 songs, 42 of which are new...

## In sports

• Nascar
NASCAR
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is a family-owned and -operated business venture that sanctions and governs multiple auto racing sports events. It was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1947–48. As of 2009, the CEO for the company is Brian France, grandson of the late Bill France Sr...

Driver Marcos Ambrose
Marcos Ambrose
Marcos Ambrose is a championship winning Australian racing car driver. He currently drives the #9 Stanley Black & Decker Ford Fusion for Richard Petty Motorsports in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series...

drives car #59
• Satchel Paige
Satchel Paige
Leroy Robert "Satchel" Paige was an American baseball player whose pitching in the Negro leagues and in Major League Baseball made him a legend in his own lifetime...

became the oldest major league baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

player at age 59
• 59 is a the lowest golf score in a single round on the PGA Tour
PGA Tour
The PGA Tour is the organizer of the main men's professional golf tours in the United States and North America...

, achieved by Al Geiberger
Al Geiberger
Allen Lee Geiberger, Sr. is an American professional golfer who has won numerous golf tournaments.Geiberger was born in Red Bluff, California...

, Chip Beck, David Duval
David Duval
David Robert Duval is an American professional golfer and former World No. 1 who competes on the PGA Tour.-Early years:...

, Paul Goydos
Paul Goydos
Paul David Goydos is an American professional golfer who has played on the PGA Tour and the Nationwide Tour.-Early life:...

, and Stuart Appleby
Stuart Appleby
Stuart Appleby is an Australian professional golfer.-Early life:Appleby was born in Cohuna in rural northern Victoria, and grew up on a nearby dairy farm. He began in golf by hitting balls from paddock to paddock after his farm chores were completed...

and on the LPGA Tour by Annika Sörenstam
Annika Sörenstam
Annika Sörenstam is a Swedish-American professional golfer whose achievements rank her as one of the most successful golfers in history. Before stepping away from competitive golf at the end of the 2008 season, she won 90 international tournaments as a professional, making her the female golfer...

• Lowest score recorded at MGC Invitational in Branson, MO

## In other fields

Fifty-nine is:
• The number corresponding to the last minute in a given hour
Hour
The hour is a unit of measurement of time. In modern usage, an hour comprises 60 minutes, or 3,600 seconds...

, and the last second in a given minute
Minute
A minute is a unit of measurement of time or of angle. The minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour or 60 seconds. In the UTC time scale, a minute on rare occasions has 59 or 61 seconds; see leap second. The minute is not an SI unit; however, it is accepted for use with SI units...

• The designation of Interstate 59
Interstate 59
Interstate 59 is an Interstate Highway in the southern United States. Its southern terminus is near Slidell, Louisiana, a suburb of New Orleans, at an intersection with Interstate 10 and Interstate 12, its northern terminus is at Wildwood, Georgia, at an intersection with Interstate 24.The road's...

, a freeway that runs from Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

to Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

• The designation of US-59
U.S. Route 59
U.S. Route 59 is a north–south United States highway . A latecomer to the U.S. numbered route system, U.S. 59 is now a border-to-border route, Part of NAFTA Corridor Highway System. It parallels U.S. Route 75 for nearly its entire route, never much more than away, until it veers southwest...

, a highway between Minnesota
Minnesota
Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

and Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

• Approximately the number of days in two lunar month
Lunar month
In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two identical syzygies . There are many variations. In Middle-Eastern and European traditions, the month starts when the young crescent moon becomes first visible at evening after conjunction with the Sun one or two days before that evening...

s
• The Queensboro Bridge
Queensboro Bridge
The Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, also known as the 59th Street Bridge – because its Manhattan end is located between 59th and 60th Streets – or simply the Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge over the East River in New York City that was completed in 1909...

in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

is also known as the 59th Street Bridge
• Central Park South
Central Park South
Central Park South is the portion of 59th Street that forms the southern border of Central Park in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It runs from Columbus Circle at Eighth Avenue on the west to Grand Army Plaza at Fifth Avenue on the east...

is on 59th Street
59th Street (Manhattan)
59th Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan runs east-west, from York Avenue to the West Side Highway, with a discontinuity between Ninth Avenue/Columbus Avenue and Eighth Avenue/Central Park West for the Time Warner Center. Although it is bi-directional for most of its length, the...

in New York City
• The number on a button
Campaign button
A campaign button is used in the United States during an election as political advertising for a candidate or political party, or to proclaim the issues that are part of the political platform. Political buttons date as far back as President George Washington. They have taken many forms as the...

commonly worn by feminist
Feminism
Feminism is a collection of movements aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights and equal opportunities for women. Its concepts overlap with those of women's rights...

activists in the 1970s
1970s
File:1970s decade montage.png|From left, clockwise: US President Richard Nixon doing the V for Victory sign after his resignation from office after the Watergate scandal in 1974; Refugees aboard a US naval boat after the Fall of Saigon, leading to the end of the Vietnam War in 1975; The 1973 oil...

; this was based on the claim that a woman earned 59 cent
Cent (currency)
In many national currencies, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1⁄100 of the basic monetary unit. Etymologically, the word cent derives from the Latin word "centum" meaning hundred. Cent also refers to a coin which is worth one cent....

s to an equally qualified man's dollar
Dollar
The dollar is the name of the official currency of many countries, including Australia, Belize, Canada, Ecuador, El Salvador, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States.-Etymology:...

• Art Project 59's '59 Seconds Video Festival' at 59 Franklin Street, showed 59 videos to 59 different audiences, each 59 seconds long and incorporating the number 59
Amateur radio is the use of designated radio frequency spectrum for purposes of private recreation, non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, and emergency communication...

, a perfect voice signal report
• Five Nine
Five Nine
Five Nine is a monthly magazine published in Japan. The magazine covers topics related to amateur radio DXing and contesting. The magazine is published in Japanese and draws its subscription base primarily from Japan...

Amateur radio is the use of designated radio frequency spectrum for purposes of private recreation, non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, and emergency communication...

magazine
Magazine
Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles. They are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid magazine subscriptions, or all three...

published in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

• The number of the French department Nord
• In the UK, the bingo nickname for 59 is 'The Brighton
Brighton
Brighton is the major part of the city of Brighton and Hove in East Sussex, England on the south coast of Great Britain...

Line', after the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway
• John Swartzwelder
John Swartzwelder
John Swartzwelder is an American comedy writer and novelist, best known for his work on the animated television series The Simpsons, as well as a number of novels. He is credited with writing the largest number of Simpsons episodes by a large margin...

is popularly known for writing "59" episodes of The Simpsons
The Simpsons
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...

cartoon
Cartoon
A cartoon is a form of two-dimensional illustrated visual art. While the specific definition has changed over time, modern usage refers to a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic drawing or painting intended for satire, caricature, or humor, or to the artistic style of such works...

series, which is the most for any writer on the show