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Eucalyptus pauciflora

Eucalyptus pauciflora

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The Snow Gum is a small tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

 or large shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

 native to eastern Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

.

Habitat


It is usually found in the subalpine habitats of eastern Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. Snow Gums also grow in lowland habitats where they can reach heights of up to 20 metres. Lowland Snow Gum is sometimes known as White Sallee, Cabbage Gum or Cabbage Ash. Similar but less common species include the Wolgan Snow Gum (Eucalyptus gregsoniana
Eucalyptus gregsoniana
Eucalyptus gregsoniana, Wolgan Snow gum and also Mallee Snow Gum is a mallee that is found in the highlands of New South Wales Located in the Blue Mountains, Budawang Range and south of Braidwood in New South Wales.It can grow to 5 metres...

) and the Weeping Snow Gum (Eucalyptus lacrimans).The Snow gum is mainly found in Kosciuszko national park.

Description


The bark of Eucalyptus pauciflora is smooth and white to light grey or sometimes brown-red, shedding in patches or strips to give a mottled appearance. The adult leaves are usually lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate with distinct parallel veins, but may be narrowly ovate.
Rather than losing its leaves in winter/autumn, the tree adapts to the weight of snow by progressively bending its branches so that the outermost branches extend vertically down and snow is shed from the leaves.

Sub species




Six subspecies are recognised, treated as species by some botanists:
  • E. pauciflora subsp. pauciflora, the nominate subspecies, with non-glaucous buds. This is by far the most widespread form.
  • E. pauciflora subsp. debeuzevillei, syn. E. debeuzevillei, the Jounama Snow Gum, with glaucous angular buds. This is found only in the far south-east of New South Wales.
  • E. pauciflora subsp. niphophila, syn. E. niphophila, with glaucous non-angular buds. This is found in the highest parts of the Australian Alps
    Australian Alps
    The Australian Alps are the highest mountain ranges of mainland Australia. They are located in southeastern Australia and straddle the Australian Capital Territory, south-eastern New South Wales and eastern Victoria...

    , straddling the Victoria - New South Wales border.
  • E. pauciflora subsp. hedraia, with sessile glaucous buds. Restricted to the Falls Creek
    Falls Creek
    Falls Creek may refer to:* Falls Creek, New South Wales, Australia: a small town on the South Coast, New South Wales* Falls Creek, Victoria, Australia: ski resort* Falls Creek, British Columbia, Canada: a waterfall and creek in Wells Gray Provincial Park...

     and Mount Bogong
    Mount Bogong
    Mount Bogong , located in the Alpine National Park, is the highest mountain in Victoria, Australia. The Big River separates the massif of the mountain from the Bogong High Plains to the south. "Bogong" in the local Aboriginal language means bigfella...

     area, Victoria.
  • E. pauciflora subsp. parvifructa, with small adult leaves and small, slightly glaucous buds. Restricted to above 900m altitude on the Mount William Range, the Grampians
    Grampians National Park
    The Grampians National Park is a national park in Victoria, Australia, 235 kilometres west of Melbourne. The Park was listed on the Australian National Heritage List on 15 December 2006 for its outstanding natural beauty and being one of the richest indigenous rock art sites in south-eastern...

    , Victoria.
  • E. pauciflora subsp. acerina, with glossy adult leaves and non-glaucous buds (smaller than subsp. pauciflora). Restricted to above 1200m altitude in the vicinity of the Baw Baw Plateau
    Mount Baw Baw
    Mount Baw Baw is a mountain in Victoria, Australia. Mount Baw Baw Alpine Resort is an Unincorporated area of Victoria surrounded by the Shire of Baw Baw.-Location:...

    , Victoria.

Range



Snow Gums occur as woodlands and open woodlands between 1300 m and 1800 m in Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

, Tasmania
Tasmania
Tasmania is an Australian island and state. It is south of the continent, separated by Bass Strait. The state includes the island of Tasmania—the 26th largest island in the world—and the surrounding islands. The state has a population of 507,626 , of whom almost half reside in the greater Hobart...

 and New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

, where they form the altitudinal limit of the tree line. The distribution of the lowland form extends a short distance across the Queensland
Queensland
Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

 and South Australia
South Australia
South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of , it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.South Australia shares borders with all of the mainland...

n borders. Because of land clearing, few stands of lowland Snow Gum remain, and considerable efforts are being put into preserving the remnants.

Snow Gums regenerate from seed, by epicormic shoot
Epicormic shoot
An epicormic shoot is a shoot growing from an epicormic bud which lies underneath the bark of a trunk, stem, or branch of a plant.-Epicormic buds:...

s below the bark, and from lignotubers. It is the most cold-tolerant species of Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia...

, with subsp. niphophila surviving temperatures down to about -23°C and year-round frosts. It has been introduced to Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

.

In Tasmania the species hybridizes with Tasmanian snow gum
Eucalyptus coccifera
Eucalyptus coccifera, the Tasmanian snow gum or the Mount Wellington Peppermint, is a native tree of Tasmania.It grows as a shrub on margins of the alpine Central Highland Tasmania....

 and Eucalyptus amygdalina
Eucalyptus amygdalina
Eucalyptus amygdalina, or black peppermint, is a species of Eucalyptus which is endemic to Australia. It was first described by Labillardiere in 1806....

 

See also

  • Mountain-ash
    Eucalyptus regnans
    Eucalyptus regnans, known variously by the common names Mountain Ash, Victorian Ash, Swamp Gum, Tasmanian Oak or Stringy Gum, is a species of Eucalyptus native to southeastern Australia, in Tasmania and Victoria...

  • Alpine-ash
    Eucalyptus delegatensis
    Eucalyptus delegatensis, commonly known as Alpine Ash or Gum-topped stringybark or White-top, is a sub-alpine or temperate tree of southeastern Australia. A straight, grey-trunked tree, it reaches heights of over 90 metres in suitable conditions. The tallest currently known specimen is located in...

  • Eucalyptus
    Eucalyptus
    Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia...


External links



Further reading

  • Eucalyptus from Alpine Australia. Notes on taxonomy and cultivation in cold temperate climates] Iglesias Trabado, Gustavo (2007). In: EUCALYPTOLOGICS