Islamic eschatology
Islamic eschatology is concerned with the al-Qiyāmah (Last Judgement). Like the other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead
Resurrection of the dead
Resurrection of the Dead is a belief found in a number of eschatologies, most commonly in Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian. In general, the phrase refers to a specific event in the future; multiple prophesies in the histories of these religions assert that the dead will be brought back to...

, the fulfillment of a divine plan for creation, and the judgement of the soul; the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah
Jannah , is the Islamic conception of paradise. The Arabic word Jannah is a shortened version meaning simply "Garden". According to Islamic eschatology, after death, one will reside in the grave until the appointed resurrection on . Muslims believe that the treatment of the individual in the life...

Heaven, the Heavens or Seven Heavens, is a common religious cosmological or metaphysical term for the physical or transcendent place from which heavenly beings originate, are enthroned or inhabit...

) while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam
Jahannam is the Arabic language equivalent to Hell. The term comes from the Greek Gehenna, itself derived from the Hebrew geographical name for the Valley of Hinnom.-Jahannam in the Qur'an:...

 (Hell). Eschatology
Eschatology is a part of theology, philosophy, and futurology concerned with what are believed to be the final events in history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity, commonly referred to as the end of the world or the World to Come...

 relates to one of the six (seven according to Shī‘a traditions) articles of faith (aqīdah) of Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 according to the Sunni traditions.

A significant portion (about one third) of the Qur'an deals with these beliefs, with many hadith
The term Hadīth is used to denote a saying or an act or tacit approval or criticism ascribed either validly or invalidly to the Islamic prophet Muhammad....

 elaborating on the themes and details. It also emphasizes the inevitability of resurrection, judgment, and the eternal division of the righteous and the wicked. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon
Armageddon is, according to the Bible, the site of a battle during the end times, variously interpreted as either a literal or symbolic location...

 is often known as fitna ("a test") or malahim (or ghayba to the Shī‘a).

Hadith of Gabriel

Among many hadith
The term Hadīth is used to denote a saying or an act or tacit approval or criticism ascribed either validly or invalidly to the Islamic prophet Muhammad....

 related to signs of day of judgement, one of the most famous hadith is the Hadith of Gabriel
Hadith of Gabriel
In Islam, the Hadith of Gabriel is the single most important report on the words and actions of the Prophet Muhammad. Its narrative contains the best summary of the core of Islam: the Five Pillars and the Six...


Jesus and the Dajjal (AntiChrist)

According to Islamic view, Isa (Jesus) son of Mary, was a prophet
In religion, a prophet, from the Greek word προφήτης profitis meaning "foreteller", is an individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and serves as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people...

 and messenger of God. It is believed that Jesus was not crucified; instead he was raised bodily. According to many hadith, he will return to Earth
Second Coming
In Christian doctrine, the Second Coming of Christ, the Second Advent, or the Parousia, is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven, where he sits at the Right Hand of God, to Earth. This prophecy is found in the canonical gospels and in most Christian and Islamic eschatologies...

. At the time appointed by God, Jesus will physically return to this world and aid the Mahdi
In Islamic eschatology, the Mahdi is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on Earth for seven, nine or nineteen years- before the Day of Judgment and, alongside Jesus, will rid the world of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny.In Shia Islam, the belief in the Mahdi is a "central religious...

. According to some sects of Shia Islam, the Mahdi also descends. He will break the cross, kill the swine, slaughter the Dajjal
al-Masih ad-Dajjal , is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology. He is to appear pretending to be Masih at a time in the future, before Yawm al-Qiyamah , directly comparable to the figures of the Antichrist and Armilus in Christian and Jewish eschatology, respectively.-Name: is a common Arabic word ...

and end all wars, ushering in a messianic era of peace.

Ya'juj and Ma'juj

During the reign of Isa people will live an extremely peaceful life filled with prosperity and abundance. Then the wall which imprisons Ya'juj and Ma'juj will break and they will surge forth in large numbers. There is much debate about the time of release of Ya'juj and Ma'juj. Some Islamic scholars like Imran Nazar Hosein believe that the wall containing the Ya'juj and Ma'juj has been brought down during the lifetime of Muhammad. This is supported by evidence from the sayings of Muhammad where he mentions that "a hole has been made in the wall containing the Ya'juj and Ma'juj", indicating the size of the hole with his thumb and index finger.

The beast

The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

 tells about the beast of earth


A fundamental tenet of Islam is belief in the day of resurrection, Qiyamah
In Islam, Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Din is believed to be God's final assessment of humanity as it exists. The sequence of events is the annihilation of all creatures allowable, resurrection of the body, and the judgment of all sentient creatures.The exact time when these events are to occur...

. The trials and tribulation
The Great Tribulation refers to tumultuous events that are described during the "signs of the times", first mentioned by Jesus in the Olivet discourse...

s of Qiyamah are explained in both the Qur'an and the Hadith, as well as in the commentaries of Islamic scholar
Ulama , also spelt ulema, refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law...

s such as al-Ghazali
Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī , known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia was a Persian Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic....

, Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
Ismail ibn Kathir was a Muslim muhaddith, Faqih, historian, and commentator.-Biography:His full name was Abu Al-Fida, 'Imad Ad-Din, Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir, Al-Qurashi, Al-Busrawi...

, and Muhammad al-Bukhari.

Muslims believe that God will hold every human, Muslim and non-Muslim, accountable for his or her deeds at a preordained time unknown to man. The angel Israfil
Islamic view of angels
Angels are mentioned many times in the Qur'an and Hadith. Islam is clear on the nature of angels in that they are messengers of God. They have no free will, and can do only what God orders them to do...

, is waiting for Allah to give him the command to sound the horn which will signal the beginning of day of judgment. Traditions say Muhammad will be the first to be brought back to life.

Muslims also believe in "the punishment of the grave," which supposedly takes place between death and the resurrection.

The punishments in hell includes adhab, "pain or torment inflicted by way of chastisement; punishment", a very painful punishment (see ); khizy, "shame, disgrace, ignominy" . The descriptions in the Qur'an of hell are very descriptive (see , etc.).

The punishments in the Qur'an are contrasted not with release but with mercy . Islam views paradise as a place of joy and bliss.


According to all the traditional schools of jurisprudence, faith (iman
Iman (concept)
Iman is an Arabic term which denotes certitude or adherence to an idea. In Islamic theology, it refers to the inner aspect of the religion, and denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical realities of Islam. The term Iman has been delineated in both the Quran as well as the famous Hadith of...

) ensures salvation. There are however differing views concerning the formal constituents of the act of faith. "For the Asharis it is centred on internal taṣdīḳ[internal judgment of veracity], for the Māturīdī-Ḥanafīs on the expressed profession of faith and the adherence of the heart, for the Muʿtazilīs on the performance of the 'prescribed duties', for the Ḥanbalīs and the Wahhābīs on the profession of faith and the performance of the basic duties." The common denominator of these various opinions is summed up in bearing witness that God is the Lord, L. Gardet states.

There are traditions in which Muhammad stated that "No one shall enter hell who has an atom of faith in his heart" or that "Hell will not welcome anyone who has in his heart an atom of faith" however these passages are interpreted in different ways. Those who consider performance as an integral part of faith such as , consider anyone who does a grave sin to be out of faith, while the majority of Sunnis who view works as merely the perfecting the faith, hold that a believing sinner will be punished with a temporary stay in hell. Still there is disagreement over the possibility of a believing sinner being forgiven immediately (e.g. ) and in full rather than undergoing temporary punishment. (e.g. Māturīdīs)


Ibn al-Nafis dealt with Islamic eschatology in some depth in his Theologus Autodidactus, where he rationalized
In philosophy, rationality is the exercise of reason. It is the manner in which people derive conclusions when considering things deliberately. It also refers to the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons for belief, or with one's actions with one's reasons for action...

 the Islamic view of eschatology using reason
Reason is a term that refers to the capacity human beings have to make sense of things, to establish and verify facts, and to change or justify practices, institutions, and beliefs. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, ...

, science
Islamic science
Science in the medieval Islamic world, also known as Islamic science or Arabic science, is the science developed and practised in the Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age . During this time, Indian, Iranian and especially Greek knowledge was translated into Arabic...

, and philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar and lasting until the 6th century AH...

 to explain the events that would occur according to Islamic eschatology. He presented his rational and scientific arguments in the form of Arabic fiction
Arabic literature
Arabic literature is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by writers in the Arabic language. The Arabic word used for literature is adab which is derived from a meaning of etiquette, and implies politeness, culture and enrichment....

, hence his Theologus Autodidactus may be considered amongst the earliest science fiction
Science fiction
Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, and paranormal abilities...


See also

  • Buddhist eschatology
    Buddhist eschatology
    Buddhist eschatology, as subscribed by some Buddhist schools, derives from purported Gautama Buddha's prediction that his teachings would disappear after 5,000 years...

  • Christian eschatology
    Christian eschatology
    Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology. Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning last and study , is the study of the end of things, whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, or the end of the world...

  • Gog and Magog
  • Heaven in Islam
  • Iblis, Shaitan
  • Islamic view of Jesus
    Islamic view of Jesus
    In Islam, Jesus is considered to be a Messenger of God and the Masih who was sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new scripture, the Injīl or Gospel. The belief in Jesus is required in Islam, and a requirement of being a Muslim. The Qur'an mentions Jesus twenty-five times, more often, by...

  • List of Islamic terms in Arabic
  • Mahdi
    In Islamic eschatology, the Mahdi is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on Earth for seven, nine or nineteen years- before the Day of Judgment and, alongside Jesus, will rid the world of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny.In Shia Islam, the belief in the Mahdi is a "central religious...

    , Mahdaviat
    Mahdaviat is a religious term in Twelver Shī‘ah Islam meaning "belief in and efforts to prepare for the Mahdi". Believing followers of any Mahdi claimant can be referred to as Mahdavi "Mahdi followers".-Theology:...

  • Messiah
    A messiah is a redeemer figure expected or foretold in one form or another by a religion. Slightly more widely, a messiah is any redeemer figure. Messianic beliefs or theories generally relate to eschatological improvement of the state of humanity or the world, in other words the World to...

    , Masih
    Masih is the Arabic word for Messiah. In modern Arabic it is used as one of the many titles of Isa , who is known to Christians as Jesus...

  • Nakir and Munkar
    Nakir and Munkar
    Munkar and Nakir, in Islamic eschatology, are angels who test the faith of the dead in their graves....

  • Imran Nazar Hosein
    Imran Nazar Hosein
    Imran Nazar Hosein is an International Islamic Philosopher, Scholar and author, specialising in world politics, economy, eschatology , modern socio-economic/political issues and expert on international affairs...

    author of "Signs of the Last Day in the Modern Age"

External links

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