Leipzig

Leipzig

Overview
Leipzig (ˈlaɪptsɪç is, along with Dresden
Dresden
Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

, one of the two largest cities
City
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

 in the federal state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of Saxony
Saxony
The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Both have a population of about 525,000. Leipzig is situated about a hundred miles south of Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

 at the confluence of the Weisse Elster, Pleisse and Parthe
Parthe
The Parthe is a river in Saxony, Germany, right tributary of the Weiße Elster. Its total length is 60 km. The Parthe originates in northern Saxony, between Colditz and Bad Lausick. It flows northwest through Parthenstein, Naunhof, Borsdorf and Taucha before entering the city of Leipzig...

 rivers at the southerly end of the North German Plain
North German plain
The North German Plain or Northern Lowland is one of the major geographical regions of Germany. It is the German part of the North European Plain...

.

Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 at the intersection of the Via Regia
Via Regia
Via Regia, i.e. "Royal Highway", denotes a mediæval historic road. The term, in the usual sense, means not just a specific road, rather a type of road. It was legally associated with the king and remained under his special protection and guarantee of public peace.There were many such roads in the...

 and Via Imperii
Via Imperii
Via Imperii, i.e. "Imperial Road", was one of the most important Reichsstraßen of the Holy Roman Empire. The old trade route ran in a south-north direction from Venice on the Adriatic Sea and Verona in the Kingdom of Italy across the Brenner Pass through Germany to the Baltic coast passing the...

, two important trade routes.
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Encyclopedia
Leipzig (ˈlaɪptsɪç is, along with Dresden
Dresden
Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

, one of the two largest cities
City
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

 in the federal state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of Saxony
Saxony
The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Both have a population of about 525,000. Leipzig is situated about a hundred miles south of Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

 at the confluence of the Weisse Elster, Pleisse and Parthe
Parthe
The Parthe is a river in Saxony, Germany, right tributary of the Weiße Elster. Its total length is 60 km. The Parthe originates in northern Saxony, between Colditz and Bad Lausick. It flows northwest through Parthenstein, Naunhof, Borsdorf and Taucha before entering the city of Leipzig...

 rivers at the southerly end of the North German Plain
North German plain
The North German Plain or Northern Lowland is one of the major geographical regions of Germany. It is the German part of the North European Plain...

.

Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 at the intersection of the Via Regia
Via Regia
Via Regia, i.e. "Royal Highway", denotes a mediæval historic road. The term, in the usual sense, means not just a specific road, rather a type of road. It was legally associated with the king and remained under his special protection and guarantee of public peace.There were many such roads in the...

 and Via Imperii
Via Imperii
Via Imperii, i.e. "Imperial Road", was one of the most important Reichsstraßen of the Holy Roman Empire. The old trade route ran in a south-north direction from Venice on the Adriatic Sea and Verona in the Kingdom of Italy across the Brenner Pass through Germany to the Baltic coast passing the...

, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music
Music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

 and publishing
Publishing
Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information—the activity of making information available to the general public...

. After World War II, Leipzig became a major urban centre within the Communist German Democratic Republic but its cultural and economic importance declined.

Leipzig later played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism
Communism
Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

 in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

, through events which took place in and around St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, and the development of a modern transport infrastructure. Leipzig has many institutions and opportunities for culture and recreation including a football stadium which has hosted some international matches, an opera house
Oper Leipzig
Oper Leipzig is an opera house and opera company in Leipzig, Germany.The Leipzig Opera traces its establishment to the year 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera...

 and a zoo
Leipzig Zoological Garden
The Leipzig Zoological Garden, or the Leipzig Zoo, was opened in Leipzig, Germany on June 9, 1878. It was taken over by the city of Leipzig in 1920 after World War I and now covers about 225,000 m² and contains more than 2,000 animals of 500 different species. The zoo is internationally noted for...

.

In 2010, Leipzig was ranked 68th in the world as a livable city, by consulting firm Mercer in their quality of life survey. Also in 2010, Leipzig was included in the top 10 of cities to visit by the New York Times.

Origins



Leipzig is derived from the Slavic
Slavic languages
The Slavic languages , a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia.-Branches:Scholars traditionally divide Slavic...

 word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees (British English: lime trees; U.S. English: basswood trees) stand".

Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg
Merseburg
Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx. 14 km south of Halle . It is the capital of the Saalekreis district. It had a diocese founded by Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg....

 and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich
Otto II, Margrave of Meissen
Otto II was the Margrave of Meissen from 1157 until his death in 1190. His father was Conrad the Great and his son was Dietrich I, Margrave of Meissen. He is a direct patrilineal ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, King Albert II of Belgium and Simeon II of Bulgaria....

. Leipzig has fundamentally shaped the history of Saxony
Saxony
The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

 and of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and has always been known as a place of commerce. The Leipzig Trade Fair
Leipzig Trade Fair
The Leipzig Trade Fair was a major fair for trade across Central Europe for nearly a millennium. After the Second World War, its location happened to lie within the borders of East Germany, whereupon it became one of the most important trade fairs of Comecon and was traditionally a meeting place...

, started in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world.

There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleisse in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave
Margrave
A margrave or margravine was a medieval hereditary nobleman with military responsibilities in a border province of a kingdom. Border provinces usually had more exposure to military incursions from the outside, compared to interior provinces, and thus a margrave usually had larger and more active...

 Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St. Thomas.

There were a number of monasteries in and around the town, including a Benedectine monastery after which the Barfussgässchen (Barefoot Alley) is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg (old Via Regia
Via Regia
Via Regia, i.e. "Royal Highway", denotes a mediæval historic road. The term, in the usual sense, means not just a specific road, rather a type of road. It was legally associated with the king and remained under his special protection and guarantee of public peace.There were many such roads in the...

).

The foundation of the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
The University of Leipzig , located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities in the world and the second-oldest university in Germany...

 in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, and towards being a location of the Reichsgericht (High Court), and the German National Library (founded in 1912). The philosopher and mathematician
Mathematician
A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German philosopher and mathematician. He wrote in different languages, primarily in Latin , French and German ....

 was born in Leipzig in 1646, and attended the university
University of Leipzig
The University of Leipzig , located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities in the world and the second-oldest university in Germany...

 from 1661 to 1666.

On 24 December 1701, an oil-fuelled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns.

The 19th century


The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations, on 16–19 October 1813, was fought by the coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden against the French army of Napoleon. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine...

 between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 and Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I and ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would ultimately lead to his first exile on Elba
Elba
Elba is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino. The largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, Elba is also part of the National Park of the Tuscan Archipelago and the third largest island in Italy after Sicily and Sardinia...

. In 1913, the Monument to the Battle of the Nations monument celebrating the centenary of this event was completed.
A terminus of the first German long distance railway to Dresden
Dresden
Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

 (the capital of Saxony) in 1839, Leipzig became a hub of Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

an railway traffic, with Leipzig Central Station
Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
is, at 83,460 m², Europe's largest railway station when measured by floor area. It has 24 platforms housed in six iron trainsheds; a multi-level concourse with towering stone arches; and a 293 metre-long facade...

 the largest terminal station
Terminal Station
Terminal Station is a 1953 film by Italian director Vittorio De Sica. It tells the story of the love affair between an Italian man and an American woman. The film was entered into the 1953 Cannes Film Festival.-Production:...

 by area in Europe. The train station has two grand entrance halls, traditionally the eastern one for the Elector of Saxony and the western one for the Emperor of Germany.

Leipzig became a centre of the German and Saxon liberal movements. The first German labour party, the General German Workers' Association
General German Workers' Association
The General German Workers' Association, in German Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV) was founded on 23 May 1863 in Leipzig, Kingdom of Saxony by Ferdinand Lassalle and existed under this name until 1875, when it combined with August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht's SDAP to form the...

 (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV) was founded in Leipzig on 23 May 1863 by Ferdinand Lassalle
Ferdinand Lassalle
Ferdinand Lassalle was a German-Jewish jurist and socialist political activist.-Early life:Ferdinand Lassalle was born on 11 April 1825 in Breslau , Silesia to a prosperous Jewish family descending from Upper Silesian Loslau...

; about 600 workers from across Germany travelled to the foundation on the new railway line. Leipzig expanded rapidly towards one million inhabitants. Huge Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
' refers to the economic phase in 19th century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873. At this time in Central Europe the age of industrialisation was taking place, whose beginnings were found in the 1840s...

 areas were built, which mostly survived both war and post-war demolition.

The 20th century


With the opening of a fifth production hall in 1907, the Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei
Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei
The Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei is an industrial site in Leipzig, Germany. Parts of this 10-hectare site in the district of Lindenau are used today by art galleries, studios and restaurants....

 became the largest cotton mill
Cotton mill
A cotton mill is a factory that houses spinning and weaving machinery. Typically built between 1775 and 1930, mills spun cotton which was an important product during the Industrial Revolution....

 company on the continent, housing over 240,000 spindles. Daily production surpassed 5 million kilograms of yarn.

The city's mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

 from 1930 to 1937, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler was a monarchist conservative German politician, executive, economist, civil servant and opponent of the Nazi regime...

 was a noted opponent of the Nazi regime in Germany. He resigned in 1937 when, in his absence, his Nazi deputy ordered the destruction of the city's statue of Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Barthóldy , use the form 'Mendelssohn' and not 'Mendelssohn Bartholdy'. The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians gives ' Felix Mendelssohn' as the entry, with 'Mendelssohn' used in the body text...

. On Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, and also Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom or series of attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria on 9–10 November 1938.Jewish homes were ransacked, as were shops, towns and...

 in 1938, one of the city's most architecturally significant buildings, the 1855 Moorish Revival
Moorish Revival
Moorish Revival or Neo-Moorish is one of the exotic revival architectural styles that were adopted by architects of Europe and the Americas in the wake of the Romanticist fascination with all things oriental...

 Leipzig synagogue
Leipzig synagogue
The ornate Moorish Revival Leipzig synagogue was built in 1855 by German Jewish architect Otto Simonson who had studied under Gottfried Semper, architect of the Semper Synagogue in Dresden....

 was deliberately destroyed.

Several thousand forced labourers were stationed in Leipzig during World War II.

The city was also heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Unlike its neighbouring city of Dresden
Dresden
Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

 this was largely conventional bombing, with high explosives rather than incendiaries. The resultant pattern of loss was a patchwork, rather than wholesale loss of its centre, but was nevertheless very extensive.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Leipzig in late April 1945. The US 2nd Infantry Division and US 69th Infantry Division fought into the city on 18 April and completed its capture after fierce urban combat, in which fighting was often house-to-house and block-to-block, on 19 April 1945.

The U.S.
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 turned over the city to the Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 as it pulled back from the line of contact
Line of contact
The Line of Contact marked the farthest advance of American, British and Soviet Armies into Germany at the end of World War II. This contact began with the first meeting between Soviet and American forces at Torgau, near the Elbe river on Elbe Day, April 25, 1945...

 with Soviet forces in July 1945 to the pre-designated occupation zone boundaries. Leipzig became one of the major cities of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

In the mid-20th century, the city's trade fair assumed renewed importance as a point of contact with the Comecon
Comecon
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance , 1949–1991, was an economic organisation under hegemony of Soviet Union comprising the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world...

 Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

 economic bloc, of which East Germany was a member. At this time, trade fairs were held at a site in the south of the city, near the Monument to the Battle of the Nations.

In October 1989, after prayer
Prayer
Prayer is a form of religious practice that seeks to activate a volitional rapport to a deity through deliberate practice. Prayer may be either individual or communal and take place in public or in private. It may involve the use of words or song. When language is used, prayer may take the form of...

s for peace
Peace
Peace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility, peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the...

 at St. Nicholas Church, established in 1983 as part of the peace movement, the Monday demonstrations
Monday demonstrations in East Germany
The Monday demonstrations in East Germany in 1989 and 1990 were a series of peaceful political protests against the authoritarian communist government of the German Democratic Republic that took place every Monday evening.- Overview :...

 started as the most prominent mass protest against the East German regime.

Leipzig was the German candidate for the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
The 2012 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the "London 2012 Olympic Games", are scheduled to take place in London, England, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012...

, but was unsuccessful.

Geography


Leipzig lies at the confluence of the rivers Weisse Elster, Pleisse and Parthe
Parthe
The Parthe is a river in Saxony, Germany, right tributary of the Weiße Elster. Its total length is 60 km. The Parthe originates in northern Saxony, between Colditz and Bad Lausick. It flows northwest through Parthenstein, Naunhof, Borsdorf and Taucha before entering the city of Leipzig...

, in the Leipzig Lowland, on the most southerly part of the North German Plain
North German plain
The North German Plain or Northern Lowland is one of the major geographical regions of Germany. It is the German part of the North European Plain...

, which is the part North European Plain in Germany. The site is characterised by swampy areas such as the Leipzig Riverside Forest
Leipzig Riverside Forest
Leipzig Riverside Forest is a Riparian forest, which lies mostly within the city limits of Leipzig city in Germany.- Location :...

, though there are also some limestone areas to the north of the city. The landscape is mostly flat though there is also some evidence of moraine
Moraine
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions, such as those areas acted upon by a past glacial maximum. This debris may have been plucked off a valley floor as a glacier advanced or it may have...

 and drumlins.

Although there are some forest parks within the city limits, the area surrounding Leipzig is relatively unforested. During the 20th Century, there were a several open-cast mines in the region, many of which are being converted to use as lakes.

Leipzig is also situated at the intersection of the ancient roads
Ancient roads
Ancient roads covered major long-distances and there are many other historic roads of significant value.-Europe:In Europe, with the exception of the Roman roads, the paths were not always fixed and at times depended on the topology and geography of the land. In the early Middle Ages, valleys were...

 known as the Via Regia
Via Regia
Via Regia, i.e. "Royal Highway", denotes a mediæval historic road. The term, in the usual sense, means not just a specific road, rather a type of road. It was legally associated with the king and remained under his special protection and guarantee of public peace.There were many such roads in the...

 (King's highway), which traversed Germanic lands in an east-west direction, and Via Imperii
Via Imperii
Via Imperii, i.e. "Imperial Road", was one of the most important Reichsstraßen of the Holy Roman Empire. The old trade route ran in a south-north direction from Venice on the Adriatic Sea and Verona in the Kingdom of Italy across the Brenner Pass through Germany to the Baltic coast passing the...

 (Imperial Highway), a north-south road.

Leipzig was a walled city in the Middle Ages and the current "ring" road around the city centre corresponds to the old city walls.

Districts and Neighbouring Regions


Leipzig is divided administratively since 1992 into ten urban district
Urban district
In the England, Wales and Ireland, an urban district was a type of local government district that covered an urbanised area. Urban districts had an elected Urban District Council , which shared local government responsibilities with a county council....

s, which contain 63 subdistrict
Subdistrict
Subdistrict is a low level administrative division of a country. In Thailand it may refer to the King Amphoe or to the Tambon. In England and Wales it was part of a Registration district....

s. Some of these correspond to outlying villages which were taken over by Leipzig.

km² || width="50" | Pop.
per km²
|-
| style="text-align:center" | Centre || style="text-align:center" | 49,562 || style="text-align:center" | 13,88 || style="text-align:center" | 3,570
|-
| style="text-align:center" | North east || style="text-align:center" | 41,186 || style="text-align:center" | 26.29 || style="text-align:center" | 1.566
|-
| style="text-align:center" | East || style="text-align:center" | 69,666 || style="text-align:center" | 40.74 || style="text-align:center" | 1,710
|-
| style="text-align:center" | Southeast || style="text-align:center" | 51,139 || style="text-align:center" | 34.65 || style="text-align:center" | 1,476
|-
| style="text-align:center" | South || style="text-align:center" | 57,434 || style="text-align:center" | 16.92 || style="text-align:center" | 3,394
|-
| style="text-align:center" | Southwest || style="text-align:center" | 45,886 || style="text-align:center" | 46.67 || style="text-align:center" | 983
|-
| style="text-align:center" | West || style="text-align:center" | 51,276 || style="text-align:center" | 14.69 || style="text-align:center" | 3,491
|-
| style="text-align:center" | Old West || style="text-align:center" | 46,009 || style="text-align:center" | 26.09 || style="text-align:center" | 1,764
|-
| style="text-align:center" | Northwest || style="text-align:center" | 28,036 || style="text-align:center" | 39.09 || style="text-align:center" | 717
|-
| style="text-align:center" | North || style="text-align:center" | 57,559 || style="text-align:center" | 38.35 || style="text-align:center" | 1,501
|}


Climate



Leipzig has a continental climate
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

 with summer temperatures sometimes over 30 Celsius (on 10 days of 2010) and very frequently below 0 in winter (on 62 days of 2010). As in much of Germany, snow will regularly stay on the ground for a number of weeks, or even months, in the winter.

The hottest day on record was the 9th August, 1992 with a high of 38.8 °C, the coldest was the 14th January, 1987 with −24.1 °C.

Demographics



The population of Leipzig is approximately half a million with about 17% unemployment. Before German reunification it was over 700,000. Many people of working age took the opportunity to move west to seek work and this was a contributory factor to falling birth rates. However the birth rate for 2010 was 5414, the highest since reunification. There were 5788 deaths in Leipzig in 2010, but the population increased by 4000 due to inward migration. The average age of the population is 44.

The percentage of people with migration background or those of non-German origin/ethnicity is quite low compared to other German cities; the number of foreign inhabitants has in fact fallen from 28,177 in 2008 to 24,881 in 2010.
As of 2011, only about 10% of the population was of 1st or 2nd generation immigrant origin compared to the German overall average of 20%.

Number of minorities (1st and 2nd generation) in Leipzig by country of origin per 31 December 2010

Rank Ancestry Number
1  Russia 5,600
2  Ukraine 3,100
3  Vietnam 3,000
4  Kazakhstan 2,100
5  Poland 2,000
6  Turkey 1,600
7  Iraq 1,600
8  Mainland China 1,100

Architecture


Leipzig has many buildings representative of Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
' refers to the economic phase in 19th century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873. At this time in Central Europe the age of industrialisation was taking place, whose beginnings were found in the 1840s...

 architecture and also a lot of Plattenbau
Plattenbau
Plattenbau is the German word for a building whose structure is constructed of large, prefabricated concrete slabs. The word is a compound of Platte and Bau...

 architecture from the time of the DDR
DDR
DDR may refer to:In entertainment:*Dance Dance Revolution, a music video game series by Konami*DDR , a Norwegian rock band singing in German.*DDR , a Greenlandic punk band singing in Danish.In organizations:...

 regime. The building of the University Church which was destroyed by the Communists in 1968 is currently being rebuilt as a secular building.
The city also has numerous parks and forested areas and a zoo containing the biggest house in the world for primates.

Main sights



  • St. Thomas Church (Thomaskirche): Most famous as the place where Johann Sebastian Bach
    Johann Sebastian Bach
    Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer, organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity...

     worked as a cantor
    Cantor (church)
    A cantor is the chief singer employed in a church with responsibilities for the ecclesiastical choir; also called the precentor....

     and home to the renowned boys choir Thomanerchor
    Thomanerchor
    The Thomanerchor is a boys' choir in Leipzig, Germany. The choir was founded in 1212. At present, the choir consists of 92 boys from 9 to 18 years of age...

  • Monument to Felix Mendelssohn
    Felix Mendelssohn
    Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Barthóldy , use the form 'Mendelssohn' and not 'Mendelssohn Bartholdy'. The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians gives ' Felix Mendelssohn' as the entry, with 'Mendelssohn' used in the body text...

     in front of this church. Destroyed by the Nazis in 1936, it was rebuilt on October 18, 2008.
  • St. Nicholas Church (Nikolaikirche), for which Bach was also responsible. The weekly Montagsgebet (Monday prayer) held here became in the 1980s the starting point of peaceful Monday demonstrations
    Monday demonstrations in East Germany
    The Monday demonstrations in East Germany in 1989 and 1990 were a series of peaceful political protests against the authoritarian communist government of the German Democratic Republic that took place every Monday evening.- Overview :...

     against the DDR
    DDR
    DDR may refer to:In entertainment:*Dance Dance Revolution, a music video game series by Konami*DDR , a Norwegian rock band singing in German.*DDR , a Greenlandic punk band singing in Danish.In organizations:...

     regime.
  • Völkerschlachtdenkmal
    Völkerschlachtdenkmal
    The Monument to the Battle of the Nations is a monument in Leipzig, Germany to the 1813 Battle of Leipzig, also known as the Battle of the Nations...

     (Battle of the Nations Monument): one of the largest monuments in Europe, built to commemorate the victorious battle against Napoleonic troops
  • Gewandhaus
    Gewandhaus
    Gewandhaus is a concert hall in Leipzig, Germany. Today's hall is the third to bear this name; like the second, it is noted for its fine acoustics. The first Gewandhaus was built in 1781 by architect Johann Carl Friedrich Dauthe. The second opened on 11 December 1884, and was destroyed in the...

    : home to the famous Gewandhaus Orchestra, it is the third building of that name
  • Old Town Hall: the old town hall was built in 1556 and houses a museum of the city's history
  • New Town Hall
    New Town Hall (Leipzig)
    Leipzig New Town Hall is the seat of the Leipzig city administration since 1905. It stands within the Leipzig's "ring road" on the south west corner opposite the city library at Martin-Luther-Ring.- History :...

    : the new town hall was built upon the remains of the Pleißenburg, a castle that was the site of the 1519 debate
    Leipzig Debate
    The Leipzig Debate was a theological disputation originally between Andreas Karlstadt and Johann Eck. Eck, a staunch defender of Roman Catholic doctrine, had challenged Karlstadt to a public debate concerning the doctrines of free will and grace...

     between Johann Eck
    Johann Eck
    Dr. Johann Maier von Eck was a German Scholastic theologian and defender of Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation. It was Eck who argued that the beliefs of Martin Luther and Jan Hus were similar.-Life:...

     and Martin Luther
    Martin Luther
    Martin Luther was a German priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517...

  • City-Hochhaus Leipzig
    City-Hochhaus Leipzig
    City-Hochhaus , at a height of 142.5 metres, is the tallest building in the city of Leipzig, and the tallest multistory building erected in the former East Germany. It was designed by architect Hermann Henselmann in the shape of an open book, and built between 1968 and 1972...

    : built in 1972, it was once part of the university and is the city's tallest building
  • Auerbachs Keller
    Auerbachs Keller
    Auerbachs Keller is the best known and second oldest restaurant in Leipzig. It was described in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's play Faust I, as the first place Mephistopheles takes Faust on their travels....

    : a young Goethe ate and drank in this basement-level restaurant while studying in Leipzig; it is the venue of a scene from his Faust
    Goethe's Faust
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust is a tragic play in two parts: and . Although written as a closet drama, it is the play with the largest audience numbers on German-language stages...

  • Städtisches Kaufhaus
    Städtisches Kaufhaus
    The Städtisches Kaufhaus in Leipzig, designed by Rayher, Korber and Müller, was constructed from 1894 to 1901.- Site history prior to Städtisches Kaufhaus :...

     (municipal department store): the world's first sample fair building and today home to offices, retail stores, restaurants and interim
    Interim
    Interim is an album by British rock band The Fall, compiled from live and studio material and released in 2004. It features the first officially released versions of "Clasp Hands", "Blindness" and "What About Us?" — all of which were later included on the band's next studio album Fall Heads Roll —...

     classrooms for the University of Leipzig
    University of Leipzig
    The University of Leipzig , located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities in the world and the second-oldest university in Germany...

     (its name is misleading, as it is privately owned)
  • Bundesverwaltungsgericht
    Federal Administrative Court of Germany
    The Federal Administrative Court is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. It is the court of the last resort for generally all cases of administrative law, mainly disputes between citizens and the state...

    : Germany's federal administrative court was the site of the Reichsgericht
    Reichsgericht
    The Reichsgericht was the highest court of the Deutsches Reich. It was established on October 1, 1879 when the Reichsjustizgesetze came into effect, building a widely regarded body of jurisprudence....

    , the highest state court between 1888 and 1945
  • The Leipzig Botanical Garden
    Leipzig Botanical Garden
    Leipzig Botanical Garden , , is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Leipzig, and located at Linnéstraße 1, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany. It is the oldest botanical garden in Germany and among the oldest in the world, and open daily without charge.Leipzig's botanical garden dates back to...

     is the oldest botanical garden
    Botanical garden
    A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...

     in Germany


Among Leipzig's noteworthy institutions are the opera house
Oper Leipzig
Oper Leipzig is an opera house and opera company in Leipzig, Germany.The Leipzig Opera traces its establishment to the year 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera...

 and the Leipzig Zoological Garden
Leipzig Zoological Garden
The Leipzig Zoological Garden, or the Leipzig Zoo, was opened in Leipzig, Germany on June 9, 1878. It was taken over by the city of Leipzig in 1920 after World War I and now covers about 225,000 m² and contains more than 2,000 animals of 500 different species. The zoo is internationally noted for...

, the latter of which houses the world's largest facilities for primate
Primate
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates , which contains prosimians and simians. Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment...

s. Leipzig's international trade fair
Leipzig Trade Fair
The Leipzig Trade Fair was a major fair for trade across Central Europe for nearly a millennium. After the Second World War, its location happened to lie within the borders of East Germany, whereupon it became one of the most important trade fairs of Comecon and was traditionally a meeting place...

 centre in the north of the city is home to the world's largest levitated glass hall. Leipzig is also known for its passageways through houses and buildings.

Music


see also :Category:Music from Leipzig

Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer, organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity...

 worked in Leipzig from 1723 to 1750, conducting the St. Thomas Church Choir
Thomanerchor
The Thomanerchor is a boys' choir in Leipzig, Germany. The choir was founded in 1212. At present, the choir consists of 92 boys from 9 to 18 years of age...

, at the St. Thomas Church, the St. Nicholas Church and the Paulinerkirche
Paulinerkirche, Leipzig
The Paulinerkirche was a church on the Augustusplatz in Leipzig, named after the "Pauliner", its original Dominican friars. It was built in 1231 as the Klosterkirche St. Pauli for the Dominican monastery in Leipzig. From the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409, it served as the...

, the university church of Leipzig (destroyed in 1968). The composer Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...

 was born in Leipzig in 1813, in the Brühl
Brühl (Leipzig)
The Brühl is a street in Leipzig, Germany, just within the limits of the former city wall.-History:On the corner of the Brühl and Katharinestrasse stands the Romanus house, built for the mayor of Leipzig between 1701 and 1704, and one of the finest baroque buildings remaining in the town.In the...

. Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann, sometimes known as Robert Alexander Schumann, was a German composer, aesthete and influential music critic. He is regarded as one of the greatest and most representative composers of the Romantic era....

 was also active in Leipzig music, having been invited by Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Barthóldy , use the form 'Mendelssohn' and not 'Mendelssohn Bartholdy'. The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians gives ' Felix Mendelssohn' as the entry, with 'Mendelssohn' used in the body text...

 when the latter established Germany's first musical conservatoire in the city in 1843. Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler was a late-Romantic Austrian composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation. He was born in the village of Kalischt, Bohemia, in what was then Austria-Hungary, now Kaliště in the Czech Republic...

 was second conductor (working under Artur Nikisch) at the Leipzig Theater
Oper Leipzig
Oper Leipzig is an opera house and opera company in Leipzig, Germany.The Leipzig Opera traces its establishment to the year 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera...

 from June 1886 until May 1888, and achieved his first great recognition while there by completing and publishing Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school....

's opera Die Drei Pintos
Die drei Pintos
Die drei Pintos is a comic opera of which Carl Maria von Weber began composing the music, working on a libretto by Theodor Hell...

, and Mahler also completed his own 1st Symphony
Symphony No. 1 (Mahler)
The Symphony No. 1 in D major by Gustav Mahler was mainly composed between late 1887 and March 1888, though it incorporates music Mahler had composed for previous works. It was composed while Mahler was second conductor at the Leipzig Opera, Germany...

 while living there.

This conservatoire is today the University of Music and Theatre Leipzig A broad range of subjects can be studied, both artistic and teacher training, in all orchestra
Orchestra
An orchestra is a sizable instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ορχήστρα, the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus...

l instruments, voice, interpretation, coaching, piano chamber music
Chamber music
Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. Most broadly, it includes any art music that is performed by a small number of performers with one performer to a part...

, orchestral conducting, choir conducting and musical composition
Musical composition
Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating a new piece of music. People who practice composition are called composers.- Musical compositions :...

. Musical styles include jazz, popular music, musicals, early music and church music. The drama departments teach acting and dramaturgy
Dramaturgy
Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. Dramaturgy is a distinct practice separate from play writing and directing, although a single individual may perform any combination of the three. Some dramatists combine writing and...

.

The Bach-Archiv
Bach-Archiv Leipzig
The Bach-Archiv Leipzig or Bach-Archiv is the institution for the documentation and research of life and work of Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig, where Bach lived from 1723 until his death. Topic of research is also the Bach family, especially their music...

 for documentation and research of life and work of Bach and also of the Bach family
Bach family
The Bach family was of importance in the history of music for nearly two hundred years, with over 50 known musicians and several notable composers, the best-known of whom was Johann Sebastian Bach...

 was founded in Leipzig in 1950 by Werner Neumann
Werner Neumann
Werner Neumann was a German musicologist. He founded the Bach-Archiv Leipzig on 20 November 1950 and was a principal editor of the Neue Bach-Ausgabe, the second edition of the complete works of Johann Sebastian Bach.- Professional career :Neumann studied at the Conservatory of Leipzig from 1928 to...

. The Bach-Archiv organizes the prestigious International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition
International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition
The International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition is a music competition in Leipzig, Germany, held by the Bach-Archiv Leipzig. It was founded in 1950 and was held every four years from 1964 to 1996 with five subjects and is now held every two years with three changing subjects...

, initiated in 1950 as part of a music festival marking the bicentennial of Bach's death. The competition is now held every two years in three changing categories. The Bach-Archiv also organizes performances, especially the international festival Bachfest Leipzig
Bachfest Leipzig
The Leipzig Bach Festival is a music festival which takes place annually in the city of Leipzig, where Bach worked as the Thomaskantor from 1723 until his death in 1750....

 (de) and runs the Bach-Museum.

The city's musical tradition is also reflected in the worldwide fame of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra and the Thomas Church Choir
Thomanerchor
The Thomanerchor is a boys' choir in Leipzig, Germany. The choir was founded in 1212. At present, the choir consists of 92 boys from 9 to 18 years of age...

. For over 60 years Leipzig has been offering the oldest "school concert program for children in Germany. With over 140 concerts every year in venues such as the Gewandhaus and over 40,000 children attending, young adults are educated and inspired by music.

As for contemporary music, Leipzig is known for its independent music scene and subcultural events. Leipzig has for 20 years been home to the world's largest Gothic festival, the annual Wave-Gotik-Treffen (WGT), where thousands of electro fans from across Europe gather in the early summer. Leipzig Pop Up is an annual music trade fair for the independent music scene as well as a music festival taking place on Pentecost
Pentecost
Pentecost is a prominent feast in the calendar of Ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai, and also later in the Christian liturgical year commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Christ after the Resurrection of Jesus...

 weekend. Its most famous indie-labels are Moon Harbour Recordings (house) and Kann Records (House/Techno/Psychedelic). Several venues offer live music on a daily basis. is one of the oldest student clubs in Europe with concerts in various styles. For over 15 years "Tonelli's" has been offering free weekly concerts every day of the week, though door charges may apply Saturdays.

Bill and Tom Kaulitz, members of the band Tokio Hotel
Tokio Hotel
Tokio Hotel is a pop rock band from Germany, founded in 2001 by singer Bill Kaulitz, guitarist Tom Kaulitz, drummer Gustav Schäfer and bassist Georg Listing...

, were born in Leipzig in 1989, as was Till Lindemann
Till Lindemann
Till Lindemann is a German musician, actor and poet who is the frontman for the German Neue Deutsche Härte band Rammstein.-Biography:...

 of Rammstein
Rammstein
Rammstein is a German Neue Deutsche Härte band from Berlin, formed in 1994. The band consists of members Till Lindemann , Richard Z. Kruspe , Paul H. Landers , Oliver "Ollie" Riedel , Christoph "Doom" Schneider and Christian "Flake" Lorenz...

 in 1963.

Norwegian black metal band Mayhem recorded their 1993 live album at the Eiskeller club on November 26, 1990.

Arts


The city's contemporary arts highlight is the Neo Rauch
Neo Rauch
Neo Rauch is a German artist whose paintings mine the intersection of his personal history with the politics of industrial alienation. His work reflects the influence of socialist realism, and owes a debt to Surrealists Giorgio de Chirico and René Magritte, although Rauch hesitates to align...

 retrospective opening in April 2010 at the Leipzig Museum of Fine Arts
Museum der bildenden Künste
The Museum der bildenden Künste is a museum in Leipzig, Saxony, Germany. On 7,000 square meters of display area, 3,500 paintings, 1,000 sculptures and 60,000 graphical works are shown...

. This is a show devoted to the father of the New Leipzig School
New Leipzig School
The term New Leipzig School refers to a movement in modern German painting. The usage and origins of this term are debated.The "old" Leipzig School was a term used by art journalists which had became established by some time no later than 1977, and the involvement of Werner Tübke, Wolfgang...

 of artists. According to The New York Times, this scene "has been the toast of the contemporary art world" in the past decade. Further there are eleven galleries in the so-called Spinnerei
Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei
The Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei is an industrial site in Leipzig, Germany. Parts of this 10-hectare site in the district of Lindenau are used today by art galleries, studios and restaurants....

, a former cotton mill that attracts all kinds of independent artists. The New York Times features Leipzig in the Top 10 of its "31 Places to Go" article in 2010.

The building complex of the Grassi Museum
Grassi Museum
The Grassi Museum is a building complex in Leipzig, Germany, home to three museums: the Ethnography Museum, Musical Instruments Museum, and Applied Arts Museum....

 contains three more of Leipzig's major collections: the Ethnography Museum
Leipzig Museum of Ethnography
The Leipzig Museum of Ethnography is a large ethnographic museum in Leipzig, Germany. Today it is part of the Grassi Museum, an institution which also includes the Museum of Applied Arts and the Museum of Musical Instruments, based in a large building on the Johannisplatz.-History:The museum...

, Applied Arts Museum
Leipzig Museum of Applied Arts
The Museum of Applied Arts is a museum in Leipzig, Germany. It is the second oldest museum of decorative arts in the country, founded just six years after the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin...

, and Musical Instrument Museum
Museum of Musical Instruments of the University of Leipzig
The Museum of Musical Instruments of the University of Leipzig is a museum in Leipzig, Germany. It is located on Johannisplatz, near the city centre...

 (the last of which is run by the University of Leipzig). The university also runs the Museum of Antiquities
Museum of Antiquities of the University of Leipzig
The Museum of Antiquities of the University of Leipzig is a collection of antiques in Leipzig, Germany.-History:The foundations of the collection were laid in the first half of the 18th century, with the first acquisitions of antiques by the University. As early as 1735, Johann Friedrich Christ,...

.

Annual events

  • Auto Mobil International (AMI) motor show
  • AMITEC, trade fair for vehicle maintenance, care, servicing and repairs in Germany and Central Europe
  • A cappella
    A cappella
    A cappella music is specifically solo or group singing without instrumental sound, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. It is the opposite of cantata, which is accompanied singing. A cappella was originally intended to differentiate between Renaissance polyphony and Baroque concertato...

    : vocal music festival, organized by the Ensemble amarcord
    Ensemble amarcord
    The ensemble amarcord is a German male classical vocal ensemble based in Leipzig, founded in 1992 by five former members of the Thomanerchor. Their focus is Medieval music, Renaissance music and the collaboration with contemporary composers.- Singers :...

  • Bach-Fest: Johann Sebastian Bach
    Johann Sebastian Bach
    Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer, organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity...

    -festival
  • Christmas market (since 1767)
  • Dokfestival
    International Leipzig Festival for Documentary and Animated Film
    The International Leipzig Festival for Documentary and Animated Film , also known as the Leipzig DOK Festival, is a film festival that takes place annually in Leipzig, Germany. It was founded in 1955 under the name "1st All-German Leipzig Festival of Cultural and Documentary Films" and was the...

    : international festival for documentary and animated film
  • Jazztage, contemporary jazz festival

  • Ladyfest Leipzig (August) Emancipatoric, feminist Punk & Electro Festival
  • Leipzig Book Fair
    Leipzig Book Fair
    The Leipzig Book Fair is the second largest book fair in Germany after the Frankfurt Book Fair. The fair takes place annually over four days at the Leipzig Trade Fairground in the northern part of Leipzig, Saxony...

    : the second largest German book fair after Frankfurt
  • OPER unplugged with Music Dance Theatre by Heike Hennig & Co
    Heike Hennig
    Heike Hennig is a German dancer, choreographer and director of the opera and dance ensemble “Heike Hennig & Co”.-Life:Heike Hennig had her first dance-lessons at the age of 5 years in Leipzig...

  • Stadtfest: city festival
  • Wave-Gotik-Treffen at Pentecost
    Pentecost
    Pentecost is a prominent feast in the calendar of Ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai, and also later in the Christian liturgical year commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Christ after the Resurrection of Jesus...

    : world's largest goth or "dark culture" festival
  • Leipzig Pop Up

Sport


More than 300 sport clubs in the city represent 78 different disciplines. Over 400 sport facilities are available to citizens and club members.

The German Football Association
German Football Association
The German Football Association is the governing body of football in Germany. A founding member of both FIFA and UEFA, the DFB organises the German football leagues, including the national league, the Bundesliga, and the men's and women's national teams. The DFB is based in Frankfurt and is...

 (DFB) was founded in Leipzig in 1900. The city was the venue for the 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

 draw, and hosted four first-round matches and one match in the round of 16 in the Central stadium. Leipzig also hosted the Fencing
Fencing
Fencing, which is also known as modern fencing to distinguish it from historical fencing, is a family of combat sports using bladed weapons.Fencing is one of four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games...

 World Cup in 2005 and hosts a number of international competitions in a variety of sports each year.

Since the beginning of the 20th century Ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 gained popularity and several local clubs established departments dedicated to that sport. Today the Blue Lions Leipzig
Blue Lions Leipzig
The Blue Lions Leipzig are an ice hockey team in Leipzig, Germany. They play in the Oberliga, the third level of German ice hockey. The Blue Lions were founded in 1998....

 is the most famous Ice hockey club in town.

VfB Leipzig, now 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig
Lokomotive Leipzig
1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig is a German football club based in the city of Leipzig in Saxony and may be more familiar to many of the country's football fans as the historic side VfB Leipzig, the first national champions of Germany...

, won the first national football championship in 1903.

From 1950 to 1990 Leipzig was host of the Deutsche Hochschule für Körperkultur (DHfK) (German highschool for physical culture), the national sport university of the GDR.

Handball-Club Leipzig is one of the most successful women's handball clubs in Germany, winning 20 domestic championships since 1956 and 3 Champions League titles.

Leipzig made a bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. The bid did not make the shortlist after the International Olympic Committee pared the bids down to 5, and the competition was eventually won by London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 on 6 July 2005.

Markkleeberg Lake (Markkleeberger See) is a new lake next to Markkleeberg
Markkleeberg
Markkleeberg is a town in the Leipzig district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the river Pleiße, approx. 7 km south of Leipzig.In 1813 much of the Battle of Leipzig took place where today's Markkleeberg is situated....

, a suburb on the south side of Leipzig. A former open-pit coal mine, it was flooded in 1999 with groundwater and developed in 2006 as a tourist area. On its southeastern shore is Germany's only pump-powered artificial whitewater
Artificial whitewater
An artificial whitewater course is a site for whitewater canoeing, whitewater kayaking, whitewater racing, whitewater rafting, playboating and slalom canoeing with artificially generated rapids.-Flow diversion:...

 slalom course, Markkleeberg Canoe Park (Kanupark Markkleeberg), a venue which rivals the Eiskanal
Eiskanal
The Eiskanal is an artificial canal feature in the city of Augsburg, Germany that was constructed as the canoe slalom venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Munich....

 in Augsburg
Augsburg
Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a...

 for training and international canoe/kayak competition.

In June 2009 Red Bull
Red Bull
Red Bull is an energy drink sold by the Austrian Red Bull GmbH, created in 1987 by the Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz. In terms of market share, Red Bull is the most popular energy drink in the world, with 3 billion cans sold each year. Dietrich Mateschitz was inspired by an already...

 entered the local football market after being denied the right to buy into FC Sachsen Leipzig
FC Sachsen Leipzig
FC Sachsen Leipzig was a German football club from Leipzig, Saxony. The roots of the club go back to 1899 and the founding of Britannia Leipzig. Following World War I, a 1919 merger with FC Hertha 05 Leipzig created Leipziger Sportverein 1899...

 in 2006. The newly founded RB Leipzig
RB Leipzig
RB Leipzig is a German association football club based in Leipzig, Saxony. The club is supported by energy drink-maker Red Bull who purchased the license of fifth division side SSV Markranstädt with the intention of advancing the re-modeled club to the top-flight Bundesliga within ten years...

 is now attempting to come up through the ranks of German football to bring Bundesliga
Fußball-Bundesliga
The Fußball-Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany. At the top of Germany's football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. It is contested by 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga...

 football back to the region.

Two Leipzig based teams are members of the Unihockey-Bundesliga, the German Premiere Floorball league. The MFBC Löwen Leipzig were runner-up in 2009, the SC DHFK Leipzig in 2008.

Food & Drink

  • An all-season local dish is Leipziger Allerlei
    Leipziger Allerlei
    Leipziger Allerlei is a regional German vegetable dish consisting of peas, carrots, asparagus, and morels. There are numerous variations to the basic recipe....

    , a stew consisting of seasonal vegetables and crayfish.
  • Leipziger Lerche
    Leipziger Lerche
    The Leipziger Lerche is a pastry of Leipzig. The name originates from the singing bird lark which was roasted with herbs and eggs or served as a filling in pastries...

     is a shortcrust pastry
    Shortcrust pastry
    Shortcrust pastry is a type of pastry often used for the base of a tart or pie. It does not puff up during baking because it usually contains no leavening agent. It is possible to make shortcrust pastry with self-raising flour, however...

     dish filled with crushed almonds, nuts and strawberry jam; the name ("Leipzig lark") comes from a lark pâté which was a Leipzig speciality until the banning of songbird hunting in Saxony in 1876.
  • Gose
    Gose
    Gose is a top-fermented beer style of Leipzig, Germany.Gose beers are brewed with at least 50% of the grain bill being malted wheat. Because of the use of coriander and salt, Gose does not comply to the Reinheitsgebot. It is allowed an exemption from the rules on the grounds of being a regional...

     is a locally brewed top-fermenting sour beer that originated in the Goslar
    Goslar
    Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Goslar and located on the northwestern slopes of the Harz mountain range. The Old Town of Goslar and the Mines of Rammelsberg are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.-Geography:Goslar is situated at the...

     region and in the 18th century became popular in Leipzig.

Education



University


Leipzig University, founded 1409, is one of Europe's oldest universities. Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 laureate Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory...

 worked here as a physics professor (from 1927 to 1942), as did Nobel Prize laureates Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Gustav Ludwig Hertz was a German experimental physicist and Nobel Prize winner, and a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.-Biography:...

 (physics), Wilhelm Ostwald
Wilhelm Ostwald
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald was a Baltic German chemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction velocities...

 (chemistry) and Theodor Mommsen
Theodor Mommsen
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist, and writer generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. His work regarding Roman history is still of fundamental importance for contemporary research...

 (Nobel Prize in literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words from the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction"...

). Other former staff of faculty include mineralogist Georg Agricola
Georg Agricola
Georgius Agricola was a German scholar and scientist. Known as "the father of mineralogy", he was born at Glauchau in Saxony. His real name was Georg Pawer; Agricola is the Latinised version of his name, Pawer meaning "farmer"...

, writer Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist, and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature...

, philosopher Ernst Bloch
Ernst Bloch
Ernst Bloch was a German Marxist philosopher.Bloch was influenced by both Hegel and Marx and, as he always confessed, by novelist Karl May. He was also interested in music and art . He established friendships with Georg Lukács, Bertolt Brecht, Kurt Weill and Theodor W. Adorno...

, eccentric founder of psychophysics
Psychophysics
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they effect. Psychophysics has been described as "the scientific study of the relation between stimulus and sensation" or, more completely, as "the analysis of perceptual...

 Gustav Theodor Fechner, and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was a German physician, psychologist, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology. He is widely regarded as the "father of experimental psychology"...

. Among the university's many noteworthy students were writers Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Erich Kästner
Erich Kästner
Emil Erich Kästner was a German author, poet, screenwriter and satirist, known for his humorous, socially astute poetry and children's literature.-Dresden 1899–1919:...

, mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German philosopher and mathematician. He wrote in different languages, primarily in Latin , French and German ....

 and philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a 19th-century German philosopher, poet, composer and classical philologist...

, political activist Karl Liebknecht
Karl Liebknecht
was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. He is best known for his opposition to World War I in the Reichstag and his role in the Spartacist uprising of 1919...

, and composer Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...

. Germany's chancellor since 2006, Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Angela Dorothea Merkel is the current Chancellor of Germany . Merkel, elected to the Bundestag from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, has been the chairwoman of the Christian Democratic Union since 2000, and chairwoman of the CDU-CSU parliamentary coalition from 2002 to 2005.From 2005 to 2009 she led a...

, studied physics at Leipzig University. The university has about 30,000 students.

A part of Leipzig University is the German Institute for Literature
German Institute for Literature
The German Institute for Literature is a part of Leipzig University. It was founded in 1955 under the name Johannes R. Becher-Institut...

 which was founded in 1955 under the name "Johannes R. Becher-Institut". A lot of noted writers have graduated from this school, including Heinz Czechowski, Kurt Drawert, Adolf Endler, Ralph Giordano, Kerstin Hensel, Sarah and Rainer Kirsch, Angela Krauß, Erich Loest, Fred Wander. After its closure in 1990 the institute was refounded in 1995 with new teachers.

Visual Arts and Theatre


The "Academy of Visual Arts" (Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst) was established 1764. Its 530 students (as of 2006) are enrolled in courses in painting and graphics, book design/graphic design, photography and media art. The school also houses an Institute for Theory.

The University of Music and Theatre offers a broad range of subjects ranging from training in orchestral instruments, voice, interpretation, coaching, piano chamber music, orchestral conducting, choir conducting and musical composition to acting and dramaturgy.

University of Applied Science


The Leipzig University of Applied Science
Leipzig University of Applied Science
The Leipzig University of Applied Sciences is a Fachhochschule in Leipzig, Germany. With 6,200 students, it is the biggest University of Applied Sciences in Saxony. Most of the classes are held in engineering and computer science....

s (HTWK) has approximately 6200 students (as of 2007) and is (as of 2007) the second biggest institution of higher education in Leipzig. It was founded in 1992, merging several older schools. As a university of applied sciences (German: Fachhochschule) it status is slightly below that of a university, with more emphasis on the practical part of the education. The HTWK offers many engineering courses, as well as courses in computer science, mathematics, business administration, librarianship, museum studies and social work. It is mainly located in the south of the city.

Others


The private Leipzig Graduate School of Management, (in German Handelshochschule Leipzig (HHL)), is the oldest business school in Germany.

Among the research institutes located in Leipzig, three belong to the Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany....

. These are the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences
Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences
The Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Leipzig was founded on March 1, 1996.At the institute scientists work on projects which apply mathematics in various areas of natural sciences, in particular physics, biology, chemistry and material science.Main research areas are*...

, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
The Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences is located Leipzig, Germany. The institute was founded in 2004 by a merger between the former Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience in Leipzig and the Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in Munich...

 and Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology is a research institute based in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1997. It is part of the Max Planck Society network....

. Two more are Fraunhofer Society
Fraunhofer Society
The Fraunhofer Society is a German research organization with 60 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science . It employs around 18,000, mainly scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of about €1.65 billion...

 institutes. Others are the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
The Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ was established in 1991 and has about 800 employees. They study the complex interactions between humans and the environment in cultivated and damaged landscapes...

, part of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, and the Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research.

Economy



Companies in or around Leipzig include:
  • Amazon
    Amazon.com
    Amazon.com, Inc. is a multinational electronic commerce company headquartered in Seattle, Washington, United States. It is the world's largest online retailer. Amazon has separate websites for the following countries: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Japan, and...

  • Blüthner
    Blüthner
    Blüthner, formally Julius Blüthner Pianofortefabrik GmbH, is a piano-manufacturing company founded by Julius Blüthner in 1853 in Leipzig Germany.- History :...

    : piano-manufacturing
  • BMW
    BMW Central Building
    The BMW Central Building Located in Leipzig, Germany was the winning design submitted for competition by Pritzker Prize winning architect, Zaha Hadid. The central building is the nerve center for BMW's new $1.55 billion complex built to manufacture the BMW 3 Series Vehicle.-Concept:The BMW factory...

  • DHL
    DHL Express
    DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post providing international express mail services. DHL is a world market leader in sea and air mail....

  • Porsche
    Porsche
    Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

  • Siemens
    Siemens
    Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

  • Future Electronics


Many bars, restaurants and stores found in the city centre are patronised by German and foreign tourists. The Leipzig Central Station itself is the location of one of the largest shopping centres.

Some of the largest employers in the area (outside of manufacturing) include the various schools and universities in and around the Leipzig/Halle
Halle, Saxony-Anhalt
Halle is the largest city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish it from the town of Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia...

 region. The University of Leipzig attracts millions of euro
Euro
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

s of investment yearly and is in the middle of a massive construction and refurbishment to celebrate its 600th anniversary.

DHL
DHL Express
DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post providing international express mail services. DHL is a world market leader in sea and air mail....

 is in the process of transferring the bulk of its European air operations from Brussels Airport
Brussels Airport
Brussels Airport is an international airport northeast of Brussels, Belgium. The airport is partially in Zaventem and partially in the Diegem area of Machelen, both located in the Flemish Region of Belgium.Brussels Airport currently consists of 54 contact gates, and a total of 109 gates...

 to Leipzig/Halle Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport, sometimes called Schkeuditz Airport , is located in Schkeuditz, Saxony and serves both Leipzig, Saxony and Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.It has more than two million passengers per year....

. Amazon.com
Amazon.com
Amazon.com, Inc. is a multinational electronic commerce company headquartered in Seattle, Washington, United States. It is the world's largest online retailer. Amazon has separate websites for the following countries: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Japan, and...

 has a major distribution center, also near the airport.

The city also houses the European Energy Exchange
European Energy eXchange
European Energy Exchange AG, Germany's energy exchange, is the leading energy exchange in Central Europe.-Overview:The European Energy Exchange is located in Leipzig. Preceding companies were LPX Leipzig Power Exchange, located in Leipzig and European Energy Exchange, located in Frankfurt...

 which is the leading energy exchange in Central Europe.

Kirow Ardelt AG, the world market leader in railroad cranes
Crane (railroad)
A railroad crane, is a type of crane used on a railroad for one of three primary uses: freight handling in goods yards, permanent way maintenance, and accident recovery work...

, is based in Leipzig.

Future Electronics – a world leader in electronic component distribution has relocated its EMEA Distribution Centre to Leipzig.

Media


  • MDR
    Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk
    Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk is the public broadcaster for the federal states of Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt...

    , one of Germany's public broadcasters, has its headquarters and main television studios in the city. It provides programs to various TV and radio networks and has its own symphony orchestra, choir and a ballet.
  • Leipziger Volkszeitung (LVZ) is the city's only daily newspaper. Founded in 1894, it has published under several different forms of government. It was the first newspaper in the world to be published daily. The monthly magazine Kreuzer specializes on culture, festivities and the arts in Leipzig.
  • Once known for its large number of publishing houses, Leipzig had been called Buch-Stadt (book city). Few are left after the years of the German Democratic Republic
    German Democratic Republic
    The German Democratic Republic , informally called East Germany by West Germany and other countries, was a socialist state established in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany, including East Berlin of the Allied-occupied capital city...

    , during which time Frankfurt developed as a more important publishing centre, the most notable of them being branches of Brockhaus and Insel Verlag. Reclam
    Reclam
    thumb|A 1902 catalogReclam Verlag or just Reclam is a German publishing house, established in Leipzig in 1828 by Anton Philipp Reclam. It is known for its "little yellow books", in particular those of its "universal library" ....

    , founded in 1828, was one of the large publishing houses to move away. The German Library (Deutsche Bücherei) in Leipzig is part of Germany's National Library
    German National Library
    The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany...

    .

Road


Originally founded at the crossing of Via Regia
Via Regia
Via Regia, i.e. "Royal Highway", denotes a mediæval historic road. The term, in the usual sense, means not just a specific road, rather a type of road. It was legally associated with the king and remained under his special protection and guarantee of public peace.There were many such roads in the...

 and Via Imperii
Via Imperii
Via Imperii, i.e. "Imperial Road", was one of the most important Reichsstraßen of the Holy Roman Empire. The old trade route ran in a south-north direction from Venice on the Adriatic Sea and Verona in the Kingdom of Italy across the Brenner Pass through Germany to the Baltic coast passing the...

, Leipzig has been a major interchange of inter-European traffic and commerce since medieval times. After the Reunification of Germany, immense efforts to restore and expand the traffic network have been undertaken and left the city area with an excellent infrastructure.

Since 1936, Leipzig has been connected to the A 9 and A 14 autobahns via the Schkeuditzer Kreuz interchange and several exits. The A 38 completes the autobahn beltway around Leipzig and was completed in August 2006.

Like most German cities, Leipzig has a traffic layout designed to be bicycle-friendly
Bicycle-friendly
The term bicycle-friendly describes policies and practices which may help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by bicycle with other traffic...

. There is an extensive cycle network. In most of the one-way central streets, cyclists are explicitly allowed to cycle both ways. A few cycle paths have been built or declared since 1990.

Rail


Leipzig Central Station
Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
is, at 83,460 m², Europe's largest railway station when measured by floor area. It has 24 platforms housed in six iron trainsheds; a multi-level concourse with towering stone arches; and a 293 metre-long facade...

, opened in 1915, is at a junction of important north-to-south and west-to-east railway lines. The ICE
Ice
Ice is water frozen into the solid state. Usually ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth's surface. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence of impurities or air inclusions...

 train between Berlin and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 stops in Leipzig and it takes approximately 1 hour from Berlin Central Station and 6 hours from Munich Central Station.

Leipzig also has an extensive local public transport network. The city's tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 and bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 network is operated by the Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe. Leipzig's tram network, at a length of 209 km (about 140 miles) is one of the longest of any German city.

An underground railway line called the "city tunnel" is presently under construction and this will link the train station to the city centre at a cost in excess of 500 million euro.

Air


Leipzig/Halle Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport, sometimes called Schkeuditz Airport , is located in Schkeuditz, Saxony and serves both Leipzig, Saxony and Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.It has more than two million passengers per year....

 is the main airport in the vicinity of the city. Leipzig/Halle Airport offers a number of seasonal vacation charter flights as well as regular scheduled service. The former military airport near Altenburg
Altenburg
Altenburg is a town in the German federal state of Thuringia, 45 km south of Leipzig. It is the capital of the Altenburger Land district.-Geography:...

, Thuringia
Thuringia
The Free State of Thuringia is a state of Germany, located in the central part of the country.It has an area of and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states....

 called Leipzig-Altenburg Airport about a half-hour drive from Leipzig was previously (until 2010) served by Ryanair
Ryanair
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline. Its head office is at Dublin Airport and its primary operational bases at Dublin Airport and London Stansted Airport....

.

Water


In the first half of the 20th Century the construction of the Elster-Saale canal s, White Elster and Saale
Saale
The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale and Thuringian Saale , is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. It is not to be confused with the smaller Franconian Saale, a right-bank tributary of the Main, or the Saale in Lower Saxony, a tributary of the Leine.-Course:The Saale...

 was started in Leipzig in order to connect to the network of waterways. The outbreak of the Second World War stopped most of the work, though some may have continued through the use of forced labor. The Lindenauer port was almost completed but not yet connected to the Elster-Saale and Karl-Heine canal respectively. The Leipzig rivers (White Elster, New Luppe Pleisse and Parthe
Parthe
The Parthe is a river in Saxony, Germany, right tributary of the Weiße Elster. Its total length is 60 km. The Parthe originates in northern Saxony, between Colditz and Bad Lausick. It flows northwest through Parthenstein, Naunhof, Borsdorf and Taucha before entering the city of Leipzig...

) in the city have largely artificial river beds and are supplemented by some channels. These waterways are suitable only for small leisure boat traffic.

Through the renovation and reconstruction of existing mill race
Mill race
A mill race, raceway or mill lade is the current or channel of a stream, especially one for conducting water to or from a water wheel or other device for utilizing its energy...

s and watercourses in the south of the city and flooded disused open cast mines the city's navigable water network is being expanded. The city commissioned planning for a link between Karl Heine Canal and the disused Lindenauer port in 2008. Still more work was still scheduled to complete the Elster-Saale canal. Such a move would allow sport boats to reach the Elbe
Elbe
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northwestern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia , then Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km northwest of Hamburg...

 from Leipzig. The intended completion date was, however, postponed because of unacceptable cost-benefit ratio.

Quotations


Mein Leipzig lob' ich mir! Es ist ein klein Paris und bildet seine Leute. (I praise my Leipzig! It is a small Paris and educates its people.) - Frosch, a university student in Goethe's Faust, Part One
Goethe's Faust
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust is a tragic play in two parts: and . Although written as a closet drama, it is the play with the largest audience numbers on German-language stages...



Ich komme nach Leipzig, an den Ort, wo man die ganze Welt im Kleinen sehen kann. (I'm coming to Leipzig, to the place where one can see the whole world in miniature.) – Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist, and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature...



Extra Lipsiam vivere est miserrime vivere. (To live outside Leipzig is to live miserably.) - Benedikt Carpzov the Younger
Carpzov
Carpzov is the name of a family, many of whose members attained distinction in Saxony in the 17th and 18th centuries as jurists, theologians and statesmen.-Origins:...



Das angenehme Pleis-Athen, Behält den Ruhm vor allen, Auch allen zu gefallen, Denn es ist wunderschön. (The pleasurable Pleiss-Athens, earns its fame above all, appealing to every one, too, for it is mightily beauteous.) - Johann Sigismund Scholze
Johann Sigismund Scholze
Johann Sigismund Scholze alias Sperontes was a Silesian music anthologist and poet.-Life:...


International relations


Leipzig is twinned with: Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia...

, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

, since 2004 Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

, UK, since 1992 Bologna
Bologna
Bologna is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna, in the Po Valley of Northern Italy. The city lies between the Po River and the Apennine Mountains, more specifically, between the Reno River and the Savena River. Bologna is a lively and cosmopolitan Italian college city, with spectacular history,...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, since 1962, renewed in 1997 Brno
Brno
Brno by population and area is the second largest city in the Czech Republic, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative centre of the South Moravian Region where it forms a separate district Brno-City District...

, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, since 1973, renewed in 1999 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, since 1990 Hanover
Hanover
Hanover or Hannover, on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony , Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, since 1987 Houston, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, since 1993 Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, since 1961, renewed in 1992 Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, since 1981 Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, since 1988 Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia with a population of 338,153 inhabitants according to Census 2011. Plovdiv's history spans some 6,000 years, with traces of a Neolithic settlement dating to roughly 4000 BC; it is one of the oldest cities in Europe...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

, since 1975, renewed in 2007 Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki , historically also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the region of Central Macedonia as well as the capital of the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, since 1984 Travnik
Travnik
Travnik is a city and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, 90 km west of Sarajevo. It is the capital of the Central Bosnia Canton, and is located in the Travnik Municipality. Travnik today has some 27,000 residents, with a metro population that is probably close to 70,000 people...

, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

, since 2003 Herzliya
Herzliya
Herzliya is a city in the central coast of Israel, at the western part of the Tel Aviv District. It has a population of 87,000 residents. Named after Theodor Herzl, the founder of modern Zionism, Herzliya covers an area of 26 km²...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, since 2010

See also

  • Leipzig Human Rights Award
    Leipzig Human Rights Award
    The Leipzig Human Rights Award is an honor given by the European-American Citizens Committee for Human Rights and Religious Freedom in the USA, which recognizes "efforts towards human rights and freedom of expression in the USA" and actions against what the organization refers to as "human rights...

  • List of mayors of Leipzig
  • Hugo Schneider AG
    Hugo Schneider AG
    Hugo Schneider AG was a small German metal goods manufacturer founded in 1863. Based in Leipzig, it grew from a small business making lamps and other small metal products by hand into a large factory and publicly-traded company that sold its wares in several countries around the world...

  • Leipzig University Library
    Leipzig University Library
    Leipzig University Library , known also as Bibliotheca Albertina, is the central library of the University of Leipzig. It is one of the oldest German university libraries.- History :...


External links