Chalcidice

Chalcidice

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Chalkidiki, also Halkidiki, Chalcidice or Chalkidike , is a peninsula
Peninsula
A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland. In many Germanic and Celtic languages and also in Baltic, Slavic and Hungarian, peninsulas are called "half-islands"....

 in northern Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, and one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Macedonia
Central Macedonia
Central Macedonia is one of the thirteen regions of Greece, consisting of the central part of the region of Macedonia. With a population of over 1.8 million, it is the second most populous in Greece after Attica.- Administration :...

. The autonomous Mount Athos
Mount Athos
Mount Athos is a mountain and peninsula in Macedonia, Greece. A World Heritage Site, it is home to 20 Eastern Orthodox monasteries and forms a self-governed monastic state within the sovereignty of the Hellenic Republic. Spiritually, Mount Athos comes under the direct jurisdiction of the...

 region is part of the peninsula, but not of the regional unit. The capital of Chalkidiki is the main town of Polygyros
Polygyros
Polygyros is a town and municipality in Central Macedonia, Greece. It is the capital of Chalkidiki.-Geography:Polygyros town is built in the shape of an amphitheatre on a plateau on the south west side of the mountain Cholomontas. It is south of Greek National Road 16...

, located in the centre of the peninsula.

Geography


The Cholomontas mountains lie in the northcentral part of Chalkidiki. Chalkidiki consists of a large peninsula in the northwestern Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

, resembling a hand with three "fingers" (though in Greek these peninsulas are often referred to as "legs") – Pallene
Pallene, Chalcidice
Pallene is the ancient name of the westernmost of the three headlands of Chalcidice, which run out into the Aegean Sea. Its modern name is Kassandra Peninsula . It is said to have anciently borne the name of Phlegra and to have witnessed the conflict between the gods and the earthborn Gigantes...

 (now Kassandra
Cassandreia
Cassandrea, Cassandreia, or Cassandria was once one of the most important cities in Ancient Macedonia founded by and named after Cassander in 316 BC located on the site of the earlier Ancient Greek city of Potidaea...

), Sithonia
Sithonia
Sithonia is a peninsula located south of the central part of Chalkidiki which is also in the south-central part of the Chalkidiki peninsula. The Kassandra Peninsula lies to the west and the Mount Athos peninsula at the east. Sithonia is also a municipality, covering the Sithonia peninsula...

, and Agion Oros (the ancient Acte), which contains Mount Athos
Mount Athos
Mount Athos is a mountain and peninsula in Macedonia, Greece. A World Heritage Site, it is home to 20 Eastern Orthodox monasteries and forms a self-governed monastic state within the sovereignty of the Hellenic Republic. Spiritually, Mount Athos comes under the direct jurisdiction of the...

 and its monasteries
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

. Chalkidiki borders on the regional unit of Thessaloniki to the north.

Its largest towns are Nea Moudania
Nea Moudania
Nea Moudania is the seat of the municipality of Nea Propontida, Chalkidiki, Greece and its main town. The town is located 60 km south of Thessaloniki and is considered to be the financial and commercial center of the peripheral unit of Chalkidiki...

 (Νέα Μουδανιά), Nea Kallikrateia (Νέα Καλλικράτεια) and the main town of Polygyros (Πολύγυρος).

There are many summer resorts on the beaches of all three fingers where other minor towns and villages are located, such as at Yerakini
Yerakini
Yerakini or Gerakini village lies on the Toroneos Gulf between the two fingers Kassandra and Sithonia in the Chalkidiki/Khalkidiki peninsula :Category:Peninsulas of Greece of the province Macedonia in Northern Greece, 80 kilometres from Thessaloniki, and 65 kilometres from the Thessaloniki...

 (Gerakina Beach), Neos Marmaras (Porto Carras
Porto Carras
Porto Carras , known as Porto Carras Grand Resort, is one of northern Greece's largest and most famous hotels and holiday resorts. It is located on Sithonia, Halkidiki peninsula in northern Greece. It is about 120 km away from Greece's second biggest city, Thessaloniki.Porto Carras was created...

), Ouranoupolis, Nikiti, Psakoudia, Kallithea (Pallene/Pallini, Athos), Sani Resort and more.

History


The first Greek settlers in this area came from Chalcis
Chalcis
Chalcis or Chalkida , the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, is situated on the strait of the Evripos at its narrowest point. The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek χαλκός , though there is no trace of any mines in the area...

 and Eretria
Eretria
Erétria was a polis in Ancient Greece, located on the western coast of the island of Euboea, south of Chalcis, facing the coast of Attica across the narrow Euboean Gulf. Eretria was an important Greek polis in the 6th/5th century BC. However, it lost its importance already in antiquity...

, cities in Euboea
Euboea
Euboea is the second largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow, seahorse-shaped island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to...

, around the 8th century BC who founded cities such as Mende, Toroni
Toroni
Toroni is an ancient Greek city and a former municipality in the southwest edge of Sithonia peninsula in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Sithonia, of which it is a municipal unit.-History:...

 and Scioni; a second wave came from Andros
Andros
Andros, or Andro is the northernmost island of the Greek Cyclades archipelago, approximately south east of Euboea, and about north of Tinos. It is nearly long, and its greatest breadth is . Its surface is for the most part mountainous, with many fruitful and well-watered valleys. The area is...

 in the 6th century BC. The ancient city of Stageira
Stageira
Stageira was an ancient Greek city on the Chalkidiki peninsula and is chiefly known for being the birthplace of Aristotle. The city lies approximately 8 kilometres north northeast of the present-day village of Stagira, close to the town of Olympiada....

 was the birthplace of the great philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology...

.

In June 2003, at the holiday resort Porto Carras
Porto Carras
Porto Carras , known as Porto Carras Grand Resort, is one of northern Greece's largest and most famous hotels and holiday resorts. It is located on Sithonia, Halkidiki peninsula in northern Greece. It is about 120 km away from Greece's second biggest city, Thessaloniki.Porto Carras was created...

 located in Neos Marmaras, Sithonia, European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 leaders presented the first draft of the European constitution. See History of the European Constitution for developments after this point.

Ancient sites








  • Acanthus
    Acanthus (Greece)
    Ierissos Modern Greek: or Acanthus was an ancient Greek city on the Athos peninsula. It was located on the north-east side of Akti, on the most eastern peninsula of Chalcidice...

  • Acrothoi
  • Aege
  • Alapta
  • Aphytis
  • Apollonia (Chalcidice)
    Apollonia (Chalcidice)
    Apollonia was the ancient chief town of Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated north of Olynthus, and a little south of the Chalcidian mountains. That this Apollonia is a different place from Apollonia in Mygdonia, appears from Xenophon, who describes the Chalcidian Apollonia as distant 10 or 12 miles...

  • Charadrus
    Charadrus
    Charadrus was a Catholic titular see of Asia Minor. According to Strabo and Pseudo-Scylax it was a harbour and fortress in Cilicia Tracheia , between Anemurium and Antioch, The Greek name is Charadros or Charadrous, still retained in the name Kalandran.Nounechios , Bishop of Charadrus, was present...

  • Cleonae (Chalcidice)
    Cleonae (Chalcidice)
    Cleonae or Cleonæ or Kleonai was an ancient city on the Akte peninsula , on its western coast, northwest of Thyssos . Mentioned by Strabo, it was colonized by Euboean colonists from Chalcis....

  • Galepsus
    Galepsus
    Galepsus was an ancient Greek city on the peninsula of Sithonia, the central peninsula of the Chalcidice, in Thrace. It was probably located on a hill about 8 km to the north of Torone and about 17 km from Amphipolis. It belonged to Delian League. It was founded as a colony of Thasos...

  • Mekyberna
  • Mende
    Mende (Greece)
    Mende was an ancient Greek city located in the western coast of Pallene peninsula in Chalkidiki facing the coast of Pieria across the narrow Thermaic Gulf near the modern town of Kalandra.- Ancient History :...

  • Neapolis, Chalcidice
    Neapolis, Chalcidice
    Neapolis meaning "New City", was an ancient city on east coast of the isthmus the Pallene, Chalcidice, Greece between Aphytis and Aege. It is usually identified with the modern town of Polychrono, in Pallini municipality, Chalkidiki prefecture....

  • Olophyxus
  • Olynthus
    Olynthus
    Olynthus was an ancient city of Chalcidice, built mostly on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, about 2.5 kilometers from the sea, and about 60 stadia Olynthus was an ancient city of...

  • Palaiochori "Neposi" castle
    Palaiochori, Chalkidiki
    Palaiochori is a village in Chalkidiki, Greece, part of the municipality Arnaia. It is situated between the villages Neochori , Megali Panagia and Arnaia .-History:Neposi Castle...

  • Polichne
  • Potidaea
    Potidaea
    Potidaea was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point of the peninsula of Pallene, the westernmost of three peninsulas at the southern end of Chalcidice in northern Greece....

  • Scione
  • Scolus
  • Sermylia
  • Stageira
    Stageira
    Stageira was an ancient Greek city on the Chalkidiki peninsula and is chiefly known for being the birthplace of Aristotle. The city lies approximately 8 kilometres north northeast of the present-day village of Stagira, close to the town of Olympiada....

  • Spartolus
  • Thyssus
  • Torone
    Toroni
    Toroni is an ancient Greek city and a former municipality in the southwest edge of Sithonia peninsula in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Sithonia, of which it is a municipal unit.-History:...


Administration


The regional unit Chalkidiki is subdivided into five municipalities. These are (number as in the map in the infobox):
  • Aristotelis
    Aristotelis (municipality)
    Aristotelis is a municipality in the Chalkidiki peripheral unit, Central Macedonia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Ierissos. The municipality is named after the ancient philosopher Aristotle, whose birthplace, Stageira, lies within its bounds....

     (2)
  • Kassandra (4)
  • Nea Propontida
    Nea Propontida
    Nea Propontida is a municipality in the Chalkidiki peripheral unit, Central Macedonia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Nea Moudania.-Municipality:...

     (3)
  • Polygyros
    Polygyros
    Polygyros is a town and municipality in Central Macedonia, Greece. It is the capital of Chalkidiki.-Geography:Polygyros town is built in the shape of an amphitheatre on a plateau on the south west side of the mountain Cholomontas. It is south of Greek National Road 16...

     (1)
  • Sithonia
    Sithonia
    Sithonia is a peninsula located south of the central part of Chalkidiki which is also in the south-central part of the Chalkidiki peninsula. The Kassandra Peninsula lies to the west and the Mount Athos peninsula at the east. Sithonia is also a municipality, covering the Sithonia peninsula...

     (5)

Prefecture


As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Chalkidiki was created out of the former prefecture Chalkidiki . The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below.
New municipality Old municipalities Seat
Aristotelis
Aristotelis (municipality)
Aristotelis is a municipality in the Chalkidiki peripheral unit, Central Macedonia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Ierissos. The municipality is named after the ancient philosopher Aristotle, whose birthplace, Stageira, lies within its bounds....

Arnaia
Arnaia
Arnaia is a town and a former municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Aristotelis, of which it is a municipal unit...

 
Ierissos
Panagia
Stagira-Akanthos
Stagira-Akanthos
Stagira-Akanthos is a former municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Aristotelis, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 8,781 . The seat of the former municipality was in Ierissos, which is also the seat of the municipality...

Kassandra Kassandra  Kassandreia
Pallini
Nea Propontida
Nea Propontida
Nea Propontida is a municipality in the Chalkidiki peripheral unit, Central Macedonia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Nea Moudania.-Municipality:...

Kallikrateia
Kallikrateia
Kallikrateia is a municipal unity in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality of Nea Propontida, before which it was a municipality with its seat in Nea Kallikrateia...

 
Nea Moudania
Moudania
Moudania, Greece
Moudania is a former municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece, named after Mudanya in present Turkey. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Nea Propontida, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 17,032 . The seat of the municipality was in Nea Moudania...

Triglia
Triglia
Triglia is a former municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Nea Propontida, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 5,888 . The seat of the municipality was in Nea Triglia....

Polygyros
Polygyros
Polygyros is a town and municipality in Central Macedonia, Greece. It is the capital of Chalkidiki.-Geography:Polygyros town is built in the shape of an amphitheatre on a plateau on the south west side of the mountain Cholomontas. It is south of Greek National Road 16...

Polygyros
Polygyros
Polygyros is a town and municipality in Central Macedonia, Greece. It is the capital of Chalkidiki.-Geography:Polygyros town is built in the shape of an amphitheatre on a plateau on the south west side of the mountain Cholomontas. It is south of Greek National Road 16...

 
Polygyros
Anthemountas
Anthemountas
Anthemountas is a former municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Polygyros, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 4,540 . The seat of the municipality was in Galatista....

Zervochoria
Zervochoria
Zervochoria is a former municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Polygyros, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 3,146 . The seat of the municipality was in Palaiochora....

Ormylia
Ormylia
Ormylia is a town and a former municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Polygyros, of which it is a municipal unit. In 2001 Ormylia had a population of 4,745....

Sithonia
Sithonia
Sithonia is a peninsula located south of the central part of Chalkidiki which is also in the south-central part of the Chalkidiki peninsula. The Kassandra Peninsula lies to the west and the Mount Athos peninsula at the east. Sithonia is also a municipality, covering the Sithonia peninsula...

Sithonia
Sithonia
Sithonia is a peninsula located south of the central part of Chalkidiki which is also in the south-central part of the Chalkidiki peninsula. The Kassandra Peninsula lies to the west and the Mount Athos peninsula at the east. Sithonia is also a municipality, covering the Sithonia peninsula...

 
Nikiti
Toroni
Toroni
Toroni is an ancient Greek city and a former municipality in the southwest edge of Sithonia peninsula in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Sithonia, of which it is a municipal unit.-History:...


Provinces

  • Province of Chalkidiki - Polygyros
  • Province of Arnaia
    Arnaia
    Arnaia is a town and a former municipality in Chalkidiki, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Aristotelis, of which it is a municipal unit...


Note: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

.

Transport

  • GR-18, NW, W, SW, Cen., NE
  • Chalkidiki has no railroads
    Rail transport
    Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

     or airports.
  • A bus system, KTEL, serves major municipalities.

Notable inhabitants

  • Paeonius
    Paeonius
    Paeonius of Mende in Macedonia was a Greek sculptor of the late 5th century BC. The only work that can be definitely attributed to him is the statue of Nike discovered at Olympia...

     of Mende
    Mende (Greece)
    Mende was an ancient Greek city located in the western coast of Pallene peninsula in Chalkidiki facing the coast of Pieria across the narrow Thermaic Gulf near the modern town of Kalandra.- Ancient History :...

     (late 5th c. BC), sculptor
  • Philippus of Mende, Plato
    Plato
    Plato , was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the...

    's student, astronomer
  • Nicomachus
    Nicomachus (father of Aristotle)
    Nicomachus , lived c. 375 BC, was the father of Aristotle.The Suda states that he was a doctor descended from Nicomachus, son of Machaon the son of Asclepius. Greenhill notes he had another son named Arimnestus, and a daughter named Arimneste, by his wife Phaestis, or Phaestias, who was also...

    , Aristotle
    Aristotle
    Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology...

    's father
  • Aristobulus of Cassandreia
    Aristobulus of Cassandreia
    For other use, see AristobulusAristobulus of Cassandreia , Greek historian, son of Aristobulus, probably a Phocian settled inCassandreia, accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns...

     (375 - 301 BC), historian, architect
  • Aristotle
    Aristotle
    Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology...

     (384 BC in Stageira
    Stageira
    Stageira was an ancient Greek city on the Chalkidiki peninsula and is chiefly known for being the birthplace of Aristotle. The city lies approximately 8 kilometres north northeast of the present-day village of Stagira, close to the town of Olympiada....

    -322 BC), philosopher
  • Callisthenes
    Callisthenes
    Callisthenes of Olynthus was a Greek historian. He was the son of Hero and Proxenus of Atarneus, which made him the great nephew of Aristotle by his sister Arimneste. They first met when Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great...

     (360-328 BC), historian
  • Crates of Olynthus, Alexander's hydraulic engineer
  • Andronicus the Olynthian (c.370 BC) Phrourarchus of Tyre, appointed by Antigonus
  • Bubalus of Cassandreia 304 BC keles(horse) flat race Lykaia
  • Poseidippus of Cassandreia
    Poseidippus of Cassandreia
    Posidippus of Cassandreia , Poseidippos, 316 BC – ca. 250 BC) son of Cyniscus, a Macedonian who lived in Athens, was a celebrated comic poet of the New Comedy. He produced his first play in the third year after Menander had died, . Cooks held an important position in his list of characters...

     (3rd c.BC), comic poet
  • Erginus (son of Simylus) from Cassandreia, citharede winner in Soteria
    Soteria (festival)
    The Soteria were ancient festivals held in many Greek cities from the 3rd century BC. They honoured the saviour of a danger and could be dedicated to all the gods or only one . Heroic men regarded as deliverers were sometimes associated to the divinities, e.g. Aratus at Sicyon.The most famous...

      c.260 BC
  • Athanasios Stageiritis, professor of Greek language at the Royal Academy in Vienna
    Austrian Academy of Sciences
    The Austrian Academy of Sciences is a legal entity under the special protection of the Federal Republic of Austria. According to the statutes of the Academy its mission is to promote the sciences and humanities in every respect and in every field, particularly in fundamental research...

    . Publisher of the fortnightly literary journal "Kalliope" in Vienna from 1819 to 1821
  • Stamatios Chapsas, revolutionary of the Greek War of Independence
    Greek War of Independence
    The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between...

     (1821–1830)
  • Kyrkos Papageorgakis, revolutionary of the Greek War of Independence
    Greek War of Independence
    The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between...

     (1821–1830)
  • Archbishop Demetrios of America
  • Georgios Papanikolaou (1875 in Polygyros
    Polygyros
    Polygyros is a town and municipality in Central Macedonia, Greece. It is the capital of Chalkidiki.-Geography:Polygyros town is built in the shape of an amphitheatre on a plateau on the south west side of the mountain Cholomontas. It is south of Greek National Road 16...

     - 1949), doctor, author, fighter of Greek Struggle for Macedonia
    Greek Struggle for Macedonia
    The Macedonian Struggle was a series of social, political, cultural and military conflicts between Greeks and Bulgarians in the region of Ottoman Macedonia between 1904 and 1908...

     and founder of the pan-chalcidikian association of Thessaloniki (1903)
  • Sokratis Malamas
    Sokratis Malamas
    Sokratis Malamas is a Greek singer and songwriter.One of the great songwriters of his generation with a very personal and identifiable musical style in his narrative songs....

     (1957 in Sykia), singer
  • Manolis Mitsias (1944 in Doumpia), singer
  • Christos Zabounis, a pro-royalist author and editor

See also

  • Chalkidian League
    Chalkidian League
    The Chalkidian League was a federal state that existed on the shores of the north west Aegean from around 430 BCE until it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 BCE.-History:...

  • List of settlements in the Chalkidiki prefecture