Southern Han

Southern Han

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Southern Han was a kingdom
Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. In some cases, the monarch is elected...

 that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms was between 907–960/979 AD and an era of political upheaval in China, between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the founding of the Song Dynasty. During this period, five dynasties quickly succeeded one another in the north, and more than 12 independent states were...

 (907
907
Year 907 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* Oleg leads the Kievan Rus' in a campaign against Constantinople ....

-960
960
Year 960 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Edgar the Peaceable is crowned King of England. Dunstan becomes Archbishop of Canterbury and Edgar's chief adviser. He reforms monasteries and enforces the rule of Saint Benedict: Poverty, Chastity and Obedience for...

) along China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

’s southern coast from 917
917
Year 917 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Great Yue Kingdom, later renamed Southern Han, is founded by Liu Yan in Guangdong and Guangxi.- Europe :...

 to 971
971
Year 971 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Kenneth II of Scotland succeeds Culen as King, though he will not be sole king until 977....

. The Kingdom greatly expanded her capital city Hing Wong Fu (興王府, pinyin: Xìngwángfǔ), namely present-day Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

. Not only did it have interaction with other Chinese kingdoms, but due to its location, it also had relations with the Viet (Traditional Chinese: 越) people to the south.

Founding of the Southern Han


Liu Yin
Liu Yin (Southern Han)
Liu Yin , formally Prince Xiang of Nanhai , later further posthumously honored Emperor Xiang with the temple name of Liezong by his younger brother Liu Yan, was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Tang's succeeding dynasty Later Liang Dynasty of the Five Dynasties and Ten...

, was named regional governor and military officer by the Tang
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 court in 905
905
Year 905 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.- Africa :* The Abbasid Caliphate re-establishes control of Egypt from the Tulunids.- Asia :...

. Though the Tang fell two years later, Liu did not declare himself the founder of a new kingdom as other southern leaders had done. He merely inherited the title of Prince of Nanping in 909
909
Year 909 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Africa :* The Aghlabid dynasty in North Africa is overthrown by the Fatimids....

.

It was not until Liu Yin’s death in 917
917
Year 917 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Great Yue Kingdom, later renamed Southern Han, is founded by Liu Yan in Guangdong and Guangxi.- Europe :...

 that his brother, Liu Yan
Liu Yan (Southern Han)
Liu Yan was King of Nanhan, China and later declared himself the emperor of the Southern Han Kingdom during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China.-Rise to power:...

, declared the founding of a new kingdom, which he initially called "Great Yue" (大越), but he changed the name to Great Han (大漢) next year (918
918
Year 918 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* Taebong has been overthrown, and Goryeo established in the Korean peninsula, when Wang Kon ascends the throne at Cheorwon.* The Khitan empire's government occupies a newly walled capital city called Shangjing,...

). It was because his surname Liu (劉) was the imperial surname of the Han dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 and he claimed himself a descendant of that famous dynasty. The kingdom is often referred as the Southern Han Dynasty throughout China's history.

Territorial extent


With its capital at present-day Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

, the domains of the kingdom spread along the coastal regions of present-day Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

, Guangxi
Guangxi
Guangxi, formerly romanized Kwangsi, is a province of southern China along its border with Vietnam. In 1958, it became the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, a region with special privileges created specifically for the Zhuang people.Guangxi's location, in...

 , Hanoi
Hanoi
Hanoi , is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam...

 and the island of Hainan
Hainan
Hainan is the smallest province of the People's Republic of China . Although the province comprises some two hundred islands scattered among three archipelagos off the southern coast, of its land mass is Hainan Island , from which the province takes its name...

. It not only had borders with the kingdoms of Min
Min (Ten Kingdoms)
Min was one of the Ten Kingdoms which was in existence between the years of 909 and 945. It existed in a mountainous region of modern day Fujian province of China and had a history of quasi-independent rule. Its capital was Fuzhou 福州. It was founded by Wang Shenzhi .-Founding:Wang Shenzhi’s older...

, Chu
Chu (Ten Kingdoms)
Chǔ was a kingdom in southern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period . It existed from 907 to 951.-Founding:Ma Yin was named regional governor by the Tang court in 896 after fighting against a rebel named Yang Xingmi. He declared himself as the Prince of Chu with the fall of the...

 and the Southern Tang
Southern Tang
Southern Tang was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-975. Southern Tang replaced the Wu Kingdom when Li Bian deposed the emperor Yang Pu....

, they also bordered the non-Chinese kingdoms of Dali
Kingdom of Dali
Dali or Great Li was a Bai kingdom centred in what is now Yunnan Province of China. Established by Duan Siping in 937, it was ruled by a succession of 22 kings until the year 1253, when it was conquered by an invasion of the Mongol Empire. The capital city was at Dali.- History :The Kingdom of...

. The Southern Tang
Southern Tang
Southern Tang was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-975. Southern Tang replaced the Wu Kingdom when Li Bian deposed the emperor Yang Pu....

 occupied all of the northern boundary of the Southern Han after Min
Min (Ten Kingdoms)
Min was one of the Ten Kingdoms which was in existence between the years of 909 and 945. It existed in a mountainous region of modern day Fujian province of China and had a history of quasi-independent rule. Its capital was Fuzhou 福州. It was founded by Wang Shenzhi .-Founding:Wang Shenzhi’s older...

 and Chu
Chu (Ten Kingdoms)
Chǔ was a kingdom in southern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period . It existed from 907 to 951.-Founding:Ma Yin was named regional governor by the Tang court in 896 after fighting against a rebel named Yang Xingmi. He declared himself as the Prince of Chu with the fall of the...

 were conquered by the Southern Tang
Southern Tang
Southern Tang was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-975. Southern Tang replaced the Wu Kingdom when Li Bian deposed the emperor Yang Pu....

 in 945
945
Year 945 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Buwayhid Dynasty takes control of Baghdad ....

 and 951
951
Year 951 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* The king of Italy dies and his widow, Adelaide of Italy, is overthrown by an usurper, Berengar of Ivrea.- Asia :...

 respectively.

Relations with Vietnam


While the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 was strong, the region of the present-day Vietnam remain a stable, secure part of the Viet domains. However, as the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 was weakening late in the ninth century, the Viet sought to regain control over their own affairs. Hanoi
Hanoi
Hanoi , is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam...

, which had developed as a political center during the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

, was the center of an early Vietnamese polity.

The Southern Han sought to bring the Viet into the Tang's orbit; however, their invasion was unsuccessful and was repelled. In 939
939
Year 939 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Edmund I of England succeeds to the throne of England.* The Arabs lose Madrid to the Kingdom of Leon....

, The Viet in the Chinese province of Annam
Annam (Chinese Province)
Annam or Jiaozhi was the southernmost province of the Chinese Empire. It is now part of present-day Vietnam...

, under the leadership of Ngo Quyen
Ngo Quyen
Ngô Quyền was a Vietnamese prefect and general during the Southern Han Dynasty occupation of Giao Châu in the Red River Valley in what is now northern Vietnam...

 (吳權) redeclared independence. He named the country Great Viet (Traditional Chinese: 大越, Vietnamese: Đại Việt).

Fall of the Southern Han


The Five Dynasties ended in 960
960
Year 960 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Edgar the Peaceable is crowned King of England. Dunstan becomes Archbishop of Canterbury and Edgar's chief adviser. He reforms monasteries and enforces the rule of Saint Benedict: Poverty, Chastity and Obedience for...

 when the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 was founded to replace the Later Zhou Dynasty
Later Zhou Dynasty
The Later Zhou Dynasty was the last a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty.-Founding of the Dynasty:Guo Wei, a Han...

. From that point, the new Song
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 rulers set themselves about to continue the reunification process set in motion by the Later Zhou Dynasty
Later Zhou Dynasty
The Later Zhou Dynasty was the last a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty.-Founding of the Dynasty:Guo Wei, a Han...

. Through the 960s and 970s, the Song
Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese government to establish a...

 increased its influence in the south until finally it was able to force the Southern Han dynasty to submit to its rule in 971
971
Year 971 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Kenneth II of Scotland succeeds Culen as King, though he will not be sole king until 977....

.

Rulers

Sovereigns in the Southern Han Kingdom 917
917
Year 917 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Great Yue Kingdom, later renamed Southern Han, is founded by Liu Yan in Guangdong and Guangxi.- Europe :...

-971
971
Year 971 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Kenneth II of Scotland succeeds Culen as King, though he will not be sole king until 977....

Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Gao Zu [高祖 gao1 zu3] Tian Huang Da Di [天皇大帝 tian1 huang2 da4 di4] Liu Yan
Liu Yan (Southern Han)
Liu Yan was King of Nanhan, China and later declared himself the emperor of the Southern Han Kingdom during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China.-Rise to power:...

 [劉巖 liu2 yan2], or Liu Yan [劉龑 liu2 yan3] after 926
917
917
Year 917 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Great Yue Kingdom, later renamed Southern Han, is founded by Liu Yan in Guangdong and Guangxi.- Europe :...

-941
941
Year 941 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Births :* Charles d'Outremer, son of Louis IV of France* Brian Bórumha mac Cennétig, High-King of Ireland...

Qianheng (乾亨 qian2 heng1) 917
917
Year 917 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* The Great Yue Kingdom, later renamed Southern Han, is founded by Liu Yan in Guangdong and Guangxi.- Europe :...

-925
925
Year 925 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Alfonso IV the Monk becomes king of Leon....



Bailong (白龍 bai2 long2) 925
925
Year 925 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Alfonso IV the Monk becomes king of Leon....

-928
928
Year 928 was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* Dao Kang Di succeeds Gong Hui Di and is followed in the same year by Tai Zu, all of the Dali Gu Dynasty in southeast China.* Jayavarman IV succeeds Isanavarman II in the Khmer Empire, and moves the capital north from...



Dayou (大有 da4 you3) 928
928
Year 928 was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* Dao Kang Di succeeds Gong Hui Di and is followed in the same year by Tai Zu, all of the Dali Gu Dynasty in southeast China.* Jayavarman IV succeeds Isanavarman II in the Khmer Empire, and moves the capital north from...

-941
941
Year 941 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Births :* Charles d'Outremer, son of Louis IV of France* Brian Bórumha mac Cennétig, High-King of Ireland...

Did not exist Shang Di [殤帝 shang1 di4] Liu Bin [劉玢 liu2 bin1] 941
941
Year 941 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Births :* Charles d'Outremer, son of Louis IV of France* Brian Bórumha mac Cennétig, High-King of Ireland...

-943
943
Year 943 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* Rebellion of the Zenete Berber tribe of the Banû Ifrân under Abu Yazid against the Fatimid dynasty ....

Guangtian [光天 guang1 tian1] 941
941
Year 941 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Births :* Charles d'Outremer, son of Louis IV of France* Brian Bórumha mac Cennétig, High-King of Ireland...

-943
943
Year 943 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* Rebellion of the Zenete Berber tribe of the Banû Ifrân under Abu Yazid against the Fatimid dynasty ....

Zhong Zong [中宗 zhong1 zong1] Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Cheng [劉晟 liu2 cheng2] 943
943
Year 943 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* Rebellion of the Zenete Berber tribe of the Banû Ifrân under Abu Yazid against the Fatimid dynasty ....

-958
958
Year 958 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* The Fatimid general Gawhar al-Siqilli takes the capital of the rebellious Kharijite Banu Ya'la tribesmen, Ifgan. Gawhar in the following two years conquers most of the North of modern Morocco and Algeria...

Yingqian [應乾 ying4 qian2] 943
943
Year 943 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* Rebellion of the Zenete Berber tribe of the Banû Ifrân under Abu Yazid against the Fatimid dynasty ....



Qianhe [乾和 qian4 he2] 943
943
Year 943 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* Rebellion of the Zenete Berber tribe of the Banû Ifrân under Abu Yazid against the Fatimid dynasty ....

-958
958
Year 958 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* The Fatimid general Gawhar al-Siqilli takes the capital of the rebellious Kharijite Banu Ya'la tribesmen, Ifgan. Gawhar in the following two years conquers most of the North of modern Morocco and Algeria...

Hou Zhu [後主 hou4 zhu3] Did not exist Liu Chang
Liu Chang
Liu Chang was the last King of the Kingdom of Southern Han during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in southern coastal China.-Life:...

 [劉鋹 liu2 chang3]
958
958
Year 958 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* The Fatimid general Gawhar al-Siqilli takes the capital of the rebellious Kharijite Banu Ya'la tribesmen, Ifgan. Gawhar in the following two years conquers most of the North of modern Morocco and Algeria...

-971
971
Year 971 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Kenneth II of Scotland succeeds Culen as King, though he will not be sole king until 977....

Dabao [大寶 da4 bao3] 958
958
Year 958 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.-Africa:* The Fatimid general Gawhar al-Siqilli takes the capital of the rebellious Kharijite Banu Ya'la tribesmen, Ifgan. Gawhar in the following two years conquers most of the North of modern Morocco and Algeria...

-971
971
Year 971 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Europe :* Kenneth II of Scotland succeeds Culen as King, though he will not be sole king until 977....


External links