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Hachioji, Tokyo

Hachioji, Tokyo

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is a city
Cities of Japan
||A is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as and , with the difference that they are not a component of...

 located in Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, about 40 kilometers west of the center of the special wards of Tokyo
Special wards of Tokyo
The are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. Together, they occupy the land that was the city of Tokyo before it was abolished in 1943. The special wards' structure was established under the Japanese Local Autonomy Law and is unique to...

.

As of January 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population
Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals...

 of 551,901 and a population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 of 2,962.27/km². The total area is 186.31 km². It is the eighth largest city in the Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area
The Greater Tokyo Area is a large metropolitan area in Kantō region, Japan, consisting of most of the prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Tokyo . In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, including the , , and others....

. The city is surrounded on three sides by mountains, forming the Hachiōji Basin which opens up toward the east in the direction of Tokyo. The mountain ranges in the southwest include Mount Takao
Mount Takao
is a mountain in the city of Hachiōji, Tokyo, Japan. It is protected within Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park.Standing tall and located within an hour of downtown Tokyo, it is a popular hiking spot, with eight hiking courses and more than 2.5 million annual visitors...

 (599 m) and Mount Jinba
Mount Jinba
is located between Hachiōji, Tokyo and Fujino, Kanagawa Prefecture. Its peak is roughly 857 meters high....

 (857 m), two popular hiking destinations which can be reached by train and bus, respectively. Two major national roads, Route 16 (which connects Kawagoe
Kawagoe, Saitama
is a city located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, and is about a 30-minute train ride from Ikebukuro in Tokyo.As of July 1, 2011, the city has an estimated population of 343,926...

 in the north with Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

 in the south) and Route 20, the former Kōshū Kaidō
Koshu Kaido
The was one of the five routes of the Edo period and it was built to connect Edo with Kai Province in modern-day Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. The route continues from there to connect with the Nakasendō's Shimosuwa-shuku in Nagano Prefecture...

.

History


Although Hachiōji only gained city status on September 1, 1917, it has been an important junction point and post-town along the Kōshū Highway, the main road that connected the historical Edo
Edo
, also romanized as Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo, and was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868...

 (today's Tokyo) with Western Japan since medieval times, especially during the Edo period
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

. For a short period of time, a castle, existed in the area. It was built in 1584 by , but was soon destroyed in 1590 during General Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
was a daimyo warrior, general and politician of the Sengoku period. He unified the political factions of Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle...

's attempt to gain control over all of Japan. During the Meiji period
Meiji period
The , also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan.- Meiji Restoration and the emperor :...

, Hachiōji prospered as an important location for the production of silk and silk textiles. The industry faded away, however, in the 1960s. Today, Hachiōji mainly serves as a commuter town
Commuter town
A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commutes out to earn their livelihood. Many commuter towns act as suburbs of a nearby metropolis that workers travel to daily, and many suburbs are commuter towns...

 for people working in Tokyo, and as a location for many large colleges and universities.

During World War II, captured American airmen were beheaded with samurai swords in Hachiōji. When American pilots saw the published photos of the executions, they adopted the motto, "Save one for Hachioji", meaning hold back one bomb from their assigned bombing runs and drop it on Hachiōji. The destruction was so extensive that, for decades after the war, American military personnel were warned not to visit Hachiōji, because of the residual hostility to Americans.

During the 1964 Summer Olympics
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan in 1964. Tokyo had been awarded with the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honor was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's...

, the city played host to the road cycling
Cycling at the 1964 Summer Olympics
The cycling competition at the 1964 Summer Olympics consisted of two road cycling events and five track cycling events, all for men only. The 4000m individual pursuit event was introduced at these Games.-Medal table:-Medal summary:-References:*...

 events. A velodrome
Velodrome
A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights...

 in the city played host to the track cycling events.

Attractions


Hachiōji stretches over a vast area, combining such diverse parts as the densely populated city center and its shopping district with the hardly populated rural areas in the west. Mt. Takao (599m) is a very popular hiking destination in the southwest, easily accessible through the Keio Takao Line. It is famous for the and the Shingon Buddhist
Shingon Buddhism
is one of the mainstream major schools of Japanese Buddhism and one of the few surviving Esoteric Buddhist lineages that started in the 3rd to 4th century CE that originally spread from India to China through traveling monks such as Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra...

 temple . The Tama Forest Science Garden
Tama Forest Science Garden
The , formerly the Asakawa Experiment Forest and sometimes also known as the Tama Botanical Park, is an arboretum located at the foot of Mount Takao, 1833-81 Todori, Hachiōji, Tokyo, Japan. It is open daily except Mondays; an admission fee is charged....

 is also of interest. Mt. Jinba (855 m) is more difficult to reach, requiring a one-hour bus ride from the city center. It is popular, however, because of the scenic view toward Mt. Fuji.

Little remains of Hachiōji Castle
Hachioji Castle
is a yamashiro, or mountain-castle, located in Hachiōji, Tokyo, Japan.- History :Hachiōji Castle was built in the 1570s by Hojo Ujiteru. It was constructed on a mountain, with many features located in strategic positions to deter an enemy force...

. The houses the remains of the Taishō
Emperor Taishō
The was the 123rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912, until his death in 1926.The Emperor’s personal name was . According to Japanese customs, the emperor has no name during his reign and is only called the Emperor...

 and Shōwa
Hirohito
, posthumously in Japan officially called Emperor Shōwa or , was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, in Japan he is now referred to...

 emperors.

Transportation



The JR East
East Japan Railway Company
is the largest passenger railway company in the world and one of the seven Japan Railways Group companies. The company name is officially abbreviated as JR East in English, and as in Japanese. The company's headquarters are in Yoyogi, Shibuya, Tokyo....

 Chūō Main Line
Chuo Main Line
The , commonly called the Chūō Line, is one of the major trunk railway lines in Japan. It runs between Tokyo and Nagoya, although it is the slowest direct railway connection between the two cities; the coastal Tōkaidō Main Line is slightly faster, while the Tōkaidō Shinkansen is the fastest rail...

 and the Keiō Electric Railway provide rail service to Hachiōji: JR eastward to Shinjuku Station
Shinjuku Station
is a train station located in Shinjuku and Shibuya wards in Tokyo, Japan.Serving as the main connecting hub for rail traffic between central Tokyo and its western suburbs on inter-city rail, commuter rail and metro lines, the station was used by an average of 3.64 million people per day in 2007,...

 and Tokyo Station
Tokyo Station
is a train station located in the Marunouchi business district of Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan, near the Imperial Palace grounds and the Ginza commercial district....

, westward to Sagamiko
Sagamiko, Kanagawa
was a town located in Tsukui District, Kanagawa, Japan.On March 20, 2006 Sagamiko, along with the town of Tsukui, also from Tsukui District, was merged into the expanded city of Sagamihara, and thus no longer exists as an independent municipality...

 and Kōfu; Keiō to Shinjuku.

The Chūō Expressway
Chuo Expressway
The is a national expressway in Japan. It is owned and operated by Central Nippon Expressway Company.-Naming:Officially the expressway is designated as the Chūō Expressway Nishinomiya Route , the Chūō Expressway Nagano Route , and the Chūō Expressway Fujiyoshida Route The (lit. Central...

 is a divided
Dual carriageway
A dual carriageway is a class of highway with two carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation...

, limited-access toll road
Toll road
A toll road is a privately or publicly built road for which a driver pays a toll for use. Structures for which tolls are charged include toll bridges and toll tunnels. Non-toll roads are financed using other sources of revenue, most typically fuel tax or general tax funds...

 that serves Hachiōji, roughly parallel to the Chūō Line. Hachiōji also lies on Japanese National Route 16 and Route 20.

Education


The city operates its public elementary and junior high schools.

Public high schools are operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education
Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education is the board of education in Tokyo, Japan. The board manages the individual school systems within the metropolis. The board also directly manages all of the public high schools in Tokyo...

  • Fujimori High School
  • Hachiōji East High School
  • Hachiōji North High School
  • Hachiōji Soushi High School
  • Hachiōji Takushin High School
  • Hachiōji Technical High School
  • Katakura High School
  • Matsugaya High School
  • Minamitama High School
  • Shoyo High School


The metropolis operates the Hachiōji School for the Blind.

Nippon Engineering College is also in Hachiōji.

Universities

  • Chuo University
    Chuo University
    Chuo University is a one of the Japanese leading universities. Thus it is competitive in several rankings such as shown below.-General Rankings:The university has been ranked 27th, 25th, 34th during 2008-2010 respectively in the ranking "Truly Strong Universities" by Toyo Keizai.-Research...

  • Digital Hollywood University
    Digital Hollywood University
    is a private university in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1994, and it was chartered as a university in 2005....

  • Hosei University
    Hosei University
    is a private university based in Tokyo, Japan.The university originated in a school of law, Tōkyō Hōgakusha , established in 1880, and the following year renamed Tōkyō Hōgakkō . This was from 1883 headed by Dr. Gustave Emile Boissonade, and was heavily influenced by the French legal tradition...

     (Tama Campus)
  • Kogakuin University
    Kogakuin University
    is a private university in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan.The predecessor of the school initially named "Koshu Gattuko" which is one of the oldest private engineering schools in Japan, was founded in 1887 by educator and politician, The President of Tokyo Imperial University's President Koki Watanabe and...

  • Kyorin University
    Kyorin University
    is a private university located in the western part of Tokyo, Japan. Its two campuses are in Mitaka and Hachiō-ji, Tokyo. It was established in 1970...

     (Hachiōji Campus)
  • Meisei University
    Meisei University
    is a private university in Tokyo, Japan. The school's two campuses are in Hino and Ōme. It also offers correspondence courses which it introduced in 1967.-History:...

     (Hino Campus)
  • Nihon Bunka University
    Nihon Bunka University
    is a private university in Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan, established in 1978.-External links:*...

  • Soka University of Japan, which has a sister school in the USA, Soka University of America
    Soka University of America
    Soka University of America is a university located in Aliso Viejo, California, United States. It describes its mission as the fostering of a steady stream of global citizens committed to living a contributive life—with an emphasis on principles of pacifism, human rights, and the creative...

  • Tama Art University
    Tama Art University
    is a private university in Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1935 as a spinoff from what is today Musashino Art University...

     (Hachiōji Campus)
  • Takushoku University
    Takushoku University
    Takushoku University is a private university in Japan. It was founded in 1900 by Prince Taro Katsura . The university is located in Tokyo and has two campuses: the main campus in the Bunkyō district, and a satellite campus in the Hachiōji district...

     (Hachiōji Campus)
  • Teikyo University
    Teikyo University
    is a private university headquartered in the Itabashi ward of Tokyo, Japan. It was established in 1931 as Teikyo Commercial High School by Lee. It became Teikyo University in 1966...

     (Hachiōji Campus)
  • Tokyo Junshin Women's College
    Tokyo Junshin Women's College
    is a private women's college in Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1934, and it was chartered as a junior college in 1967. In 1996 it became a four-year college.-External links:*...

  • Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University
    Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University
    is a private university in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan, established in 1963. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1925.Though the two share the same historical roots , this school and Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin Junior College are distinct institutions....

     (Machida Campus)
  • Tokyo Metropolitan University
    Tokyo Metropolitan University
    Tokyo Metropolitan University is one of the largest public universities in Japan...

  • Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
    Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
    Established in 1949 as a national university, , nicknamed "Nōkōdai" or "TUAT", is a research-oriented national university with two campuses, one each located in the cities of Fuchū and Koganei, Tokyo....

  • Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences
  • Tokyo University of Technology
    Tokyo University of Technology
    is a private university in Hachiōji, Tokyo, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in May 1947. After becoming a vocational school in 1953, it was chartered as a university in 1986.-External links:* *...

     (Hachiōji Campus)
  • Tokyo Zokei University of Art and Design

External links