Leitha

Leitha

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The Leitha is a river in Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

 with a length of approximately 180 km. It is formed in eastern Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 at the confluence of two headstreams (Schwarza
Schwarza (Leitha)
The Schwarza is a river in Lower Austria. It is a headstream of the River Leitha.- Course :It rises on the saddle of Rohrer Sattel, flows through the Höllental gorge and the Schwarza valley. Near Haderswörth in the parish of Lanzenkirchen the Schwarza combines with the Pitten and is then called the...

and Pitten). Between Ebenfurth
Ebenfurth
Ebenfurth is a municipality in the district of Wiener Neustadt-Land in Lower Austria, Austria.- Neiboughring municipalities :* Neufeld an der Leitha , Hornstein* Eggendorf, Zillingdorf, Lichtenwörth...

 and Leithaprodersdorf
Leithaprodersdorf
Leithaprodersdorf, also is an Austrian town located in the Eisenstadt-Umgebung district of the state of Burgenland. The town is located on Burgenland's northern border with Lower Austria, near the state capital of Eisenstadt....

, and between Bruck an der Leitha
Bruck an der Leitha
Bruck an der Leitha is a city located in Lower Austria, Austria at the border to the Burgenland, which is marked by the Leitha river....

 and Gattendorf
Gattendorf, Austria
Gattendorf is a town in the district of Neusiedl am See in Burgenland in Austria.Also known as Rauser to its Croat-speaking minority population....

, the Leitha forms part of the border between Lower Austria
Lower Austria
Lower Austria is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria. The capital of Lower Austria since 1986 is Sankt Pölten, the most recently designated capital town in Austria. The capital of Lower Austria had formerly been Vienna, even though Vienna is not officially part of Lower Austria...

 and Burgenland
Burgenland
Burgenland is the easternmost and least populous state or Land of Austria. It consists of two Statutarstädte and seven districts with in total 171 municipalities. It is 166 km long from north to south but much narrower from west to east...

, which was the Austrian-Hungarian border until 1921.

Near Nickelsdorf
Nickelsdorf
Nickelsdorf is a town in the district of Neusiedl am See in Burgenland in Austria.- Geography :Nickelsdorf is the only town in the municipality...

, the river passes into modern Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

, where it flows into an arm of the Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 river near Mosonmagyaróvár
Mosonmagyaróvár
Mosonmagyaróvár is a city in Győr-Moson-Sopron county in northwestern Hungary. It lies close to both the Austrian and Slovakian borders and has a population of 30,200 ....

.
Other towns on its course are Wiener Neustadt
Wiener Neustadt
-Main sights:* The Late-Romanesque Dom, consecrated in 1279 and cathedral from 1469 to 1785. The choir and transept, in Gothic style, are from the 14th century. In the late 15th century 12 statues of the Apostles were added in the apse, while the bust of Cardinal Melchior Klesl is attributed to...

 and Bruck an der Leitha
Bruck an der Leitha
Bruck an der Leitha is a city located in Lower Austria, Austria at the border to the Burgenland, which is marked by the Leitha river....

.

Several canals diverge from the Leitha and its tributaries. The canals fed spinning
Spinning (textiles)
Spinning is a major industry. It is part of the textile manufacturing process where three types of fibre are converted into yarn, then fabric, then textiles. The textiles are then fabricated into clothes or other artifacts. There are three industrial processes available to spin yarn, and a...

 companies in the past, and they now feed small hydroelectric
Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy...

 power plants. Between Seibersdorf
Seibersdorf
Seibersdorf is an Austrian market town with 1,283 residents in the District of Baden in Lower Austria.-Geography:Seibersdorf lies in the industrial belt of Lower Austria...

 and Hof am Leithaberge
Hof am Leithaberge
Hof am Leithaberge is a town in the district of Bruck an der Leitha in Lower Austria in Austria....

, most of the water in the Leitha is removed for this purpose. From there on, the Leitha only really flows when its flow further upstream is abnormally high. Downriver from Katzelsdorf
Katzelsdorf
Katzelsdorf is an Austrian municipality in the district of Wiener Neustadt-Land in Lower Austria.-Location:Katzelsdorf is located in an area where hot springs are found. It is at the foot of the Rosaliengebirges. Its river is the Leitha and its canal is the Mühlbach.- External links :* *...

 the river bed is almost completely dry as well.

Historic importance


The placenames Lajtabánság
Lajtabánság
Lajtabánság was a short lived Hungarian state in western Hungary the current territory of the Austrian federal state of Burgenland. The state existed between October 4 and November 5 1921, after the Treaty of Trianon after the army of the rump Kingdom of Hungary left the territory but before...

, Cisleithania
Cisleithania
Cisleithania was a name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. The name was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status...

 and Transleithania all come from the Leitha. After the 1867 Ausgleich
Ausgleich
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise re-established the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from and no longer subject to the Austrian Empire...

 between Austria
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

 and Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

, which created the Dual Monarchy
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

, Transleithanien ("beyond the Leitha") was the Viennese
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 colloquial word for the region beyond the Leitha (meaning Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

), while Cisleithanien ("on this side of the Leitha") was Austria. These names reflected the Viennese and Austrian perspectives towards the rest of the Empire
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

, because Vienna lay on 'this' side, and the other half, Hungary, lay on 'that' side. However the Leitha did not form the entire border between the two: for instance Galicia and Bukovina
Bukovina
Bukovina is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains.-Name:The name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became...

, which were part of Cisleithania, were north-east of Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

. The Morava River
Morava River (Central Europe)
The Morava is a river in Central Europe. It is the most important river of Moravia, which derives its name from it. The river originates on the Králický Sněžník mountain in the northeastern corner of Pardubice Region, near the border between the Czech Republic and Poland and has a vaguely southern...

 formed the border between Moravia
Moravia
Moravia is a historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, and one of the former Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Silesia. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region...

 (then part of Austria) and Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

(then part of Hungary).