English Heritage

English Heritage

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English Heritage. is an executive non-departmental public body
Non-departmental public body
In the United Kingdom, a non-departmental public body —often referred to as a quango—is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, Treasury, Scottish Government and Northern Ireland Executive to certain types of public bodies...

 of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet....

 (DCMS). Simon Thurley
Simon Thurley
Simon John Thurley, CBE, FRIBA, F.R.Hist.S. is an academic and architectural historian, and the present Chief Executive of English Heritage .-Early life and education:...

 has been chief executive since 2002.
By caring for the built environment
Built environment
The term built environment refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter and buildings to neighborhoods and cities that can often include their supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks.The built...

, English Heritage complements the work of Natural England
Natural England
Natural England is the non-departmental public body of the UK government responsible for ensuring that England's natural environment, including its land, flora and fauna, freshwater and marine environments, geology and soils, are protected and improved...

 which aims to protect the natural environment
Natural environment
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species....

. It has a broad remit of managing the historic built environment of England and advises the relevant Secretary of State
Secretary of State (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department ....

 on policy and in individual cases such as registering listed buildings and scheduled ancient monument
Scheduled Ancient Monument
In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is a 'nationally important' archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorized change. The various pieces of legislation used for legally protecting heritage assets from damage and destruction are grouped under the term...

s.

It was set up under the terms of the National Heritage Act 1983. Its functions for maintaining ancient monuments had previously been undertaken by part of the Department of the Environment
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is the government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in the United Kingdom...

 which was the successor to the Ministry of Works. The 1983 Act also dissolved the bodies that had hitherto provided independent advice — the Ancient Monuments Board for England and the Historic Buildings Council for England and incorporated these functions in the new body. Another advisory body, the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England
Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England
The Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England was the body formerly responsible for documenting the records of English historical monuments. It was merged with English Heritage on 1 April 1999....

 (RCHME) was not merged with English Heritage until 1 April 1999.

English Heritage's best known role is as the steward of over 400 significant historical and archaeological sites, from Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of a circular setting of large standing stones set within earthworks...

 to the world's earliest iron bridge
The Iron Bridge
The Iron Bridge crosses the River Severn at the Ironbridge Gorge, by the village of Ironbridge, in Shropshire, England. It was the first arch bridge in the world to be made out of cast iron, a material which was previously far too expensive to use for large structures...

. It has direct ownership over some historic sites and also liaises with private owners of sites that are managed under guardianship arrangements.
It has major responsibilities in conservation, giving advice, registering and protecting the historic environment. It also maintains a public archive, the National Monuments Record (NMR).

History


English Heritage (The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is a non-departmental public body which manages the historic built environment of England. Today it is an executive agency of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet....

 (DCMS). The latter was formed in 1997.

Over the centuries, what is now called 'heritage' has been the responsibility of a series of State Departments.
There was the 'Kings Works' after the Norman Conquest; the 'Office of Works' (1378-1832); The Office of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues and Works (1832–1851); and the Ministry of Works
Ministry of Works
The Ministry of Works was a department of the UK Government formed in 1943, during World War II, to organise the requisitioning of property for wartime use. After the war, the Ministry retained responsibility for Government building projects....

 (1851–1962). Responsibility subsequently transferred to the Ministry of Public Building and Works (1962–1970) then to the Department of the Environment (UK) (1970–1997) and now the DCMS. The state's legal responsibility for the historic environment goes back to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. Central government subsequently developed several systems of heritage protection for different types of 'assets', introducing listing for buildings after WW2 and conservation areas in the 1960s. In 1983 Secretary of State for the Environment Michael Heseltine
Michael Heseltine
Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC is a British businessman, Conservative politician and patron of the Tory Reform Group. He was a Member of Parliament from 1966 to 2001 and was a prominent figure in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major...

 gave national responsibility for the historic environment to a semi‑autonomous agency (or 'quango
Quango
Quango or qango is an acronym used notably in the United Kingdom, Ireland and elsewhere to label an organisation to which government has devolved power...

') to operate under ministerial guidelines and to government policy. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission (now known as English Heritage) was formed.

Since then it has amalgamated with other bodies and archives to become the lead body for the heritage sector.

A national register of historic parks and gardens
National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens
In England, the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England provides a listing and classification system for historic parks and gardens similar to that used for listed buildings. The register is managed by English Heritage under the provisions of the National...

, (e.g. Rangers House, Greenwich) was set up in 1984, and a register for historic battlefields (e.g. the battle of Tewkesbury
Battle of Tewkesbury
The Battle of Tewkesbury, which took place on 4 May 1471, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars of the Roses. The forces loyal to the House of Lancaster were completely defeated by those of the rival House of York under their monarch, King Edward IV...

) was created in March 1995. ‘Registration’ is a material consideration in the planning process. In April 1999 English Heritage merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England
Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England
The Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England was the body formerly responsible for documenting the records of English historical monuments. It was merged with English Heritage on 1 April 1999....

 (RCHME) and the National Monuments Record (NMR), bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England’s historic environment. By adoption this included responsibility for the national record of archaeological sites from the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey , an executive agency and non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom, is the national mapping agency for Great Britain, producing maps of Great Britain , and one of the world's largest producers of maps.The name reflects its creation together with...

; the National Library of Aerial Photographs, and two million RAF and Ordnance Survey aerial photographs. These, together with other nationally important external acquisitions, means that English Heritage is one of the largest publicly-accessible archives in the UK: 2.53 million records are available online, including more than 426,000 images. In 2010-2011 it recorded 4.3 million unique online user sessionsand over 110,000 people visited NMR exhibitions held around the country in 2009/10 .

As a result of the National Heritage Act 2002, English Heritage acquired administrative responsibility for historic wrecks and submerged landscapes within 12 miles of the English coast.
The administration of the listed building system was transferred from DCMS to English Heritage in 2006. However, actual listing decisions still remain the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, who is required by the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990
Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990
The Planning Act 1990 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that altered the laws on granting of planning permission for building works, notably including those of the listed building system in England and Wales....

 to approve a list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest.

Following the Public Bodies Reform (aka ‘bonfire of the quangos’)in 2010, English Heritage was confirmed as the government's statutory advisor on the historic environment, and the largest source of non-lottery grant funding for heritage assets. It was retained on grounds of “performing a technical function which should remain independent from Government”.

English Heritage is only one of several of government sponsored organisations with responsibility for the historic environment. This reflects the length of time that heritage has been legally protected, the number of government reorganisations, and the importance of heritage to the UK economy and society. Local government plays an important role in making conservation decisions locally and keeping local Historic Environment Records (HERs).

Domain


English Heritage describes itself in these terms:
"English Heritage is the Government's statutory adviser on the historic environment. Officially known as the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, English Heritage is an Executive Non-departmental Public Body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet....

 (DCMS). Our powers and responsibilities are set out in the National Heritage Act (1983) and today we report to Parliament through the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport
Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport
The Secretary of State for Culture, Olympics, Media and Sport is a United Kingdom cabinet position with responsibility for the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The role was created in 1992 by John Major as Secretary of State for National Heritage...

."

Purpose and remit


English Heritage is the UK Government’s statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets. This includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England’s heritage and publishes the annual the Heritage at Risk
Heritage at Risk
Heritage at Risk is a collective term applied to 'designated' heritage assets that are at risk as a result of neglect, decay or inappropriate development, or are vulnerable to becoming so.In England, an annual Heritage at Risk Register is published by English Heritage...

 survey which is one of the UK Government's Official statistics
Official statistics
Official statistics are statistics published by government agencies or other public bodies such as international organizations. They provide quantitative or qualitative information on all major areas of citizens' lives, such as economic and social development, living conditions, health, education,...

. It is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.

Its remit involves:
    • Directly managing the national collection of sites, monuments, archive records and photographs taken into state care since the 1880s.
    • Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings, monuments and landscapes. In 2010/11 it made grant offers worth £34.8 million to support heritage buildings.
    • Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation (i.e. listing, scheduling etc.). In 2009-10 it advised on about 2,000 requests for listing, and processed 14,072 applications affecting Grade I and II* listed buildings, 97% of which were dealt with within the agreed deadline. In 2010-11 the annual report states that it was consulted on 17,302 planning cases.
    • Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, conservation area
      Conservation area
      A conservation areas is a tract of land that has been awarded protected status in order to ensure that natural features, cultural heritage or biota are safeguarded...

      s and protected parks and gardens.
    • Administering the Blue Plaque
      Blue plaque
      A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event, serving as a historical marker....

      s scheme in London since 1986.
    • Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage.
    • Providing expertise through advice, training and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources. In 2009-2010 it trained around 2,500 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector.
    • Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies, local and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment (PPS5)
    • Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of ‘Heritage Counts’ and ‘Heritage at Risk
      Heritage at Risk
      Heritage at Risk is a collective term applied to 'designated' heritage assets that are at risk as a result of neglect, decay or inappropriate development, or are vulnerable to becoming so.In England, an annual Heritage at Risk Register is published by English Heritage...

      ’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage.


It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings. The management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government
Department for Communities and Local Government
The Department for Communities and Local Government is the UK Government department for communities and local government in England. It was established in May 2006 and is the successor to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, established in 2001...

.

Properties


English Heritage is the guardian of over 400 sites and monuments, the most famous of which include Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of a circular setting of large standing stones set within earthworks...

, Iron Bridge
Iron Bridge
Iron Bridge may refer to:*The Iron Bridge, a pioneering Industrial Revolution bridge in Shropshire, England*Ironbridge, a settlement in Shropshire, England*Ironbridge Gorge, the gorge formed by the River Severn in Shropshire, England...

 and Dover Castle
Dover Castle
Dover Castle is a medieval castle in the town of the same name in the English county of Kent. It was founded in the 12th century and has been described as the "Key to England" due to its defensive significance throughout history...

. Whilst many have an entry charge, more than 250 properties are free to enter including Maiden Castle, Dorset
Maiden Castle, Dorset
Maiden Castle is an Iron Age hill fort south west of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset. Hill forts were fortified hill-top settlements constructed across Britain during the Iron Age...

 and St Catherine's Oratory
St Catherine's Oratory
St. Catherine's Oratory is a medieval lighthouse on St. Catherine's Down near the southern coast of the Isle of Wight, the Back of the Wight. It was built by Lord of Chale Walter de Godeton as an act of penance for plundering wine from the wreck of St. Marie of Bayonne in Chale Bay on April 20,...

.

The properties are part of the portfolio of over 880 sites amassed by the British Government between the 1880s and the 1970s to form the National Collection of built and archaeological heritage. (The balance is in the care of Historic Scotland
Historic Scotland
Historic Scotland is an executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland.-Role:As its website states:...

 and CADW
Cadw
-Conservation and Protection:Many of Wales's great castles and other monuments, such as bishop's palaces, historic houses, and ruined abbeys, are now in Cadw's care. Cadw does not own them but is responsible for their upkeep and for making them accessible to the public...

.) These sites represent a deliberate attempt by the state in the 19th and early 20th century to take the nation’s most significant prehistoric sites and medieval sites, which were no longer in active use, into public ownership. This national property collection performs the same function as pictures in the National Gallery
National gallery
The National Gallery is an art gallery on Trafalgar Square, London, United Kingdom.National Gallery may also refer to:*Armenia: National Gallery of Armenia, Yerevan*Australia:**National Gallery of Australia, Canberra...

 and the archaeological material in the British Museum
British Museum
The British Museum is a museum of human history and culture in London. Its collections, which number more than seven million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its...

.

Unlike the National Trust
National Trust
National Trust most commonly refers to an organization dedicated to preserving the cultural or environmental treasures of a particular geographic region. They generally operate as private non-profit organizations, although some receive considerable support from their national government...

, English Heritage holds few furnished properties. New sites are rarely added to the collection as other charities and institutions are now encouraged to care for them and open them to the public.

The properties are held by English Heritage under various arrangements. The majority are in the guardianship of the Secretary of State for the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet....

 with the freehold being retained by the owner. The remaining properties are either owned by English Heritage, other government departments or the Crown Estate
Crown Estate
In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a property portfolio owned by the Crown. Although still belonging to the monarch and inherent with the accession of the throne, it is no longer the private property of the reigning monarch and cannot be sold by him/her, nor do the revenues from it belong...

.

In 2010-2011 there were 5.5 million visits to staffed properties, an estimated 6 million visits to unstaffed sites and a further 32,340 free educational visits.

Funding


English Heritage is a non-departmental public body
Non-departmental public body
In the United Kingdom, a non-departmental public body —often referred to as a quango—is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, Treasury, Scottish Government and Northern Ireland Executive to certain types of public bodies...

, or quango
Quango
Quango or qango is an acronym used notably in the United Kingdom, Ireland and elsewhere to label an organisation to which government has devolved power...

, with most of its funding derived from taxation. In 2010-2011, English Heritage had a total income of £184.7 million. Of this, 70% came from government through grant-in-aid
Grant-in-aid
A grant-in-aid is money coming from central government for a specific project. This kind of funding is usually used when the government and parliament have decided that the recipient should be publicly funded but operate with reasonable independence from the state.In the United Kingdom, most bodies...

. Earned income of £49.8m accounted for 27% of revenue – £14.3m from property admissions; £12.1m from catering and retail; £18.8m from membership; and £4.7m from other sources. The balance came from donations and grants.

Following the budget review in October 2010, the Government announcement of a 32% cut to the grant of English Heritage. Since 1997 it has received real terms cuts in its grant-in-aid settlement, resulting in a real terms reduction of £130m.

Membership


Members of the public are able and encouraged to join English Heritage. Membership provides benefits such as free admission to its properties and member-only events.
In 2010-2011 there were 1,026,000 members.
Membership does not convey voting rights or influence over the way English Heritage is run.

Participation in consultations and web-based surveys facilitated by English Heritage is not restricted to its membership.
It invites various groups and members of the public to give views on specific issues, most notably in recent years, about the Stonehenge road tunnel
Stonehenge road tunnel
The Stonehenge road tunnel was a controversial tunnel in Wiltshire, England proposed by the Highways Agency to upgrade the A303 road. It would have moved the A303 into a tunnel under the Stonehenge World Heritage Site and close the A344 road...

 project proposals.

Volunteering


The organisation welcomes volunteers. Roles range from room stewarding, running education workshops and gardening, to curatorial cleaning and research. In 2009-2010 volunteers contributed over 8,022 hours of work to English Heritage.

How English Heritage is run


The Commission is the governing board of English Heritage. Since July 2009 this has been chaired by Baroness Kay Andrews. The Commission provides the strategic direction of the organisation within the policy and resources framework agreed with Government. There are 17 people on the Commission including Professor Sir Barry Cunliffe
Barry Cunliffe
Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe, CBE, known professionally as Barry Cunliffe is a former Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford, a position held from 1972 to 2007...

 CBE, Ms Maria Adebowale and John Walker CBE. Commissioners are appointed by the Secretary of State for the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet....

. Meeting minutes are published on the English Heritage web site.

The Commission delegates operational management to the Chief Executive, Dr Simon Thurley
Simon Thurley
Simon John Thurley, CBE, FRIBA, F.R.Hist.S. is an academic and architectural historian, and the present Chief Executive of English Heritage .-Early life and education:...

, who was appointed in 2002. The Chief Executive is supported by an Executive Board of four directors. In addition, there is a range of advisory committees and panels which advise on and administer specialist areas. For example: The London Advisory Committee, Battlefields Panel and Urban Panel.

In 2010-2011 English Heritage employed 2013 FTE staff.

It has a ‘Planning Charter’ which explains the role of English Heritage in the planning system. The charter includes information on how it deals with requests for pre-application and statutory advice; and the advisory service on policy and management issues relating to the planning process. It has also published the principles on which its conservation advice is based.

English Heritage sites in Cornwall


In 1999 there was some controversy regarding sites in Cornwall under the care of
English Heritage. The pressure group, the Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament
Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament
The Revived Cornish Stannary Parliament , is a pressure group which claims to be a revival of the historic Cornish Stannary Parliament last held in 1753...

 wrote to English Heritage asking them to remove all signs bearing their name from Cornish
Cornwall
Cornwall is a unitary authority and ceremonial county of England, within the United Kingdom. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall has a population of , and covers an area of...

 sites by July 1999 as they regard the ancient sites as Cornish heritage, not English. Over eleven months members of the Cornish Stannary removed 18 signs and a letter was sent to English Heritage saying "The signs have been confiscated and held as evidence of English cultural aggression in Cornwall. Such racially motivated signs are deeply offensive and cause distress to many Cornish people".
On 18 January 2002, at Truro Crown Court, after the prosecution successfully applied for a Public Immunity Certificate in order to suppress defence evidence (these are normally issued in cases involving national security), three members of the group agreed to return the signs and pay £4,500 in compensation to English Heritage and to be bound over to keep the peace. In return, the prosecution dropped charges of conspiracy to cause criminal damage.

In 2011 Conservative MP George Eustice
George Eustice
Charles George Eustice is a British Conservative Party politician, who was elected at the 2010 general election as the Member of Parliament for Camborne and Redruth....

 stated that Cornish heritage "is not English" and that there is "a growing feeling that Cornwall should have its own heritage organisation, taking over from English Heritage." He suggests that English heritage be replaced "with a Cornish Heritage group, just like they have for instance in Wales and Scotland." Culture Secretary Jeremy Hunt has been called upon to give cash to a new autonomous body in Cornwall by "top slicing" English Heritage's budget.

Fortress House



In 2006, The Secretary of State at the DCMS issued a certificate of exemption from listing for Fortress House, the then English Heritage headquarters. In 2009, it was demolished and the site redeveloped for a commercial office building.

Central London high rise development


English Heritage is often criticised by property developers and citizens for being 'anti-progressive' in the way it treats high rise development in central London
Central London
Central London is the innermost part of London, England. There is no official or commonly accepted definition of its area, but its characteristics are understood to include a high density built environment, high land values, an elevated daytime population and a concentration of regionally,...

. This has been apparent with numerous new buildings - most notably skyscrapers such as The Shard
Shard London Bridge
Shard London Bridge is a skyscraper under construction in Southwark, London. When completed in May 2012, it will be the tallest building in the European Union and the 45th-tallest building in the world, standing tall...

, and the Heron Tower
Heron Tower
Heron Tower, also referred to as 110 Bishopsgate, is a skyscraper owned by Heron International in the City of London. It was completed in 2011...

.

Photography


In 2010 the organisation sent an email to open access photograph agency fotoLibra
FotoLibra
fotoLibra is an open access picture library / stock agency. It was founded in 2002, produced a beta site in March 2004 and launched commercially in January 2005. It sells rights-managed and royalty-free images, with an approximate 80/20 split in favor of rights-managed. fotoLibra claims to be the...

, attempting to ban the unauthorised commercial use of photographs of Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of a circular setting of large standing stones set within earthworks...

. A subsequent statement of regret was issued, clarifying that "We do not control the copyright of all images of Stonehenge and have never tried to do so." The organisation added that they request that commercial photographers pay fees and abide by certain conditions.

Equivalent organisations

  • Wales — Cadw
    Cadw
    -Conservation and Protection:Many of Wales's great castles and other monuments, such as bishop's palaces, historic houses, and ruined abbeys, are now in Cadw's care. Cadw does not own them but is responsible for their upkeep and for making them accessible to the public...

  • Scotland — Historic Scotland
    Historic Scotland
    Historic Scotland is an executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland.-Role:As its website states:...

  • Northern Ireland
    Northern Ireland
    Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

     — Northern Ireland Environment Agency (formerly the Environment and Heritage Service)
  • Isle of Man — Manx National Heritage
    Manx National Heritage
    Manx National Heritage is the national heritage organisation for the Isle of Man. It was established in 1951 as the Manx National Trust, and its legal title is the Manx Museum and National Trust.-Overview:...


See also


  • Conservation in the United Kingdom
    Conservation in the United Kingdom
    This page gives an overview of the complex structure of environmental and cultural conservation in the United Kingdom.With the advent of devolved government for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and of evolving regional government for England, the responsibilities for environment and...

  • Abbeys and priories in England
    Abbeys and priories in England
    Abbeys and priories in England lists abbeys, priories, friaries and other monastic religious houses in England.-Article layout:The list is presented alphabetically by ceremonial county...

  • Castles in the United Kingdom
    Castles in the United Kingdom
    Castles have played an important military, economic and social role in Great Britain and Ireland since their introduction following the Norman invasion of England in 1066...

  • Festival of History
    Festival of History
    The Festival of History is an annual summer event held by English Heritage. The event focusses on historical re-enactment. The first event was held in 2003 and attracted 10,000 visitors, and since then has been held annually in July or August in the grounds of Stoneleigh Park in Warwickshire or...

  • Heritage film
    Heritage film
    The term Heritage film refers to a movement in British cinema in the late 20th century which depicts the England of previous centuries often in a nostalgic fashion. It includes the wave of filmings of Shakespeare plays and Jane Austen novels. Typical of such films is the use of splendid scenes of...

  • Heritage Open Days
  • List of Conservation topics
  • List of heritage registers
  • Museums in England
  • Battle of the Beanfield
    Battle of the Beanfield
    The Battle of the Beanfield took place over several hours on the afternoon of Saturday 1 June 1985 when Wiltshire Police prevented a vehicle convoy of several hundred new age travellers, known as "The Convoy" and referred to in the media as the "Peace Convoy" from setting up at the 11th Stonehenge...


External links