The Treaty of Holston
was a treaty between the United States government and the Cherokee
The Cherokee are a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States . Linguistically, they are part of the Iroquoian language family...
signed on July 2, 1791 and proclaimed on February 7, 1792. It was signed by William Blount
William Blount, was a United States statesman. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention for North Carolina, the first and only governor of the Southwest Territory, and Democratic-Republican Senator from Tennessee . He played a major role in establishing the state of Tennessee. He was the...
, governor in and over the territory of the United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...
south of the Ohio River
The Ohio River is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River. At the confluence, the Ohio is even bigger than the Mississippi and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream...
, and superintendent of Indian
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...
affairs for the southern district for the United States and various representatives of the Cherokee peoples. The treaty established terms of relations between the United States and the Cherokee, and established that the Cherokee tribes were to fall under the protection
In history, the term protectorate has two different meanings. In its earliest inception, which has been adopted by modern international law, it is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity...
of the United States, with the United States managing all future foreign affairs for all the loosely affiliated Cherokee tribes.
A monument to the treaty is located on the banks of the Tennessee River in downtown Knoxville, TN
Founded in 1786, Knoxville is the third-largest city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, U.S.A., behind Memphis and Nashville, and is the county seat of Knox County. It is the largest city in East Tennessee, and the second-largest city in the Appalachia region...
This treaty mentions the following:
- Establishment of perpetual peace and friendship between the two peoples.
- Cherokees acknowledge protection of United States.
- Prisoners of war to be restored.
- Boundaries established between the Cherokee lands and the United States.
- Stipulation of a road by the United States.
- United States to regulate trade.
- Guarantees by the United States that the lands of the Cherokee people have not been ceded to the United States.
- No U.S. citizens may settle within the Cherokee lands; those who do may be punished by the Cherokee.
- No U.S. citizens may hunt within the Cherokee lands.
- The Cherokee must deliver up criminals to the United States.
- U.S. citizens committing crime
Crime is the breach of rules or laws for which some governing authority can ultimately prescribe a conviction...
s within the Cherokee areas are to be punished.
- Retaliation restrained by both nations.
- Cherokees to give notice of pending attacks by other tribes against the United States.
- United States to make presents to the Cherokees for the promotion of having the Cherokees take up an agrarian culture.
- Both peoples to cease any animosities held against each other.
An addendum to treaty was signed by Henry Knox
Henry Knox was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, and also served as the first United States Secretary of War....
, Secretary of War, representing the United States and representatives of the Cherokee on February 17, 1792, and proclaimed on the same day, which increased the annuities
The term annuity is used in finance theory to refer to any terminating stream of fixed payments over a specified period of time. This usage is most commonly seen in discussions of finance, usually in connection with the valuation of the stream of payments, taking into account time value of money...
paid by the United States to the Cherokee leaders.