Ketose

Ketose

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A ketose is a sugar
Sugar
Sugar is a class of edible crystalline carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose, characterized by a sweet flavor.Sucrose in its refined form primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet...

 containing one ketone
Ketone
In organic chemistry, a ketone is an organic compound with the structure RCR', where R and R' can be a variety of atoms and groups of atoms. It features a carbonyl group bonded to two other carbon atoms. Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology...

 group per molecule
Molecule
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of at least two atoms held together by covalent chemical bonds. Molecules are distinguished from ions by their electrical charge...

.

With 3 carbon
Carbon
Carbon is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds...

 atoms, dihydroxyacetone
Dihydroxyacetone
Dihydroxyacetone , or DHA, also known as glycerone, is a simple carbohydrate with formula .DHA is primarily used as an ingredient in sunless tanning products. It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, and by the fermentation of glycerin.-Chemistry:DHA is a...

 is the simplest of all ketoses and is the only one having no optical activity. Ketoses can isomer
Isomer
In chemistry, isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have the same functional groups. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, geometrical...

ize into an aldose
Aldose
An aldose is a monosaccharide that contains only one aldehyde group per molecule. The chemical formula takes the form Cnn. The simplest possible aldose is the diose glycolaldehyde, which only contains two carbon atoms....

 when the carbonyl group is located at the end of the molecule. Such ketoses are reducing sugar
Reducing sugar
A reducing sugar is any sugar that either has an aldehyde group or is capable of forming one in solution through isomerisation. This functional group allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent, for example in the Tollens' test or Benedict's test.-Chemistry:...

s.

List of ketoses


All ketoses listed here are 2-ketones:
  • Triose
    Triose
    A triose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, containing three carbon atoms. There are only three possible trioses: L-Glyceraldehyde and D-Glyceraldehyde, both aldotrioses because the carbonyl group is at the end of the chain, and dihydroxyacetone, a ketotriose because the carbonyl group is in...

    s: dihydroxyacetone
    Dihydroxyacetone
    Dihydroxyacetone , or DHA, also known as glycerone, is a simple carbohydrate with formula .DHA is primarily used as an ingredient in sunless tanning products. It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, and by the fermentation of glycerin.-Chemistry:DHA is a...

  • Tetrose
    Tetrose
    A tetrose is a monosaccharide with 4 carbon atoms. They have either an aldehyde functional group in position 1 or a ketone functional group in position 2 ....

    s: erythrulose
    Erythrulose
    D-Erythrulose is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. It has one ketone group and so is part of the ketose family...

  • Pentose
    Pentose
    A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. Pentoses are organized into two groups. Aldopentoses have an aldehyde functional group at position 1...

    s: ribulose
    Ribulose
    Ribulose is a ketopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group. It has chemical formula 5105. Two enantiomers are possible, D-ribulose and L-ribulose . D-Ribulose is the diastereomer of D-xylulose.Ribulose sugars are composed in the...

    , xylulose
    Xylulose
    Xylulose is a ketopentose, a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group. It has the chemical formula 5105. In nature, it occurs in both the L- and D-enantiomers.- Pathology :...

  • Hexose
    Hexose
    In organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6. Hexoses are classified by functional group, with aldohexoses having an aldehyde at position 1, and ketohexoses having a ketone at position 2....

    s: fructose
    Fructose
    Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847...

    , psicose
    Psicose
    D-Psicose is an ultralow-energy monosaccharide sugar. It is a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, and is present in small quantities in agricultural products and commercially-prepared carbohydrate complexes. It is known as a "rare sugar" because it is rarely found in nature, and even when found, only in...

    , sorbose
    Sorbose
    Sorbose is a ketose belonging to the group of sugars known as monosaccharides. It has a sweetness that is equivalent to sucrose . The commercial production of vitamin C often begins with sorbose. L-Sorbose is the configuration of the naturally occurring sugar....

    , tagatose
    Tagatose
    Tagatose is a functional sweetener. It is a naturally occurring monosaccharide, specifically a hexose. It is often found in dairy products, and is very similar in texture to sucrose and is 92% as sweet, but with only 38% of the calories....

  • Heptose
    Heptose
    A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms.They have either an aldehyde functional group in position 1 or a ketone functional group in position 2 ....

    s: sedoheptulose
    Sedoheptulose
    Sedoheptulose or D-altro-heptulose is a ketoheptose — a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms and a ketone functional group. It is one of the few heptoses found in nature....

  • Octose
    Octose
    An octose is a monosaccharide with eight carbons....

    s: D-manno-octulose (the basis for Kdo)
  • Nonose
    Nonose
    -Example nonoses:* Neuraminic acid* Sialic acid* Legionaminic acid* Pseudaminic acid...

    s: D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulose (the basis for Neu)