Queensland

Queensland

Overview
Queensland is a state
States and territories of Australia
The Commonwealth of Australia is a union of six states and various territories. The Australian mainland is made up of five states and three territories, with the sixth state of Tasmania being made up of islands. In addition there are six island territories, known as external territories, and a...

 of Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the centre of the mainland continent, as well as the central northern regions...

, South Australia
South Australia
South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of , it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.South Australia shares borders with all of the mainland...

 and New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

 to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea
Coral Sea
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea off the northeast coast of Australia. It is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, and in the north approximately by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands...

 and Pacific Ocean. The state is Australia's second largest by area, following Western Australia
Western Australia
Western Australia is a state of Australia, occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east...

, and the country's third most populous after New South Wales and Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane
Brisbane
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

.

Queensland was first occupied by Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands. The Aboriginal Indigenous Australians migrated from the Indian continent around 75,000 to 100,000 years ago....

 and Torres Strait Islanders
Torres Strait Islanders
Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia. They are culturally and genetically linked to Melanesian peoples and those of Papua New Guinea....

, who arrived between 40,000 and 65,000 years ago, according to various dating methods.
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Timeline

1859   Australia: Queensland is established as a separate colony from New South Wales (Queensland Day).

1899   Cyclone Mahina sweeps in north of Cooktown, Queensland, with a {{Convert|12|m|ft}} wave that reaches up to {{Convert|5|km|mi}} inland, killing over 300.

1901   The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia federate as the Commonwealth of Australia; Edmund Barton is appointed the first Prime Minister.

1943   A Japanese submarine sinks {{Ship|AHS|Centaur}} off the coast of Queensland.

1986   The Gateway Bridge, Brisbane in Queensland, Australia is officially opened.

 
Encyclopedia
Queensland is a state
States and territories of Australia
The Commonwealth of Australia is a union of six states and various territories. The Australian mainland is made up of five states and three territories, with the sixth state of Tasmania being made up of islands. In addition there are six island territories, known as external territories, and a...

 of Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the centre of the mainland continent, as well as the central northern regions...

, South Australia
South Australia
South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of , it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.South Australia shares borders with all of the mainland...

 and New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

 to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea
Coral Sea
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea off the northeast coast of Australia. It is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, and in the north approximately by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands...

 and Pacific Ocean. The state is Australia's second largest by area, following Western Australia
Western Australia
Western Australia is a state of Australia, occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east...

, and the country's third most populous after New South Wales and Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane
Brisbane
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

.

Queensland was first occupied by Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands. The Aboriginal Indigenous Australians migrated from the Indian continent around 75,000 to 100,000 years ago....

 and Torres Strait Islanders
Torres Strait Islanders
Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia. They are culturally and genetically linked to Melanesian peoples and those of Papua New Guinea....

, who arrived between 40,000 and 65,000 years ago, according to various dating methods. Queensland was made a British Crown Colony
Crown colony
A Crown colony, also known in the 17th century as royal colony, was a type of colonial administration of the English and later British Empire....

 that was separated from New South Wales on 6 June 1859, a date now celebrated state-wide as Queensland Day
Queensland Day
Queensland Day is officially celebrated on 6 June as the birthday of the Australian state of Queensland.-History:Moves towards statehood began with a public meeting in 1851 to consider separation from New South Wales. As the push for separation gained momentum, Queen Victoria was approached to...

.

Queensland is often referred to as Australia's Sunshine State. Queensland' current Premier is Anna Bligh
Anna Bligh
Anna Maria Bligh is an Australian politician and the Premier of Queensland since 2007. The 2009 Queensland state election was the first time a female-led political party won or retained state or federal government in Australia...

 of the Australian Labor Party.

Etymology


The state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. At the time, Queen Victoria was a generally popular monarch, and she preferred an eponymous name for the new colony over Cooksland, which had been suggested by the influential local Presbyterian minister John Dunmore Lang
John Dunmore Lang
John Dunmore Lang , Australian Presbyterian clergyman, writer, politician and activist, was the first prominent advocate of an independent Australian nation and of Australian republicanism.-Background and Family:...

 in honour of English navigator James Cook
James Cook
Captain James Cook, FRS, RN was a British explorer, navigator and cartographer who ultimately rose to the rank of captain in the Royal Navy...

.

History



The history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. Estimated to have been settled by Indigenous Australians approximately 40,000 years ago, the north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch, Portuguese and French navigators before being encountered by Captain James Cook in 1770. The Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is an Australian political party. It has been the governing party of the Commonwealth of Australia since the 2007 federal election. Julia Gillard is the party's federal parliamentary leader and Prime Minister of Australia...

 has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine
Barcaldine, Queensland
Barcaldine is a small town in Western Queensland, Australia, approximately by road west of the city of Rockhampton. The town is situated on Lagoon Creek, which flows into the Alice River approximately five kilometres south of the Barcaldine. This is the administrative centre of the Barcaldine...

 is the symbolic birthplace of the party. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the employment of cheap Kanaka
Kanakas
Kanaka was the term for a worker from various Pacific Islands employed in British colonies, such as British Columbia , Fiji and Queensland in the 19th and early 20th centuries...

 labour sourced from the South Pacific. June 2009 marked the 150 anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree
Richard Daintree
Richard Daintree was a pioneering Australian geologist and photographer. In particular, Daintree was the first Government geologist for North Queensland discovering gold fields and coal seams for future exploitation...

, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia
National Museum of Australia
The National Museum of Australia was formally established by the National Museum of Australia Act 1980. The National Museum preserves and interprets Australia's social history, exploring the key issues, people and events that have shaped the nation....

.

Geography




Queensland is bordered to the north by the Torres Strait
Torres Strait
The Torres Strait is a body of water which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea. It is approximately wide at its narrowest extent. To the south is Cape York Peninsula, the northernmost continental extremity of the Australian state of Queensland...

 with Boigu Island off the coast of New Guinea
New Guinea
New Guinea is the world's second largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 786,000 km2. Located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, it lies geographically to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago...

 representing the absolute northern extreme of the territory. The triangular Cape York Peninsula
Cape York Peninsula
Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula located in Far North Queensland at the tip of the state of Queensland, Australia, the largest unspoilt wilderness in northern Australia and one of the last remaining wilderness areas on Earth...

, which points toward New Guinea is the northernmost part of the state's mainland. West of the peninsula's tip, northern Queensland is bordered by the Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea...

, while the Coral Sea
Coral Sea
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea off the northeast coast of Australia. It is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, and in the north approximately by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands...

— an arm of the Pacific Ocean— borders Queensland to the east. To the west, Queensland is bordered by the Northern Territory, at the 138°E longitude
138th meridian east
The meridian 138° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole....

, and to the south-west by the north-eastern corner of South Australia.

In the south, there are three sections that comprise its border: the watershed from Point Danger to the Dumaresq River
Dumaresq River
The Dumaresq River forms part of the border between Queensland and New South Wales. The Severn River is its principal tributary and the Dumaresq in turn is a tributary of the Macintyre River...

; the river section involving the Dumaresq, the MacIntyre
MacIntyre River
The Macintyre River is a river in northern New South Wales, Australia, part of which forms the border with Queensland.The headwaters of the Macintyre River rise west of Guyra and south of Glen Innes on the Northern Tablelands...

 and the Barwon
Barwon River (New South Wales)
The Barwon River flows through New South Wales, virtually as a continuation of the Macintyre River / Border Rivers system, before joining with the Culgoa River to form the Darling River...

; and 29°S latitude
29th parallel south
The 29th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 29 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific Ocean and South America....

 (including some minor historical encroachments below the 29th parallel) over to the South Australian border.

The state capital is Brisbane
Brisbane
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

, located on the coast 100 kilometres (60 mi) by road north of the New South Wales border. The state is divided into several officially recognised regions
Regions of Queensland
The Regions of Queensland refers to the geographic areas of the Australian state of Queensland. Due to its large size and decentralised population, the state is often divided into regions for statistical and administrative purposes. Each region varies somewhat in terms of its economy, population,...

. Other smaller geographical regions of note include the Atherton Tableland
Atherton Tableland
The Atherton Tableland is a fertile plateau which is part of the Great Dividing Range in Queensland, Australia. It is located west to south-south-west inland from Cairns, well into the tropics, but its elevated position provides a climate suitable for dairy farming. It has an area of around...

s, the Granite Belt, and the Channel Country
Channel Country
The Channel Country is region of outback Australia located mostly in the state of Queensland but also in portions of South Australia, Northern Territory and New South Wales. The name comes from the numerous intertwined rivulets that cross the region, which cover 150,000 km²...

 in the far south-west.

Queensland has many places of natural beauty, including: the Sunshine Coast and the Gold Coast having some of the state's most popular beaches; the Bunya Mountains
Bunya Mountains National Park
Bunya Mountains is a national park in Queensland, Australia. The park includes much of the mountain range called the Bunya Mountains. The mountains are covered by the most westerly forests in southern Queensland and the largest area of bunya pines remaining in the world...

 and the Great Dividing Range
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest in the world. The range stretches more than 3,500 km from Dauan Island off the northeastern tip of Queensland, running the entire length of the eastern coastline through...

 with numerous lookouts, waterfalls and picnic areas; Carnarvon Gorge
Carnarvon National Park
Carnarvon National Park is located in the Southern Brigalow Belt bioregion in Central Queensland , 593 km northwest of Brisbane...

; Whitsunday Islands
Whitsunday Islands National Park
Whitsunday Islands is a national park in Queensland, Australia, northwest of Brisbane. It has beautiful scenery and also has a few walks that are open to any one that camps on the islands. To camp on the islands visitors need to book a site....

 and Hinchinbrook Island
Hinchinbrook Island
Hinchinbrook Island lies east of Cardwell and north of Lucinda, Queensland Australia. Hinchinbrook Island is part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and wholly protected within the Hinchinbrook Island National Park, except for a small resort. It is the largest island on the Great Barrier Reef...

.

The state contains six World Heritage listed preservation areas: Australian Fossil Mammal Sites at Riversleigh
Riversleigh
Riversleigh, in North West Queensland, is Australia's most famous fossil site. The 100 km² area has fossil remains of ancient mammals, birds and reptiles of Oligocene and Miocene age...

 in the Gulf Country
Gulf Country
The Gulf Country is the name given to the region of woodland and savanna grassland surrounding the Gulf of Carpentaria in north western Queensland and eastern Northern Territory on the north coast of Australia...

, Gondwana Rainforests of Australia, Fraser Island, Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
The Great Barrier Reef is the world'slargest reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometres over an area of approximately...

, Lamington National Park
Lamington National Park
Lamington is a national park in Queensland, Australia, lying on the Lamington Plateau of the McPherson Range on the Queensland/New South Wales border...

 and the Wet Tropics of Queensland
Wet Tropics of Queensland
The Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Site consists of approximately 8,940 km² of Australian wet tropical forests growing along the north-east Queensland portion of the Great Dividing Range, stretching from Townsville to Cooktown, running in close parallel to the Great Barrier Reef...

.

Climate


Because of its size, there is significant variation in climate across the state. Low rainfall and hot summers are typical for the inland west, a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

al 'wet' season in the far north, and warm temperate conditions along the coastal strip. Inland and in southern ranges low minimum temperatures are experienced.
The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by warm ocean waters, keeping the region free from extremes of temperature and providing moisture for rainfall.
There are five predominate climatic zones in Queensland, based on temperature and humidity:
  • hot humid summer (far north and coastal)
  • warm humid summer (coastal elevated hinterlands and coastal south-east)
  • hot dry summer, mild winter (central west)
  • hot dry summer, cold winter (southern west)
  • temperate – warm summer, cold winter (inland south-east, e.g. Granite Belt)


However, most of the Queensland populace experience two weather seasons: a "winter" period of rather warm temperatures and minimal rainfall and a sultry summer period of hot, sticky temperatures and higher levels of rainfall.

The annual mean statistics for some Queensland centres is shown below:
City Min. Temp Max. Temp No. Clear days Rainfall
Brisbane
Brisbane
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

15.7 °C (60.3 °F) 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) 113.1 1149.1 mm (45.2 in)
Mackay
Mackay, Queensland
Mackay is a city on the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia, about north of Brisbane, on the Pioneer River. Mackay is nicknamed the sugar capital of Australia because its region produces more than a third of Australia's cane sugar....

19 °C (66.2 °F) 26.4 °C (79.5 °F) 123.0 1570.7 mm (61.8 in)
Cairns 20.8 °C (69.4 °F) 29 °C (84.2 °F) 89.7 2006.3 mm (79 in)
Townsville 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) 28.9 °C (84 °F) 120.9 1136.7 mm (44.8 in)


The highest maximum temperature observed in the state is 49.5 °C (121 °F) at Birdsville
Birdsville, Queensland
-External links:*...

 on 24 December 1972 (The temperature of 53.1 °C (128 °F) at Cloncurry
Cloncurry, Queensland
-Notable residents:*Writer Alexis Wright grew up in Cloncurry.*Association Footballer Kasey Wehrman was born in Cloncurry . He went on to play domestically and in Scandinavia. His achievements include winning a NSL Championship in 1996-1997 with the Brisbane Strikers and being capped several times...

 on 16 January 1889 is not considered reliable; the figure quoted from Birdsville is the next highest, so that record is considered as being official).

The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (13 °F) at Stanthorpe
Stanthorpe, Queensland
Stanthorpe is a town situated in south east Queensland, Australia. The town lies on the New England Highway near the New South Wales border 223 km from Brisbane via Warwick, 56 km north of Tenterfield and 811 m above sea level. The area surrounding the town is known as the Granite Belt...

 on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage on 12 July 1965.

Demographics



Queensland
population by year
1901 498,129
1954 1,318,259
1961 1,518,828
1971 1,851,485
1981 2,345,208
1991 3,029,950
2001 3,628,946
2007 4,181,400
2011 4,516,200
2021 6,553,300
2056 10,921,300
Source: Australian Bureau
of Statistics


A smaller proportion of Queensland's population lives in the capital city than any other mainland state. As of June 2004 the capital city represented 45.7% of the population; for the whole country, capital cities represented 63.8% of the total population.
  • Christian
    Christianity in Australia
    Christianity is the largest religion listed by Australians in the national census. In the 2006 Census, 63.9% of Australians were listed as Christian. Australia has no official state religion and the Australian Constitution protects freedom of religion. The presence of Christianity in Australia...

    : 70.9%:
    • Roman Catholic: 24.9%
    • Anglican
      Anglican Church of Australia
      The Anglican Church of Australia is a member church of the Anglican Communion. It was previously officially known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania...

      : 22.3%
    • Uniting
      Uniting Church in Australia
      The Uniting Church in Australia was formed on 22 June 1977 when many congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, the Presbyterian Church of Australia and the Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union....

      : 8.4%
    • Lutheran
      Lutheran Church of Australia
      The Lutheran Church of Australia is the major Lutheran denomination in Australia, it also has a presence in New Zealand. It has 320 parishes, 540 congregations, 70,000 baptized members in Australia, 1,130 baptized members in New Zealand, 52,463 communicant members and 450 active pastors. Its...

      : 2.1%
    • Other: 13.2%
  • Non-Christian: 2.3%
    • Buddhism
      Buddhism
      Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

      : 1.1%
    • Islam
      Islam in Australia
      Islam in Australia is a small minority religious grouping, but fourth largest after all forms of Christianity , irreligion and Buddhism , excluding 11.2% who failed to answer at the last census...

      : 0.4%
    • Hinduism
      Hinduism in Australia
      Hindus form a religious minority in Australia, roughly estimated to be 148,119 according to the 2006 census.Hinduism is the fastest growing religion in Melbourne, Australia.- History :...

      : 0.3%
    • Judaism
      Australian Jews
      Australian Jews, or Jewish Australians, are Jews who are Australian citizens or resident aliens. The Jewish community in Australia is composed predominantly of Ashkenazi Jews who emigrated from Central and Eastern Europe, and their Australia-born descendants. There is, however, a minority from all...

      : 0.1%
    • Other: 0.4%
  • No Religion: 14.8%
  • Not Stated: 12.0%

Population trends


On 9 December 2005, the population of Queensland officially reached 4 million. According to Queensland's Office of Economic and Statistical Research the estimated population of the state at the end of 2007 was 4,228,290 which is almost 20% of Australia's total. For many years until 2008, Queensland was the fastest growing state in Australia. At its peak growth in 2007, it was estimated that over 1,500 people moved to the state per week including 1,000 to the southern part of the state alone and the state recorded a TFR
Total Fertility Rate
The total fertility rate of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates through her lifetime, and she...

 of 2.1, the highest since 1977. Queensland's growth rate has since been surpassed by Western Australia).

Urban and rural

YEAR Urban Rural TOTAL
1861 15,348 14,711 30,059
1864 30,954 30,513 61,467
1868 40,306 59,595 99,901
1871 51,425 68,679 120,104
1876 95,775 77,508 173,283
1881 112,323 101,202 213,525
1886 116,056 206,797 322,853
1891 168,884 224,834 393,718
1901 204,871 293,258 498,129
1911 n.a. n.a. 605,813
1921 393,666 359,014 755,972
1933 498,892 444,589 947,534
1947 660,958 443,570 1,106,415
1954 962,400 352,888 1,318,259
1961 1,158,446 358,394 1,518,828
1966 1,282,332 398,297 1,682,688
1971 1,448,024 375,376 1,827,065
1976 1,633,141 401,754 2,037,194
1981 1,816,382 476,264 2,295,123
1986 2,041,542 542,944 2,587,315
1991 2,359,510 616,907 2,977,810
1996 2,721,115 647,735 3,368,850
2001 3,050,553 602,697 3,655,139
2006 3,456,104 588,945 4,046,875
Source: Queensland Government Office of Economic & Statistical Research

Economy



Queensland's economy has enjoyed a boom in the tourism and mining industries over the past 20 years. A sizeable influx of interstate and overseas migrants, large amounts of federal government investment, increased mining of vast mineral deposits and an expanding aerospace sector have contributed to the state's economic growth. The 2008–09 saw the expansion slow to just 0.8% the state's worst performance in 18 years.

Between 1992 and 2002, the growth in the Gross State Product
Gross state product
Gross state product is a measurement of the economic output of a state or province...

 of Queensland outperformed that of all the other states and territories. In that period Queensland's GSP grew 5.0% each year, while growth in Australia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rose on average 3.9% each year. Queensland's contribution to the Australian GDP increased by 10.4% in that period, one of only three states to do so.

In 2003 Brisbane had the lowest cost of living of all Australia's capital cities. In late 2005 Brisbane was the third most expensive capital for housing after Sydney and Canberra and just ahead of Melbourne by $15,000.

Primary industries
Primary sector of industry
The sector of an economy making direct use of natural resources. This includes agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining, and extraction of oil and gas. This is contrasted with the secondary sector, producing manufactures and other processed goods, and the tertiary sector, producing services...

 include: bananas, pineapples, peanuts, a wide variety of other tropical and temperate fruit and vegetables, grain crops, wineries, cattle raising, cotton, sugar cane, wool and a mining industry including bauxite, coal, silver, lead, zinc, gold, and copper. Secondary industries
Secondary sector of industry
The secondary sector of the economy or industrial sector includes those economic sectors that create a finished, tangible product: production and construction.-Function:...

 are mostly further processing of the above-mentioned primary produce. For example, bauxite is shipped by sea from Weipa
Weipa, Queensland
Weipa is the largest town on the Gulf of Carpentaria coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Weipa had a population of 2,830; the largest community on Cape York Peninsula. It exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast...

 and converted to alumina at Gladstone
Gladstone, Queensland
- Education :Gladstone has several primary schools, three high schools, and one university campus, Central Queensland University. It is also home to CQIT Gladstone Campus.- Recreation :...

. There is also copper refining and the refining of sugar cane to sugar at a number of mills along the eastern coastline. Major tertiary industries
Tertiary sector of industry
The tertiary sector of the economy is one of the three economic sectors, the others being the secondary sector and the primary sector .The service sector consists of the "soft" parts of the economy, i.e...

 are the retail trade and tourism.

Tourism




Tourism is Queensland's leading tertiary industry with millions of interstate and overseas visitors flocking to the Sunshine State each year. The industry generates $4.0 billion annually, accounting for 4.5% of Queensland's GSP. Queensland is a state of many landscapes that range from sunny tropical coastal areas, lush rainforests to dry inland areas.

The main tourist destinations of Queensland include, Brisbane, Cairns, Port Douglas
Port Douglas, Queensland
Port Douglas is a town in Far North Queensland, Australia, approximately north of Cairns. Its permanent population was 948 residents in 2006. The town's population can often double, however, with the influx of tourists during the peak tourism season May–September. The town is named in honour of...

 and the Daintree Rainforest
Daintree Rainforest
The Daintree Rainforest is a tropical rainforest on the north east coast of Queensland, Australia, north of Mossman and Cairns. At around 1200 square kilometres the Daintree is the largest continuous area of tropical rainforest on the Australian continent...

, Gold Coast
Gold Coast, Queensland
Gold Coast is a coastal city of Australia located in South East Queensland, 94km south of the state capital Brisbane. With a population approximately 540,000 in 2010, it is the second most populous city in the state, the sixth most populous city in the country, and also the most populous...

, the Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
The Great Barrier Reef is the world'slargest reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometres over an area of approximately...

, Hervey Bay and nearby Fraser Island, Townsville, Magnetic Island, North Stradbroke Island
North Stradbroke Island
North Stradbroke Island is an Australian island in the state of Queensland, 30 km southeast of the capital Brisbane. Before 1896 the island was part of the Stradbroke Island. In that year a storm separated it from South Stradbroke Island, forming the Jumpinpin Channel. It is known...

 and South Stradbroke Island
South Stradbroke Island
South Stradbroke Island is an Australian island in the state of Queensland, south of Brisbane and forms the northern end of Gold Coast. The 21 km by 2.5 km sized island is the smaller one of the two Stradbroke Islands and lies very close to the mainland. The island has hundreds of wild...

, Sunshine Coast
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
The Sunshine Coast is an urban area in South East Queensland, north of the state capital of Brisbane on the Pacific Ocean coastline. Although it does not have a central business district, by population it ranks as the 10th largest metropolis in Australia and the third largest in...

, Hamilton Island, Daydream Island and the Whitsundays known for Airlie Beach
Airlie Beach, Queensland
Airlie Beach is a town in the Whitsunday Region of Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, the suburb of Airlie Beach itself had a population of 2,751. The greater Whitsunday region had a population of approximately 31,000...

 and Whitehaven Beach
Whitehaven Beach
Whitehaven Beach is a 7 km stretch along Whitsunday Island. The island is accessible by boat from the mainland tourist ports of Airlie Beach and Shute Harbour, as well as Hamilton Island....

.
The Gold Coast of Queensland is also sometimes referred to as "Australia's Theme Park Capital", with five major amusement parks. These are Dreamworld
Dreamworld
Dreamworld is a large theme park situated on the Gold Coast in Queensland. It is currently Australia's largest theme park with over 27 rides including 4 roller coasters. The park is made up of several themed lands: Ocean Parade, Kid's World, Wiggles World, Gold Rush Country, Rocky Hollow, Tiger...

, Movie World, Sea World
Sea World
Sea World is a marine mammal park, oceanarium, and theme park located on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. It includes rides, animal exhibits and other attractions, and promotes conservation through education and through the rescue and rehabilitation of sick, injured or orphaned wildlife. The...

, Wet 'n' Wild
Wet'n'Wild Water World
Wet'n'Wild Water World is a large water park situated in Oxenford, Gold Coast, owned by Warner Village Theme Parks. In 2009, the park received 1,095,000 visitors ranking it first in Australia and eighth in the world. Wet'n'Wild Water World is located adjacent to Warner Bros. Movie World, a...

 and WhiteWater World
WhiteWater World
WhiteWater World is a water park situated in the suburb of Coomera, on the Gold Coast, Australia. It is owned and operated by Ardent Leisure....

.

There are numerous wildlife parks in Queensland. On the Gold Coast
Gold Coast, Queensland
Gold Coast is a coastal city of Australia located in South East Queensland, 94km south of the state capital Brisbane. With a population approximately 540,000 in 2010, it is the second most populous city in the state, the sixth most populous city in the country, and also the most populous...

 there is Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary
Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary
Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary at Currumbin on the Gold Coast, Queensland in Australia, is world renowned for its feeding of huge flocks of free-flying wild Rainbow Lorikeets, which come to the Sanctuary to feast off the special mixture which the Lorikeets eat....

 at Currumbin
Currumbin, Queensland
Currumbin is a suburb in the Gold Coast region of Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 Census, Currumbin had a population of 2,647.-History:Many of the houses at Currumbin date from the period of its earliest subdivision and the area contains a substantial grouping of fibro beach houses...

 and David Fleay Wildlife Park
David Fleay Wildlife Park
The David Fleay Wildlife Park is located in Burleigh Heads, a suburb of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Established by Australian naturalist David Fleay in 1952, the Park today is home to many native animals, which are displayed in surroundings similar to their natural habitats...

 at Burleigh Heads
Burleigh Heads, Queensland
Burleigh Heads is a suburb on the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 Census, Burleigh Heads had a population of 7,606.Burleigh Heads is renowned for its surf break, and is an alternative to the more tourist ridden towns of the Gold Coast...

. On the Sunshine Coast
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
The Sunshine Coast is an urban area in South East Queensland, north of the state capital of Brisbane on the Pacific Ocean coastline. Although it does not have a central business district, by population it ranks as the 10th largest metropolis in Australia and the third largest in...

 there is UnderWater World
UnderWater World, Queensland
UnderWater World at Mooloolaba, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia is a marine mammal park, oceanarium and wildlife sanctuary. Underwater World is an institutional member of the Zoo and Aquarium Association .-History:...

 at Mooloolaba
Mooloolaba, Queensland
Mooloolaba is a suburb and tourist resort township on the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, Australia. It is located north of the state capital, Brisbane, and is part of the Maroochydore urban centre.- Etymology :...

 and Australia Zoo
Australia Zoo
Australia Zoo is a zoo located in the Australian state of Queensland on the Sunshine Coast near Beerwah/Glass House Mountains. It is a member of the Zoo and Aquarium Association , and is owned by Terri Irwin, the widow of Steve Irwin, whose wildlife documentary series The Crocodile Hunter made the...

 near Beerwah
Beerwah, Queensland
Beerwah is a town on the Sunshine Coast hinterland in Queensland, Australia. It is situated north of Glass House Mountains, approximately 80 km north of Brisbane, and just south of Landsborough. The main road through Beerwah is called Steve Irwin Way. It was formerly known as the Glasshouse...

/Glass House Mountains
Glass House Mountains National Park
Glass House Mountains National Park is a national park in Queensland , north of Brisbane. It consists of a flat plain punctuated by rhyolite and trachyte volcanic plugs, the cores of extinct volcanoes that formed 27 million to 26 million years ago. The mountains would once have had...

, home of Steve Irwin
Steve Irwin
Stephen Robert "Steve" Irwin , nicknamed "The Crocodile Hunter", was an Australian television personality, wildlife expert, and conservationist. Irwin achieved worldwide fame from the television series The Crocodile Hunter, an internationally broadcast wildlife documentary series which he co-hosted...

 until his death in 2006.

Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary
Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary
Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary is located in the Brisbane suburb of Fig Tree Pocket in Queensland, Australia.Founded in 1927, it is the world's oldest and largest Koala Sanctuary.-History:...

 at Fig Tree Pocket
Fig Tree Pocket, Queensland
Fig Tree Pocket is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia located 8 km south-west of the Brisbane CBD on the Brisbane River. Placed within a pocket of the Brisbane River, the suburb is relatively remote, devoted mostly to low density housing...

 and Brisbane Forest Park
Brisbane Forest Park, Queensland
Brisbane Forest Park , is located on parts of the D'Aguilar Range. The large nature reserve lies on the western boundary of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, in Enoggera Reservoir, adjacent to The Gap and between the Mount Coot-tha Reserve on the Taylor Range and higher peaks to the north...

 at The Gap
The Gap, Queensland
The Gap is a leafy and hilly suburb of Brisbane, in Queensland, Australia, located approximately 11 km west of the Brisbane CBD.-Geography:...

 are located in Brisbane. North of Brisbane is Alma Park Zoo which is relocating to Logan City and Kumbartcho Wildlife Sanctuary which was originally called Bunya Park Wildlife Sanctuary.

Accommodation in Queensland caters for nearly 22% of the total expenditure, followed by restaurants/meals (15%), airfares (11%), fuel (11%) and shopping/gifts (11%).

Transport




Queensland is served by a number of National Highways
National Highway (Australia)
thumb|right|150px|The National Highway Shield in NSW, QLD, WA, NT & TAS.The National Highway is a system of roads connecting all the States and Territories of Australia, and is the major network of highways connecting Australia's largest and most important cities.The National Highway was...

 and, particularly in South East Queensland, high quality motorways such as the M1
M1, Queensland
The M1 in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, is a major urban road corridor. It connects Tugun near the New South Wales-Queensland border to the Sunshine Coast hinterland via the following corridors:*Pacific Motorway between Tugun and Eight Mile Plains...

.

Principal rail services
Rail transport in Queensland
Rail transport in Queensland began in 1865. Today it is one of the largest narrow gauge railway network in the world.-Public float:On 2 June 2009 the Queensland Government announced the 'Renewing Queensland Plan', with Queensland Rail's commercial activities to be separated from the Government's...

 are provided by Queensland Rail
Queensland Rail
Queensland Rail, also known as QR, is a government-owned railway operator in the state of Queensland. Under the control of the Queensland Government, Queensland Rail operates the inner-city and long-distance passenger services, as well as some freight operations and gives railway access to other...

 and Pacific National
Pacific National
Pacific National is one of Australia's largest private rail freight businesses. Originally a joint venture between Patrick Corporation and Toll Holdings; it is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Asciano Limited following the restructure of Toll Holdings....

, predominantly along the coamajor ports including the Port of Brisbane
Port of Brisbane
Port of Brisbane is the shipping port of Brisbane, on the east coast of Australia. It is located in the lower reaches of the Brisbane River on reclaimed land that was once called Fisherman Islands at the mouth of the river. It currently is the third busiest port in Australia and the nation's...

 and subsidiary ports at Gladstone
Port of Gladstone
The Port of Gladstone is Queensland's largest multi-commodity port and the fifth largest multi-commodity port in Australia. It is the world's fourth largest coal exporting terminal. It forms and integral part of the City of Gladstone in Central Queensland and is located about 525 km north of...

 and Townsville
Port of Townsville
Port of Townsville is a seaport in Townsville, Queensland. It is the third largest seaport in Queensland after Port of Brisbane and the Central Queensland Port in Gladstone. Port of Townsville handles numerous imports and exports mainly, Mineral Ores, Fertiliser, Concentrates, Sugar and Motor...

.

Jet Vehicle services are Provided by Greenhouse Energy, Queensland Transport, Department of Main Roads
Department of Main Roads (Queensland)
The Queensland Government Department of Transport and Main Roads plans, designs, builds and maintains the 34,000km of Queensland state-controlled roads, under the Minister for Local Government and Main Roads. Warren Pitt is the current Minister for Local Government and Main Roads.The department is...

, Defence Force Reserve of Queensland, Brisbane Jet Taxi and Australian Jetlines, Predominatly along the Airports, including the Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport is the sole passenger airport serving Brisbane and the third busiest in Australia, after Melbourne and Sydney Airports. Brisbane Airport has won many awards. Located in the suburb with the same name, the airport serves the city of Brisbane and the surrounding metropolitan area...

, Gold Coast Airport
Gold Coast Airport
Gold Coast Airport, or Coolangatta Airport, is an Australian domestic and international airport on the Gold Coast and is located some south of Brisbane and 25 km south of Surfers Paradise. The entrance to the airport is situated in the suburb of Bilinga on the Gold Coast...

 and Cairns Airport.

Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport is the sole passenger airport serving Brisbane and the third busiest in Australia, after Melbourne and Sydney Airports. Brisbane Airport has won many awards. Located in the suburb with the same name, the airport serves the city of Brisbane and the surrounding metropolitan area...

 is the main international and domestic gateway serving the state. Gold Coast Airport
Gold Coast Airport
Gold Coast Airport, or Coolangatta Airport, is an Australian domestic and international airport on the Gold Coast and is located some south of Brisbane and 25 km south of Surfers Paradise. The entrance to the airport is situated in the suburb of Bilinga on the Gold Coast...

, Cairns International Airport
Cairns International Airport
Cairns Airport is an international airport in Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Formerly operated by the Cairns Port Authority, the airport was sold by the Queensland Government in December 2008 to a private consortium. It is the seventh busiest airport in Australia. The airport is located north of...

 and Townsville Airport
are the next most prominent airports, all with scheduled international flights. Other regional airports, with scheduled domestic flights, include Great Barrier Reef Airport, Hervey Bay Airport
Hervey Bay Airport
Hervey Bay Airport is the main airport for the city of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia and the Fraser Coast region which incorporates the nearby cities of Maryborough and Bundaberg....

, Mackay Airport
Mackay Airport
Mackay Airport located in Mackay, Queensland, Australia is a major Australian regional airport that services the city of Mackay, with flights to the cities of Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Gladstone, Rockhampton, Townsville and Cairns...

, Mount Isa Airport
Mount Isa Airport
Mount Isa Airport is an airport serving the western Queensland city of Mount Isa, Australia. It is served by a variety of scheduled regional airlines, with flights to Brisbane, Townsville and Cairns as well as several other regional centres....

, Proserpine / Whitsunday Coast Airport
Proserpine / Whitsunday Coast Airport
Whitsunday Coast Airport is located approximately south of Proserpine in Queensland, Australia. The airport is the main gateway for travellers to and from the Whitsunday area and currently only has flights to the state capital Brisbane...

, Rockhampton Airport
Rockhampton Airport
Rockhampton Airport is a major Australian regional airport that services the city of Rockhampton, with flights to the cites of Brisbane, Sydney, Gladstone, Cairns, Townsville, Mackay and Melbourne....

, and Sunshine Coast Airport
Sunshine Coast Airport
Sunshine Coast Airport is an Australian airport serving Sunshine Coast, Queensland. It is the gateway to holiday destinations such as Noosa, Maroochydore, Mooloolaba and Caloundra...

.

South East Queensland is governed by an integrated public transport system, TransLink
TransLink (South East Queensland)
The TransLink Transit Authority is the authority introduced by the Queensland Government in June 2003 as a section of Queensland Transport to coordinate and integrate rail, bus and ferry services. TransLink works with Airtrain, Brisbane Transport, Brisbane Ferries, QR Citytrain and 17 other...

, which provides bus, rail
CityTrain
Citytrain is the brand name of urban, suburban and inter-urban electric passenger railway services in South East Queensland, Australia. Its network, centering in Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, is approximately in route length...

 and ferry services. Regional bus andlong-distance rail services are also provided throughout the State. Local bus services are also available in most regional centres.

Governance



Executive authority is vested in the Governor, who represents and is appointed by Elizabeth II on the advice of the Premier. The current governor is Ms. Penelope Wensley
Penelope Wensley
Penelope "Penny" Anne Wensley, AC is the Governor of Queensland and a former Australian diplomat.Born in Toowoomba, Queensland, she was educated at Penrith High School in New South Wales, the Rosa Bassett School in London , and the University of Queensland where she graduated with a first class...

, AO
Order of Australia
The Order of Australia is an order of chivalry established on 14 February 1975 by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, "for the purpose of according recognition to Australian citizens and other persons for achievement or for meritorious service"...

. The head of government is the Premier, who is appointed by the Governor but must have the support of the Legislative Assembly
Queensland Legislative Assembly
The Queensland Legislative Assembly is the unicameral chamber of the Parliament of Queensland. Elections are held approximately once every three years. Voting is by the Optional Preferential Voting form of the Alternative Vote system...

. The current Premier is Anna Bligh
Anna Bligh
Anna Maria Bligh is an Australian politician and the Premier of Queensland since 2007. The 2009 Queensland state election was the first time a female-led political party won or retained state or federal government in Australia...

, of the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is an Australian political party. It has been the governing party of the Commonwealth of Australia since the 2007 federal election. Julia Gillard is the party's federal parliamentary leader and Prime Minister of Australia...

. Other ministers, forming the Executive Council
Executive Council (Commonwealth countries)
An Executive Council in Commonwealth constitutional practice based on the Westminster system is a constitutional organ which exercises executive power and advises the governor or governor-general. Executive Councils often make decisions via Orders in Council.Executive Councillors are informally...

, are appointed by the governor from among the members of the Legislative Assembly on the Premier's recommendation.

The Queensland Parliament or the Legislative Assembly, is unicameral. It is the only Australian state with a unicameral legislature. A bicameral system existed until 1922, when the Legislative Council was abolished by the Labor members' "suicide squad" so called because they were appointed for the purpose of voting to abolish their own offices. The Parliament is housed in the 19th century Parliament House
Parliament House, Brisbane
Parliament House in Brisbane is the home of the Parliament of Queensland, housing the Legislative Assembly. It is situated on the corner of George Street and Alice Street...

 and 20th century Parliamentary Annexe in Brisbane.

The judicial system of Queensland consists of the Supreme Court
Supreme Court of Queensland
The Supreme Court of Queensland, which is based at the Law Courts Complex, is the superior court for the Australian State of Queensland and sits around the middle of the Australian court hierarchy...

 and the District Court
District Court of Queensland
The District Court of Queensland is a court in Queensland, a state of Australia. It has jurisdiction to hear:* appeals from decisions of the Magistrates' Court of Queensland;...

, established by the Queensland Constitution, and various other courts and tribunals established by ordinary Acts of the Queensland Parliament.

In 2001 Queensland adopted a new codified constitution, repealing most of the assorted Acts of Parliament
Act of Parliament
An Act of Parliament is a statute enacted as primary legislation by a national or sub-national parliament. In the Republic of Ireland the term Act of the Oireachtas is used, and in the United States the term Act of Congress is used.In Commonwealth countries, the term is used both in a narrow...

 that had previously made up the constitution. The new constitution took effect on 6 June 2002, the anniversary of the formation of the colony of Queensland by the signing of Letters Patent
Letters patent
Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch or president, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation...

 by Queen Victoria in 1859.

Local government



Local government is the mechanism by which towns and districts can manage their own affairs to the extent permitted by the Local Government Act 1993–2007. Queensland is divided into 73 local government areas
Local Government Areas of Queensland
This is a list of local government areas in Queensland, sorted by region. For the history and responsibilities of local government in that state, see Local government in Queensland.-LGAs sorted by region:...

 which may be called Cities, Towns, Shires or Regions.

Each area has a council which is responsible for providing a range of public services and utilities, and derives its income from both rates and charges on resident ratepayers, and grants and subsidies from the State and Commonwealth governments.

Universities


  • Australian Catholic University
    Australian Catholic University
    Australian Catholic University is a national public university. It has six campuses and offers programs in five faculties throughout Australia.-History:...

     (Brisbane campus)
  • Bond University
    Bond University
    Bond University is a private university located in Robina, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. It is also the first private university established in Australia...

  • Central Queensland University
    Central Queensland University
    CQUniversity is an Australian public university based in Queensland. Its main campus is in North Rockhampton Queensland. However, it also has campuses in Bundaberg, Emerald, Gladstone and Mackay, as well as operations throughout Asia-Pacific. For instance, Melior Business School is one of its...

  • Griffith University
    Griffith University
    Griffith University is a public, coeducational, research university located in the southeastern region of the Australian state of Queensland. The university has five satellite campuses located in the Gold Coast, Logan City and in the Brisbane suburbs of Mount Gravatt, Nathan and South Bank. Current...

  • James Cook University
    James Cook University
    James Cook University is a public university based in Townsville, Queensland, Australia. The university has two Australian campuses, located in Townsville and Cairns respectively, and an international campus in Singapore. JCU is the second oldest university in Queensland—proclaimed in 1970—and the...

  • Queensland University of Technology
    Queensland University of Technology
    Queensland University of Technology is an Australian university with an applied emphasis in courses and research. Based in Brisbane, it has 40,000 students, including 6,000 international students, over 4,000 staff members, and an annual budget of more than A$750 million.QUT is marketed as "A...

  • University of Queensland
    University of Queensland
    The University of Queensland, also known as UQ, is a public university located in state of Queensland, Australia. Founded in 1909, it is the oldest and largest university in Queensland and the fifth oldest in the nation...

  • University of Southern Queensland
    University of Southern Queensland
    The University of Southern Queensland is based in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. The institution was established in 1967 as the Queensland Institute of Technology...

  • University of the Sunshine Coast
    University of the Sunshine Coast
    The University of the Sunshine Coast is a public university based on the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, Australia. Having opened in 1996 as the Sunshine Coast University College with 524 students, the institution was renamed the University of the Sunshine Coast in 1999. In 2011, the student body was...


Sports





The state of Queensland is represented in all of Australia's national sporting competitions and is also host to a number of domestic and international sporting events. The most popular winter and summer team sports are Rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

, Rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 and cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

, respectively. The annual rugby league State of Origin
Rugby League State of Origin
State of Origin is an annual best of three series of rugby league football matches contested by the Maroons and the Blues, who represent the Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales respectively...

 series is a major event in the Queensland sporting calendar, with the Queensland Maroons
Queensland rugby league team
The Queensland rugby league team have represented the Australian state of Queensland in rugby league football since the sport's beginnings there in 1908...

 in 2011 winning a record sixth series in a row. The Brisbane Broncos
Brisbane Broncos
The Brisbane Broncos are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in the city of Brisbane, the capital of the state of Queensland. Founded in 1988, the Broncos play in Australasia's elite competition, the National Rugby League premiership. They have won six premierships and two...

 are the state's most successful team of any sport, having won 3 premierships in the NRL
National Rugby League
The National Rugby League is the top league of professional rugby league football clubs in Australasia. The NRL's main competition, called the Telstra Premiership , is contested by sixteen teams, fifteen of which are based in Australia with one based in New Zealand...

 rugby league era and 6 in total during their 23 year existence.

Queensland's dominance is not restricted to rugby league. The early part of this decade saw the AFL's Brisbane Lions
Brisbane Lions
The Brisbane Lions is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based in Brisbane, Queensland. The club was formed from the merger of the Brisbane Bears and the Fitzroy Lions in 1996...

 claim a hat-trick of premierships between 2001–2003 inclusive, and coming so close to a record-equalling fourth, whilst recently Brisbane Roar FC won its first A-League
A-League
The A-League is the top Australasian professional football league. Run by Australian governing body Football Federation Australia , it was founded in 2004 following the folding of the National Soccer League and staged its inaugural season in 2005–06. It is sponsored by Hyundai Motor Company...

 title in March 2011, the culmination of a season of long dominance in which it has not lost since September last year. Just four years after being branded "the joke of rugby", the Queensland Reds
Queensland Reds
The Queensland Reds represent Queensland in the sport of rugby union in the Southern Hemisphere Super Rugby competition. Prior to 1996 they were a representative team selected on merit from the rugby union club competitions in Queensland...

 won its first Super Rugby title in July 2011.

Swimming is also a popular sport in Queensland, with a majority of Australian team members and international medalists hailing from the state. At the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from August 8 to August 24, 2008. A total of 11,028 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events...

, Queensland swimmers won all six of Australia's gold medals
Australia at the 2008 Summer Olympics
A total of 433 competitors competed for Australia at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The team was Australia's second largest away team after the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, which included a team of 482 competitors...

, all swimmers on Australia's three female (finals) relays teams were from Queensland, two of which won gold.

Major professional teams include:
  • Australian Football: Brisbane Lions
    Brisbane Lions
    The Brisbane Lions is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Australian Football League . The club is based in Brisbane, Queensland. The club was formed from the merger of the Brisbane Bears and the Fitzroy Lions in 1996...

    , Gold Coast Suns
    Gold Coast Suns
    The Gold Coast Suns were one of the eight original franchises that began play in the Senior Professional Baseball Association in 1989. The club split their home games between Miami and Pompano Beach, FL and hired future Hall of Famer Earl Weaver as manager. In the league's inaugural season, the...

  • Basketball: Townsville Crocodiles
    Townsville Crocodiles
    The Townsville Crocodiles are a professional Australian basketball team based in Townsville, Queensland. They compete in the National Basketball League...

    , Cairns Taipans
    Cairns Taipans
    The Cairns Taipans are an Australian professional basketball team competing in the Australasian National Basketball League. The club is based in the northern Queensland city of Cairns. The Taipans, named after a species of venomous snake native to Australia, entered the NBL in the 1999/2000 season...

     and the Gold Coast Blaze
    Gold Coast Blaze
    The Gold Coast Blaze is an Australian professional basketball team which competes in the National Basketball League . The Blaze competed in their inaugural season in 2007/08. The club is based on the Gold Coast and joins two other NBL clubs competing from Queensland...

  • Cricket
    Cricket
    Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

    : Queensland Bulls
    Queensland Bulls
    The Queensland cricket team, nicknamed the Bulls, are the Brisbane-based Queensland representative cricket team in Australia's domestic cricket tournaments:*Sheffield Shield, 4-day matches with first-class status, since the 1926/27 season...

    , Brisbane Heat
    Brisbane Heat
    The Brisbane Heat is a cricket team based in Brisbane that plays in the Big Bash League. The Heat will wear a teal kit.The Heaters have been described as the hottest BBL team. They are simmering, waiting for their moment to turn up the temperature and explode. Anything’s possible for the team from...

  • Football (soccer)
    Football (soccer)
    Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

    : Brisbane Roar, North Queensland Fury (no longer in the A-League) and Gold Coast United
  • Netball
    Netball
    Netball is a ball sport played between two teams of seven players. Its development, derived from early versions of basketball, began in England in the 1890s. By 1960 international playing rules had been standardised for the game, and the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball ...

    : Queensland Firebirds
    Queensland Firebirds
    The Queensland Firebirds are an Australian netball team based in Brisbane that currently compete in the trans-Tasman ANZ Championship. The Firebirds were formed as one of the foundation teams of the Commonwealth Bank Trophy , previously the premier netball league in Australia, which was contested...

  • Rugby League
    Rugby league
    Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

    :
    • Representative: Queensland Maroons
    • Clubs: Brisbane Broncos
      Brisbane Broncos
      The Brisbane Broncos are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in the city of Brisbane, the capital of the state of Queensland. Founded in 1988, the Broncos play in Australasia's elite competition, the National Rugby League premiership. They have won six premierships and two...

      , Gold Coast Titans
      Gold Coast Titans
      Gold Coast Titans are an Australian professional rugby league football club, based in the Gold Coast, Queensland. The club competes in Australasia's elite rugby league competition, the National Rugby League premiership. It is the newest of the sixteen clubs in the league, having commenced its...

       and the North Queensland Cowboys
      North Queensland Cowboys
      The North Queensland Cowboys are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in Townsville, Queensland. They compete in Australasia's elite rugby league competition, the National Rugby League premiership...

    • State Competition: Queensland Cup
      Queensland Cup
      The Queensland Cup is the premier rugby league football competition in the State of Queensland, Australia.It is a statewide competition with the majority of teams based in South East Queensland but also including sides based in Cairns, Mackay and Rockhampton.The competition began in 1996 as a...

  • Rugby Union
    Rugby union
    Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

    : Queensland Reds
    Queensland Reds
    The Queensland Reds represent Queensland in the sport of rugby union in the Southern Hemisphere Super Rugby competition. Prior to 1996 they were a representative team selected on merit from the rugby union club competitions in Queensland...



Events include:
  • Gold Coast Indy 300
  • State of Origin
    Rugby League State of Origin
    State of Origin is an annual best of three series of rugby league football matches contested by the Maroons and the Blues, who represent the Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales respectively...

  • Queensland 400
  • Quicksilver Pro and Roxy Pro

See also


  • Queensland Council of Unions
    Queensland Council of Unions
    The Queensland Council of Unions is a representative body of Trade union organisations, known as a Labour council, in the State of Queensland, Australia...

  • Queensland Day
    Queensland Day
    Queensland Day is officially celebrated on 6 June as the birthday of the Australian state of Queensland.-History:Moves towards statehood began with a public meeting in 1851 to consider separation from New South Wales. As the push for separation gained momentum, Queen Victoria was approached to...

  • Queensland Expatriate Awards
    Queensland Expatriate Awards
    The Queensland Expatriate Awards, are the most prominent awards to expatriates from the state of Queensland Australia who are living around the world....

  • Queensland State Archives
    Queensland State Archives
    The Queensland State Archives is the custodian of the largest and most significant documentary heritage collection in Queensland and the lead agency for public recordkeeping....

  • 2010–2011 Queensland floods
    2010–2011 Queensland floods
    A series of floods hit Australia, beginning in December 2010, primarily in the state of Queensland including its capital city, Brisbane. The floods forced the evacuation of thousands of people from towns and cities. At least seventy towns and over 200,000 people were affected. Damage initially was...

  • United Nations Association of Australia (Queensland) Community Award
    United Nations Association of Australia (Queensland) Community Award
    The United Nations Association of Australia Community Award is awarded annually by the United Nations Association of Australia in Queensland All residents of Queensland are eligible for nomination for the award, and more than one award may be presented in any year...



Lists:
  • Governors of Queensland
    Governors of Queensland
    The Governor of Queensland is the representative in the state of Queensland of the Queen of Australia. The Governor performs the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as does the Governor-General of Australia at the national level....

  • List of highways in Queensland
  • List of Queenslanders
  • List of schools in Queensland
  • Premiers of Queensland
    Premiers of Queensland
    Before the 1890s, there was no developed party system in Queensland. Political affiliation labels before that time indicate a general tendency only. Before the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, political parties were more akin to parliamentary factions, and were fluid, informal and...

  • Protected areas of Queensland
    Protected areas of Queensland
    Queensland is the second largest state in Australia. It contains 470 separate Protected Areas with a total land area of 69,388 km² . 223 of these are National parks, which is the highest number of any Australian state or territory, totalling 65,871 km²...



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