René Joachim Henri Dutrochet
(November 14, 1776 – February 4, 1847) was a French
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...
, botanist and physiologist. He is best known for his investigation into osmosis.
Dutrochet was born in Néons
Néons-sur-Creuse is a commune in the Indre department in central France.-Geography:The commune is located in the parc naturel régional de la Brenne....
to a noble family, soon ruined in the French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...
. In 1799 he entered the military marine at Rochefort
Rochefort is a commune in southwestern France, a port on the Charente estuary. It is a sub-prefecture of the Charente-Maritime department.-History:...
, but soon left it to join the Vendean army. He then left it to tend to his family's manor in Touraine
The Touraine is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its capital was Tours. During the political reorganization of French territory in 1790, the Touraine was divided between the departments of Indre-et-Loire, :Loir-et-Cher and Indre.-Geography:...
. There, he was a keen observer of nature, and his country neighbor, the doctor Petitbeau, a surgeon a the Hospital Necker, encouraged him to study medicine.
In 1802 he began the study of medicine at Paris; and he was subsequently appointed chief physician to the hospital at Burgos
Burgos is a city of northern Spain, historic capital of Castile. It is situated at the edge of the central plateau, with about 178,966 inhabitants in the city proper and another 20,000 in its suburbs. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León...
, Spain. After an attack of typhus
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters...
he returned in to France in 1909 at his mother's property near Château-Renault
Château-Renault is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. The town of Chateau-Renault is located equidistant between the cities of Tours and Vendome and can be reached on train services on the Tours-Paris or Tours-Vendome lines...
, where he devoted himself to the study of the natural sciences. He died in Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...
His scientific publications were numerous, and covered a wide field, but his most noteworthy work was embryological
Embryology is a science which is about the development of an embryo from the fertilization of the ovum to the fetus stage...
. His Recherches sur l'accroissement et la reproduction des végétaux
, published in the Mémoires du museum d'histoire naturelle
for 1821, procured him in that year the French Academys prize for experimental physiology. In 1837 appeared his Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire anatomique et physiologique des végétaux et des animaux
, a collection of all his more important biological papers.
He investigated and described osmosis
Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, aiming to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides...
Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate , and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve...
, embryology, and the effect of light on plants. He has been given credit for discovering cell biology
Cell biology is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level...
and cells in plants and the actual discovery of the process of osmosis. His early researches into the voice introduced the first modern concept of vocal cord movement.
Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...
plant genus Trochetia
Trochetia is a genus of flowering plants from the family Malvaceae . They are endemic to the Mascarene Islands.The genus was first described by A.P...
was named in his honour.
- New Theory of the Voice (1800)
- New Theory of Harmony (1810)
- Researches in the growth and reproduction of plants (1821)
- Research in Osteogenesis (bone production) (1822)
- Research in the anatomy of animals and plants (1824)
- Research in an agent's immediate vital movement (1826)
- Research in Endosmosis and Exosmosis (1828)
- Research in the development of the egg and the fetus
- Research in Radial development in plants and the ascent of Sap.
- Contributions to understanding anatomy and physiology of plants and animals (1837)
- Research in the elliptical force (1842-43)