Palmas, Tocantins

Palmas, Tocantins

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Palmas (ˈpawmɐs, Palm trees) is the capital of the Brazilian state of Tocantins
Tocantins (state)
Tocantins is one of the states of Brazil. . The state was formed in 1988 out of the northern part of Goiás, and construction began on the capital, Palmas, in 1989, in contrast to most of the other cities in the state which date back to the Portuguese colonial period...

. According to IBGE
IBGE
The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE , is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil...

 estimates from 2011, the city had 235,315 inhabitants. It has an area of 2474.95 km².

Palmas is located at the state geographic centre. The average altitude is 230 m (755 ft). The city is located between these hills and the Tocantins River
Tocantins River
The Tocantins is a river in Brazil, the central fluvial artery of the country. In the Tupi language, its name means "toucan's beak" . It runs from south to north for about 2,640 km. It is not really a branch of the Amazon River, although usually so considered, since its waters flow into the...

. In the east Palmas is bordered by the Serra do Lajeado. The city is clearly investing in gardens, squares, flower beds and parks. The yearly average temperature variation is between 24°C (75°F) and 28°C (82°F) during the rain season (October-March) and 28°C (82°F) and 35°C (95°F) during the dry season (May-September). There is only little to moderate wind. Humidity
Humidity
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture,...

: 76%. Palmas has several parks that offer some refreshment and calmness in the city that can be hot and restless.

Palmas was founded in 1990, with the purpose of being the capital of the newest Brazilian state Tocantins
Tocantins (state)
Tocantins is one of the states of Brazil. . The state was formed in 1988 out of the northern part of Goiás, and construction began on the capital, Palmas, in 1989, in contrast to most of the other cities in the state which date back to the Portuguese colonial period...

, which was established after the promulgation of the new 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The city has a well-designed road system, and its urban zoning is modelled on that of Brasília
Brasília
Brasília is the capital city of Brazil. The name is commonly spelled Brasilia in English. The city and its District are located in the Central-West region of the country, along a plateau known as Planalto Central. It has a population of about 2,557,000 as of the 2008 IBGE estimate, making it the...

. It has a symmetrical park in the city centre. In 2002, the Lajeado Hydroelectric Power Plant reservoir was completed, at which point the city gained many river beaches, and also the huge Ponte da Amizade Presidente Fernando Henrique Cardoso, which crosses over 8 kilometres (5 mi) over the reservoir, connecting Palmas with the major highway BR-153.

The Palmas Airport
Palmas Airport
Palmas/Tocantins-Brigadeiro Lysias Rodrigues Airport is the airport serving Palmas, Brazil. The airport is named after Lysias Augusto Rodrigues , a military figure, crucial to the integration of Tocantins to Brazil via the passenger air services of the Brazilian Air Force.It is operated by...

 connects Palmas with many Brazilian cities.

The city is also home to the Federal University of Tocantins.

Geography


Tocantins form the boundary between the Amazon Rainforest
Amazon Rainforest
The Amazon Rainforest , also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon Basin of South America...

 and the coastal savanna
Savanna
A savanna, or savannah, is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of C4 grasses.Some...

. As a result, the state's geography is varied. Many rivers cross through the state (including one of the same name
Tocantins River
The Tocantins is a river in Brazil, the central fluvial artery of the country. In the Tupi language, its name means "toucan's beak" . It runs from south to north for about 2,640 km. It is not really a branch of the Amazon River, although usually so considered, since its waters flow into the...

), and there are over 20 archaeologically
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 significant sites found in Tocantins.

Climate


Most of Tocantins, including where Palmas is located, (except the extreme west and northern regions) is situated within a vast Brazilian area known as the cerrado. The cerrado region's typical climate is hot, semi-humid, with pronounced seasonality marked by a dry winter season from May through October. The annual rainfall is around 800 to 1600 mm. The soils are generally very old, deep, and naturally nutrient-poor.
Palmas is known as one of Brazil's hottest capitals. During May to October dry season Palmas can be oppressively hot as temperatures clime into high 30's. During October to May rainy season it is not as hot, as during heavy rains and cloud cover it is much cooler. Palmas receives generous rainfall of about 1,500 mm. Contributing to Palmas´ reputation as a hot capital is its situation in a ´bow´ valley of Rio Tocantins and surrounded by mountains from three sides, and low elevation, 195 meters above sea level.

Vegetation


In spite of being technically located in a watershed of Amazon basin, Palmas has no rainforest. Typical are tort shrubland trees common to a cerrado region. While the city layout was being developed, much of the original trees were left intact in green areas of widely spaced avenues. It is common to see much older trees on streets of Palmas than the city's age of only 21 years (as of 2011). Man-planted palms also grace main thoroughfare of Avenida JK.

History


The area where Palmas was built was originally used for agriculture. Before 1990, the only village in the location was Vila Canela (near the river Tocantins, and near the Graciosa beach). The village and the beach were often flooded by the new lake. The flat area of Palmas is right between the river and the Serra do Lajeado hills in the east, and the vegetation
Vegetation
Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular taxa, life forms, structure, spatial extent, or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. It is broader...

 is the typical 'cerrado
Cerrado
The Cerrado, is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, particularly in the states of Gioas and Minas Gerais...

'. In 1989 Miracema
Miracema
Miracema is a city and a municipality located in the Rio de Janeiro state's northwestern region, bordering Minas Gerais state, and with a population of 27,064 inhabitants living in an area of 302.5 km²...

 was the temporary capital of the state. The new capital was initially designed by the architects Luiz Fernando Cruvinel Teixeira and Walfredo de Oliveira Filho. From 20 May 1989, some of the roads and baracas were built. It was decided to be built on the east side of the river, so the forgotten east side of the state would develop as well. The location may have been chosen because it is the geodesic center of Brazil.

At the time before the lake's formatiom, the Tocantins River
Tocantins River
The Tocantins is a river in Brazil, the central fluvial artery of the country. In the Tupi language, its name means "toucan's beak" . It runs from south to north for about 2,640 km. It is not really a branch of the Amazon River, although usually so considered, since its waters flow into the...

 made curves, forming what would look like the English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 letter S when looking at bird's eye view. It is said that Mr. Siquera Campos enjoyed the S-like formation, and that added to the choice of the location for Palmas. When the area was chosen in January 1989, Campos decided he wanted the Palacio (the state headquarter) to be built on the highest place in Palmas. Although the architect
Architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

s said the hill was too soft to build on, it was still built. The temporary Palacinho (said to be the first building in Palmas) still exists close from the new one, and it is kept as a monument
Monument
A monument is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or simply as an example of historic architecture...

. Since 2002, it was used as a museum
Museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

 for Tocantins' history.

Economy


Palmas was designed to be the economic and administrative center of Tocantins
Tocantins
Tocantins may refer to:* Tocantins, a state in Brazil* Tocantins River, a river in Brazil* Survivor: Tocantins, a reality show set in Tocantins, Brazil* Tocantins Esporte Clube, a Brazilian football club...

, and because of this, the service sector is the main sector of the economy Palmense. The share of agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 in the economy Palmense is less than the service sector, being based on small farms around the city
City
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

 and the highways that provide access to Palmas, and large farms planting soybeans and livestock in the district of Buritirana.

The economy is mostly formal, consisting primarily of limited partnerships and sole proprietorships. Micro firms are the most common in the city, where they comprise over 80% of companies Palmense 4394.
The city has four industrial
Industry
Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

 districts, among them the Industrial District of Palmas, Tocantins Industrial District I Industrial District and Industrial District Tocantins II of Taquaralto. All of them are located along the highways and TO-050 TO-010.

Today Palmas city became a center whose trade and economic influence covers the entire state of Tocantins, in addition to the southeast of Pará
Pará
Pará is a state in the north of Brazil. It borders the Brazilian states of Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Roraima. To the northwest it also borders Guyana and Suriname, and to the northeast it borders the Atlantic Ocean. The capital is Belém.Pará is the most populous state...

, northeastern and southern Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest in area, located in the western part of the country.Neighboring states are Rondônia, Amazonas, Pará, Tocantins, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul. It also borders Bolivia to the southwest...

 do Maranhão.
In town, there are branches of the following banks: Bank of Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 (7 agencies), Banco Bradesco (five agencies, one of Bradesco Prime), Federal Savings Bank (3 branches, 3 more ATMs), Itaú Unibanco (3 agencies), Bank of Amazonia (2 branches), HSBC (1 agency), Santander (an agency), Banco BMG (an agency), Banco Cruzeiro do Sul (an agency), and Triangle Bank (an agency). Moreover, Palmas also has seven self-service terminals of the network bank 24.

Gross Domestic Product


In 2007 the Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 (GDP), which is the sum of wealth produced in Palmas, and had a strong expansion was estimated at $ 2.2 billion, driven by investments of the City of Palms in the economy and also the proper time by which runs the country. The increase in GDP of Palmas was 6% and compared to that of Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 was very considerable, as the country showed the percentage of 3.5%, and Capital
Capital (economics)
In economics, capital, capital goods, or real capital refers to already-produced durable goods used in production of goods or services. The capital goods are not significantly consumed, though they may depreciate in the production process...

, by the end of 2007, representing 18.4% of the wealth generated Tocantins and 0.08% in the country. Due to this growth, Palms has received major investments, such as the Capim Dourado Shopping (inaugurated in August/2010), the multimodal yard of the North-South (located in the municipality of Porto Nacional, on the banks of the TO-080), plus branches of hypermarket networks: Atacadão, Makro, Extra and Assam.

Education


Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

 is the official national language, and thus it is primary language taught in schools although English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 are part of the official high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

 curriculum.

Educational Institutions

  • Universidade Federal do Tocantins
    Universidade Federal do Tocantins
    The Universidade Federal do Tocantins , also known as UFT, is a public federal university located in the state of Tocantins, Brazil...

     (UFT);
  • Centro Universitário Luterano de Palmas (Ceulp-Ulbra);
  • Faculdade Católica do Tocantins (Católica do Tocantins);
  • Fundação Universidade do Tocantins (Unitins);
  • Faculdade Objetivo;
  • and a few others.


Tourism


Very close to Palmas is located Taquaruçu
Taquarussu
Taquarussu is a village of the Brazilian state of Tocantins, located 30 km. from the capital of Tocantins, Palmas....

, an ecotourism resort and village located in the hills, whose microclimate and natural surroundings attract a lot of tourists from Palmas, other regions of Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 and abroad. Taquaruçu is famous for the many waterfalls (cachoeiras) surrounding it, where tourists can go to swim and practice sports like rappel.

Transport


Palmas has an efficient public bus service. Large fleet of late-model buses carry passengers to all corners of the city. Busfare (as of 2011) was R$1,85 (exchange rate to US dollar as of March 2011 is about R$1,65).
Palmas has an interstate bus service. Rodoviaria (central bus station) is located at the edge of city, with connections to all capitals of Brazil.

Airport



The city is served by the Palmas Airport
Palmas Airport
Palmas/Tocantins-Brigadeiro Lysias Rodrigues Airport is the airport serving Palmas, Brazil. The airport is named after Lysias Augusto Rodrigues , a military figure, crucial to the integration of Tocantins to Brazil via the passenger air services of the Brazilian Air Force.It is operated by...

. Planned for a population of one million, Palmas airport is uncrowded, with only a few flights per day, mostly to and from Brasilia. Airport is 30 km from city center, and is served by city bus (2 buses). Taxi ride to the airport is expensive, R$65 (as of March 2011).

Highways


Rodovia Coluna Prestes (TO-050), that connects with Brasília
Brasília
Brasília is the capital city of Brazil. The name is commonly spelled Brasilia in English. The city and its District are located in the Central-West region of the country, along a plateau known as Planalto Central. It has a population of about 2,557,000 as of the 2008 IBGE estimate, making it the...

.
BR-153 and BR-010. Federal Highway (BR-153) connects Palmas north and south through a 60 km drive west to Paraiso de Tocantins. BR-153 is mostly not twinned. Many accidents occur on this highway. Many state highways connect Palmas to all directions of the state. Paved highways are exception, not the rule. In many remoter locations, roads are unpaved.

Railway


There is no passenger rail service to Palmas. Newly constructed 'North-South Railway' (Ferrovia Norte-Sul), is near Palmas, and is intended to alleviate Brazil's heavy truck traffic and to carry bulk goods to ports in North-Eastern Brazil.

Sports


In sports, the most notable football club in the city is Palmas FR
Palmas Futebol e Regatas
Palmas Futebol e Regatas, usually known simply as Palmas, is a Brazilian football club from Palmas, Tocantins state.-History:Palmas Futebol e Regatas was founded on January 31, 1997, after borrowing Canelas documentation, which was already regularized at Tocantins Football Federation, thus,...

, which plays at the Nilton Santos Stadium. Palmas has several sports and entertainment clubs, with swimming pools, other sports and cultural programs, clubs such as AABB and SESC.

External links