International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

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Encyclopedia
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas ( or ICARDA ) is an Arab center for International Agricultural Research located at Tel Hadya near Aleppo in the Syrian Arab Republic.

Is one of 15 research centers supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research . The Arab center was established in 1975 and has the mission to improve the welfare of the poor through research and training in arid areas of the developing world. Also plans to increase production, productivity and nutritional quality of food, while preserving and enhancing the environment and local natural resources.

Works


ICARDA
serves the developing world with various projects and programs that rigardano developments in agriculture, such as :
  • improving lentil
    Lentil
    The lentil is an edible pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds...

    , barley
    Barley
    Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

     and faba bean

  • working with dry-area developing countries to improve on-farm water-use efficiency, rangeland
    Rangeland
    Rangelands are vast natural landscapes in the form of grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, wetlands, and deserts. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies, desert grasslands and shrublands, woodlands, savannas, chaparrals, steppes, and tundras...

     and small ruminant
    Ruminant
    A ruminant is a mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first compartment of the stomach, principally through bacterial actions, then regurgitating the semi-digested mass, now known as cud, and chewing it again...

     production

  • working with the Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) region to improve bread and durum wheats, chickpea
    Chickpea
    The chickpea is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae...

    , pasture and forage
    Forage
    Forage is plant material eaten by grazing livestock.Historically the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially...

     legumes, and farming systems.

Research



ICARDA's research on the sources of rust resistance in wheat is a key part of the fight against the rust fungus.

The wheat rust is a pathogen capable/able to mutate rapidly to form new strains to overcome resistance genes of bred in wheat . Researchers have found genes for resistance and the ratio test is made at the eighth International Conference on grain , who stressed the importance of landraces, primitive and wild Triticum species as sources of seedling and adult plant resistance to rust of wheat. The yellow rust fungus is a growing problem in the region Cwana and not easy to find new sources of resistance to yellow rust in wheat genotypes were tested advanced . Are local varieties, and species of wild and primitive wheat to accelerate the introduction of these resistance genes is the search for molecular markers associated with resistance genes of the plant. .

Central and West Asia and North Africa are the main centers and key area of epidemiology. These areas have a wide availability of genetic diversity, but also wheat, livestock and bread. ICARDA, based his research solely on the loss of productivity due to excess heat stress.

Heat stress is a major abiotic stresses causing the loss of productivity in Central and West Asia and North America region. In these regions, grain and bread is the staple food, with per capita consumption of 200 kg per year. Heat stress during heading and grain filling is very common in this region, mainly due to the shortening of the stages of development and size of the facilities. The results of heat stress in early senescence of leaves and negative physiological and biochemical changes.

The methodology ICARDA and progress in breeding for cultivars of wheat with increased tolerance to temperature stress, which is the source of the pathogen .