Listed building

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A listed building in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 is a building that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. It is a widely used status, applied to around half a million buildings.

A listed building may not be demolished, extended or altered without special permission from the local planning authority (which typically consults the relevant central government agency, particularly for significant alterations to the more notable listed buildings). Exemption from secular listed building control is provided for some buildings in current use for worship but only in cases where the relevant religious organisation operates its own equivalent permissions procedure. Owners of listed buildings are, in some circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them and can face criminal prosecution if they fail to do so or if they perform unauthorised alterations.

The listing procedure allows for buildings to be removed from the list if the listing is shown to be in error.

Although most structures appearing on the lists are buildings, other structures such as bridge
Bridge
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle...

s, monument
Monument
A monument is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or simply as an example of historic architecture...

s, sculpture
Sculpture
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials—typically stone such as marble—or metal, glass, or wood. Softer materials can also be used, such as clay, textiles, plastics, polymers and softer metals...

s, war memorials, and even milestones and mileposts
Milestone
A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile. They are typically located at the side of the road or in a median. They are alternatively known as mile markers, mileposts or mile posts...

 and the Beatles' Abbey Road pedestrian crossing are also listed. Ancient, military and uninhabited structures (such as Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of a circular setting of large standing stones set within earthworks...

) are sometimes instead classified as Scheduled Ancient Monuments and protected by much older legislation whilst cultural landscapes such as parks and gardens are currently "listed" on a non-statutory basis. Slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of listing are the same.

Background


Although a limited number of 'ancient monuments' were given protection under the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882, there was reluctance to restrict the owners of occupied buildings in what they could do to their property. It was the damage to buildings caused by Nazi bombing
The Blitz
The Blitz was the sustained strategic bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941, during the Second World War. The city of London was bombed by the Luftwaffe for 76 consecutive nights and many towns and cities across the country followed...

 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. 300 members of the Royal Institute of British Architects
Royal Institute of British Architects
The Royal Institute of British Architects is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally.-History:...

 and the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings
Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings
The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings was founded by William Morris, Philip Webb and J.J.Stevenson, and other notable members of the Pre Raphaelite brotherhood, in 1877, to oppose what they saw as the insensitive renovation of ancient buildings then occurring in Victorian...

 were dispatched to prepare the list under the supervision of the Inspectorate of Ancient Monuments, with funding from the Treasury. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a particular building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing, with varying degrees of success.

The basis of the current more comprehensive listing process was developed from the wartime system and was enacted by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947
Town and Country Planning Act 1947
The Town and Country Planning Act 1947 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom passed by the post-war Labour government...

 covering England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 and Wales
Wales
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

, and the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1947 covering Scotland. Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning (Northern Ireland) Order 1972. The listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK.

Heritage protection


In the UK, the process of protecting the built historic environment (i.e. getting a heritage asset legally protected) is called ‘designation’. To complicate things, several different terms are used because the processes use separate legislation: buildings are ‘listed’; ancient monuments are ‘scheduled’, wrecks are ‘protected’, and battlefields, gardens and parks are ‘registered’. A heritage asset is a part of the historic environment that is valued because of its historic, archaeological, architectural or artistic interest. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have extra legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed, but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a material consideration
Material consideration
A material consideration in the UK is a process in Planning Law in which the decision maker when assessing an application for development must consider in deciding the outcome of an application....

 in the planning process.

As a very rough guide, listed buildings generally have substantial remains that are visible above the ground whereas ancient monument
Ancient monument
An ancient monument is an early historical structure or monument worthy of preservation and study due to archaeological or heritage interest. In the United Kingdom it is a legal term, differing from the American term National Monument in being far more numerous and always man-made...

s are (mostly) below the ground and/or unoccupied.

What can be listed


Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building. Buildings and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. English Heritage has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and structures. These include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category. Neither Historic Scotland nor Cadw appear to have published comparable guidelines for particular categories (as of June 2011) although both organisations produce guidance for owners.

How to apply for listing or delisting


In England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, to have a building considered for listing or de-listing, the process is to submit an application form online to English Heritage. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building in order to apply for it to be listed. Full information including application form guidance notes are on the English Heritage website. English Heritage assesses buildings put forward for listing or de-listing and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural and historic interest. The Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, then decides whether or not to list or de-list the building.

In Wales, applications are made using a form obtained from the relevant local authority. There is no provision for consent to be granted in outline. When a local authority is disposed to grant listed building consent, it must first notify the National Assembly (i.e. Cadw) of the application. If the planning authority decides to refuse consent, it may do so without any reference to Cadw.

In Scotland, applications are made using a form obtained from Historic Scotland. After consultation with the local planning authority, the owner, where possible, and an independent third party, Historic Scotland will then make a recommendation on behalf of the Scottish Ministers.

England and Wales



The legislation relevant to listing


In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990
Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990
The Planning Act 1990 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that altered the laws on granting of planning permission for building works, notably including those of the listed building system in England and Wales....

. Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the English Heritage 'Heritage at Risk
Heritage at Risk
Heritage at Risk is a collective term applied to 'designated' heritage assets that are at risk as a result of neglect, decay or inappropriate development, or are vulnerable to becoming so.In England, an annual Heritage at Risk Register is published by English Heritage...

' Register.

In 1980 there was public outcry at the sudden destruction of the art deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 Firestone Factory (Wallis, Gilbert and Partners
Wallis, Gilbert and Partners
Wallis, Gilbert and Partners was a British architectural partnership responsible for the design of many Art Deco buildings in the UK in the 1920s and 1930s. It was established by Thomas Wallis in 1914. Although the identity of Gilbert has not been established, later partners included Douglas...

, 1928–29), which was demolished over the August bank holiday weekend by its owners Trafalgar House
Trafalgar House
Trafalgar House may refer to:*Trafalgar House , a defunct British conglomerate*Trafalgar House , a country house in Wiltshire, England associated with the Earl Nelson family....

 who had been told that it was likely to be 'spot-listed' a few days later, and the Government undertook to review arrangements for listing buildings. After the Firestone demolition, the Secretary of State for the Environment
Secretary of State for the Environment
The Secretary of State for the Environment was a UK cabinet position, responsible for the Department of the Environment . This was created by Edward Heath as a combination of the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Public Building and Works on 15...

 Michael Heseltine
Michael Heseltine
Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC is a British businessman, Conservative politician and patron of the Tory Reform Group. He was a Member of Parliament from 1966 to 2001 and was a prominent figure in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major...

 also initiated a complete re-survey of buildings to ensure there was nothing which merited preservation and had been missed off the lists.

In England, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet....

 (DCMS) works with English Heritage
English Heritage
English Heritage . is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport...

 (an agency of the DCMS), and other government departments, e.g. Department for Communities and Local Government
Department for Communities and Local Government
The Department for Communities and Local Government is the UK Government department for communities and local government in England. It was established in May 2006 and is the successor to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, established in 2001...

 (DCLG) and the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to deliver the government policy on the protection to historic buildings and other heritage assets. The decision about whether or not to list a building is made by the Secretary of State, although the process is administered in England by English Heritage
English Heritage
English Heritage . is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport...

. In Wales (where it is a devolved issue) it is administered by Cadw
Cadw
-Conservation and Protection:Many of Wales's great castles and other monuments, such as bishop's palaces, historic houses, and ruined abbeys, are now in Cadw's care. Cadw does not own them but is responsible for their upkeep and for making them accessible to the public...

 on behalf of the National Assembly for Wales
National Assembly for Wales
The National Assembly for Wales is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales. The Assembly comprises 60 members, who are known as Assembly Members, or AMs...

 and in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 it is administered by Historic Scotland
Historic Scotland
Historic Scotland is an executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland.-Role:As its website states:...

 on behalf of the Scottish Ministers.

Heritage protection reform legislation in England


There have been several attempts to simplify the heritage planning process for listed buildings in England, which has still (at the time of writing in May 2011) to reach a conclusion.

The review process was started in 2000 by Alan Howarth, then minister at the DCMS. The outcome was the paper ‘The Power of Place’ in 2000 followed by the subsequent policy document ‘The Historic Environment: A Force for Our Future’ published by the DCMS
DCMS
DCMS as an acronym may refer to:*Department for Culture, Media and Sport, a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England*Deccan College of Medical Sciences, a medical college in Hyderabad, India...

 and the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DTLR) in December 2001. The launch of the Government’s Heritage Protection Reform (HPR) report in July 2003 by the DCMS entitled: ‘Protecting our historic environment: Making the system work better,’ asked questions about how the current designation systems could be improved. The HPR decision report ‘Review of Heritage Protection: The Way Forward’ green paper published in June 2004 by the DCMS committed the UK government and English Heritage to a process of reform including a review of the criteria used for listing buildings.

The Government also began a process of consultation on changes to Planning Policy Guidance 15 (PPG 15
PPG 15
PPG 15 is short for Planning Policy Guidance 15: Planning and the Historic Environment, a document produced by the British Government to advise local planning authorities on the treatment of historic buildings and the wider historic environment within the planning process...

) relating to the principles of selection for listing buildings in England. After several years of consultation with heritage groups, charities, planning authorities and English Heritage, this eventually resulted in the publication of Planning Publication Statement 5 ‘Planning for the Historic Environment’ in March 2010 by the DCLG. This replaced PPG15 and sets out the government’s national policies on the conservation of the historic environment for the England. PPS5 is supported by a Practice Guide, endorsed by the DCLG, the DCMS, and English Heritage which describes how to apply the policies stated in PPS5.

The government’s White Paper ‘Heritage Protection for the 21st Century’ published on 8 March 2007 offered a commitment to sharing the understanding of the historic environment and more openness in the process of designation.

In 2008, a draft Heritage Protection Bill was subject to pre-legislative scrutiny before its passage through UK Parliament. In the event, the legislation was abandoned despite strong cross-party support, to make room in the parliamentary legislative programme for measures to deal with the credit crunch. though it may be revived in future. The proposal was that the existing registers of buildings, parks and gardens, archaeology and battlefields, maritime wrecks, and World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

s be merged into a single online register which will "explain what is special and why". English Heritage would become directly responsible for identifying historic assets in England and there would be wider consultation with the public and asset owners, and new rights of appeal. There would have been streamlined systems for granting consent for work on historic assets.

Categories of listed building


There are three types of listed status for buildings in England and Wales:
  • Grade I: buildings of exceptional interest,
  • Grade II*: particularly important buildings of more than special interest.
  • Grade II: buildings that are of special interest, warranting every effort to preserve them.


There was formerly a non-statutory Grade III, which was abolished in 1970. Additionally, Grades A, B and C were used mainly for Anglican
Church of England
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

 churches in use – these correspond approximately to Grades I, II* and II. These grades were used mainly before 1977, although a few buildings are still listed using these grades.

Listed buildings account for about 2% of English building stock. In March 2010, there were approximately 374,000 list entries of which 92% were Grade II, 5.5% were Grade II*, and 2.5% were Grade I. Places of worship play an important role in the UK’s architectural heritage. England alone has 14,500 listed places of worship (4,000 Grade I, 4,500 Grade II* and 6,000 Grade II). In fact, 45% of all Grade I listed buildings are places of worship.

There are estimated to be about 500,000 actual buildings listed, as listing entries can apply to more than one building.

Statutory Criteria for listing


In order to be listed, a building must meet various criteria. The criteria for listing include architectural interest, historic interest and close historical associations with significant people or events. Buildings which are not individually noteworthy may still be listed if they form part of a group that is – for example, all the buildings in a square. This is called ‘group value’. Sometimes large areas comprising many buildings may not justify listing but are given the looser protection of designation as a conservation area
Conservation area
A conservation areas is a tract of land that has been awarded protected status in order to ensure that natural features, cultural heritage or biota are safeguarded...

.

The criteria include:
  • Age and rarity: The older a building is, the more likely it is to be listed. All buildings erected before 1700 "which contain a significant proportion of their original fabric" will be listed. Most buildings built between 1700–1840 are listed. After 1840 more selection is exercised and “particularly careful selection” is applied after 1945. Buildings less than 30 years old are rarely listed unless they are of outstanding quality and under threat.
  • Aesthetic merits: i.e. the appearance of a buildings. However, buildings that have little visual appeal may be listed on grounds of representing particular aspects of social or economic history.
  • Selectivity: where a large number of buildings of a similar type survive, the policy is only to list those which are the most representative or significant examples.
  • National interest: significant or distinctive regional buildings e.g. those that represent a nationally important but localised industry
  • State of repair: this is not deemed to be a relevant consideration for listing. A building can be listed regardless of its state of repair.


Additionally:
  • Any buildings or structures constructed before 1 July 1948 which fall within the curtilage
    Curtilage
    The curtilage is an important legal term to define the land immediately surrounding a house or dwelling, including any closely associated buildings and structures, but excluding any associated 'open fields beyond'. It defines the boundary within which a home owner can have a reasonable expectation...

     of a listed building are treated as part of the listed building.
  • The effect of a proposed development on the setting of a listed building is a material consideration in determining a planning application. Setting is defined as “the surroundings in which a heritage is experienced”.


Although the decision to list a building may be made on the basis of the architectural or historic interest of one small part of the building, the listing protection nevertheless applies to the whole building. Listing applies not just to the exterior fabric of the building itself, but also to the interior, fixtures, fittings, and objects within the curtilage of the building even if they are not fixed.

De-listing is possible but rare in practice. One example is the November 30, 2001 de-listing of North Corporation Primary School
North Corporation Primary School
The North Corporation Primary School 151 Bevington Bush, Vauxhall, Liverpool, was a Grade II listed building. It was listed on April 14, 1975 and delisted on November 30, 2001. It has since been demolished....

, Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

.

Emergency listing


In an emergency, the local planning authority can serve a temporary listed “building preservation notice”, if a building is in danger of demolition or alteration in such as way that might affect its historic character. This remains in force for 6 months until the Secretary of State decides whether or not to formally list the building.

Certificates of immunity


If planning permission is being sought or has been obtained in England, anyone can ask the Secretary of State to issue a Certificate of Immunity (CoI) in respect of a particular building. CoIs give certainty to developers proposing works that will affect buildings that may be eligible for listing. To apply for a Certificate of Immunity, it is necessary to submit an application form. Guidance notes are available on English Heritage website.

Altering a listed building


In England and Wales, the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government (i.e. not DCMS which originally listed the building). There is a general principle that listed buildings are put to ‘appropriate and viable use’ and recognise that this may involve the re-use and modification of the building. However, listed buildings cannot be modified without first obtaining Listed Building Consent through the relevant local planning authority

Carrying out unauthorised works to a listed building is a criminal offence and owners can be prosecuted. A planning authority can also insist that all work undertaken without consent is reversed at the owner’s expense.

Examples of Grade I listed buildings



See also :Category:Grade I listed buildings for examples of such buildings across England and Wales
  • Clifton Suspension Bridge
    Clifton Suspension Bridge
    Brunel died in 1859, without seeing the completion of the bridge. Brunel's colleagues in the Institution of Civil Engineers felt that completion of the Bridge would be a fitting memorial, and started to raise new funds...

    , Bristol
  • The Palace of Westminster
    Palace of Westminster
    The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, is the meeting place of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom—the House of Lords and the House of Commons...

    , London
  • Royal Albert Hall
    Royal Albert Hall
    The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall situated on the northern edge of the South Kensington area, in the City of Westminster, London, England, best known for holding the annual summer Proms concerts since 1941....

    , London
  • York Minster
    York Minster
    York Minster is a Gothic cathedral in York, England and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe alongside Cologne Cathedral. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the second-highest office of the Church of England, and is the cathedral for the Diocese of York; it is run by...

  • Blackpool Tower
    Blackpool Tower
    Blackpool Tower Eye is a tourist attraction in Blackpool, Lancashire in England which was opened to the public on 14 May 1894. . Inspired by the Eiffel Tower in Paris, it rises to 518 feet & 9 inches . The tower is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers...

  • Leeds Town Hall
    Leeds Town Hall
    Leeds Town Hall was built between 1853 and 1858 on Park Lane , Leeds, West Yorkshire, England to a design by architect Cuthbert Brodrick.-Background:...

  • Albert Dock
    Albert Dock
    The Albert Dock is a complex of dock buildings and warehouses in Liverpool, England. Designed by Jesse Hartley and Philip Hardwick, it was opened in 1846, and was the first structure in Britain to be built from cast iron, brick and stone, with no structural wood...

    , Liverpool
  • Curzon Street railway station
    Curzon Street railway station
    Curzon Street railway station was a railway station in Birmingham that was used briefly for regular scheduled passenger services between 1838 and 1854 when it acted as the terminus for both the London and Birmingham Railway and the Grand Junction Railway, with lines connecting Birmingham to London...

    , Birmingham
  • Warwick Castle
    Warwick Castle
    Warwick Castle is a medieval castle in Warwick, the county town of Warwickshire, England. It sits on a bend on the River Avon. The castle was built by William the Conqueror in 1068 within or adjacent to the Anglo-Saxon burh of Warwick. It was used as a fortification until the early 17th century,...

    , Warwick (Warwickshire)
  • Montacute House
    Montacute House
    Montacute House is a late Elizabethan country house situated in the South Somerset village of Montacute. This house is a textbook example of English architecture during a period that was moving from the medieval Gothic to the Renaissance Classical; this has resulted in Montacute being regarded as...

    , South Somerset
  • Dock Tower, Grimsby
  • Royal Festival Hall
    Royal Festival Hall
    The Royal Festival Hall is a 2,900-seat concert, dance and talks venue within Southbank Centre in London. It is situated on the South Bank of the River Thames, not far from Hungerford Bridge. It is a Grade I listed building - the first post-war building to become so protected...

    , London (first Grade I-listed postwar building)
  • Lilford Hall
    Lilford Hall
    Lilford Hall is a Grade 1 listed stately 100-room home having a Jacobean exterior and Georgian interior with a floor area, located in the eastern part of the County of Northamptonshire in the United Kingdom, south of Oundle and north of Thrapston. A Grade 1 listed building is considered by the UK...

    , Northamptonshire
  • Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
    Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
    The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is a navigable aqueduct that carries the Llangollen Canal over the valley of the River Dee in Wrexham in north east Wales....

    , North Wales

Examples of Grade II* listed buildings




See also :Category:Grade II* listed buildings for examples of such buildings across England and Wales
  • Bank Hall
    Bank Hall
    Bank Hall is a Jacobean mansion south of the village of Bretherton in Lancashire, England. It is a Grade II* Listed Building. The hall was built on the site of a previous building in 1608 during the reign of James I by the Banastre family who were Lords of the Manor. It was extended during the 18th...

    , Bretherton
  • Battersea Power Station
    Battersea Power Station
    Battersea Power Station is a decommissioned coal-fired power station located on the south bank of the River Thames, in Battersea, South London. The station comprises two individual power stations, built in two stages in the form of a single building. Battersea A Power Station was built first in the...

    , London
  • Coliseum Theatre
    Coliseum Theatre
    The London Coliseum is an opera house and major performing venue on St. Martin's Lane, central London. It is one of London's largest and best equipped theatres and opened in 1904, designed by theatrical architect Frank Matcham , for impresario Oswald Stoll...

    , London
  • Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge
    Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge
    The Middlesbrough Transporter Bridge or Tees Transporter Bridge is the furthest downstream bridge across the River Tees, England. It connects Middlesbrough, on the south bank, to Port Clarence, on the north bank. It is a transporter bridge, carrying a travelling 'car', or 'gondola', suspended from...

  • Shibden Hall
    Shibden Hall
    Shibden Hall is a historic house located in a public park at Shibden, West Yorkshire, England. It dates back to around 1420, when it was recorded as being inhabited by one William Otes. Prior to 1619, it was then owned by the Savile and Waterhouse families. The three families' armorial symbols are...

    , Calderdale
    Calderdale
    The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England, through which the upper part of the River Calder flows, and from which it takes its name...

  • Manchester Town Hall
    Manchester Town Hall
    Manchester Town Hall is a Victorian-era, Neo-gothic municipal building in Manchester, England. The building functions as the ceremonial headquarters of Manchester City Council and houses a number of local government departments....

     extension
  • St John's Jerusalem, Kent
  • Trellick Tower
    Trellick Tower
    Trellick Tower is a 31-storey block of flats in North Kensington, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, England. It was designed in the Brutalist style by architect Ernő Goldfinger, after a commission from the Greater London Council in 1966, and completed in 1972...

    , London

Examples of Grade II listed buildings


See also :Category:Grade II listed buildings for examples of such buildings across England and Wales
  • Alexandra Palace
    Alexandra Palace
    Alexandra Palace is a building in North London, England. It stands in Alexandra Park, in an area between Hornsey, Muswell Hill and Wood Green...

    , London
  • Broomhill Pool, Ipswich
    Broomhill Pool, Ipswich
    Broomhill Pool is a Grade II listed lido on Sherrington Road in Ipswich, Suffolk, England.-Status:Broomhill Pool opened on April 30th 1938 and closed in the autumn of 2002...

  • BT Tower
    BT Tower
    The BT Tower is a tall cylindrical building in London, United Kingdom, located at 60 Cleveland Street, Fitzrovia W1T 4JZ, London Borough of Camden. It has been previously known as the Post Office Tower, the London Telecom Tower and the British Telecom Tower. The main structure is tall, with a...

    , London
  • Whitechapel Bell Foundry
    Whitechapel Bell Foundry
    The Whitechapel Bell Foundry is a bell foundry in Whitechapel in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, in the East End of London. The foundry is listed by the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest manufacturing company in Great Britain...

    , London
  • Birmingham Back to Backs
    Birmingham Back to Backs
    The Birmingham Back to Backs at 50–54 Inge Street and 55–63 Hurst Street are the last surviving court of back-to-back houses in Birmingham, England, now operated as a museum by the National Trust....

    , Birmingham

Mixed designations

  • In 2002, there were 80 seaside pier
    Pier
    A pier is a raised structure, including bridge and building supports and walkways, over water, typically supported by widely spread piles or pillars...

    s in England that were listed, variously at Grades I, II* and II.
  • Golden Lane Estate
    Golden Lane Estate
    The Golden Lane Estate is a 1950s council housing complex in the City of London. It was built on the northern edge of the City, in an area devastated by bombing during World War II.-Origins:...

    , City of London, is an example of a site which includes buildings of different Grades, II and II*
  • Cobham Park, Kent, is a Listed Landscape (Humphry Repton
    Humphry Repton
    Humphry Repton was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century, often regarded as the successor to Capability Brown; he also sowed the seeds of the more intricate and eclectic styles of the 19th century...

     and older landscape) containing both Grade I structures (Cobham Hall
    Cobham Hall
    Cobham Hall is a country house in Cobham, Kent, England. There has been a manor house on the site since the 12th century. The current building consists of a pair of Tudor wings built for William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham in the 16th century and a later classical central block, and a kitchen court...

     and Darnley Mausoleum) and Grade II structures (ornamental dairy etc.) as well as a Scheduled Ancient Monument
    Scheduled Ancient Monument
    In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is a 'nationally important' archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorized change. The various pieces of legislation used for legally protecting heritage assets from damage and destruction are grouped under the term...

     (a buried Roman villa).
  • West Norwood Cemetery
    West Norwood Cemetery
    West Norwood Cemetery is a cemetery in West Norwood in London, England. It was also known as the South Metropolitan Cemetery.One of the first private landscaped cemeteries in London, it is one of the Magnificent Seven cemeteries of London, and is a site of major historical, architectural and...

     is the first-ever Gothic-designed cemetery and crematorium which contains 65 structures of Grade II or II*, mainly sepulchral monuments but also boundary structures and mausolea
    Mausoleum
    A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb or the tomb may be considered to be within the...

    . Additionally it is listed Grade II* on the Register of Parks and Gardens.
  • Derwent Valley Mills includes 838 listed buildings, made up of 16 Grade I, 42 Grade II*, and 780 Grade II. A further nine structures are Scheduled Ancient Monuments.

Locally listed buildings


Many councils, for example, Birmingham City Council
Birmingham City Council
The Birmingham City Council is the body responsible for the governance of the City of Birmingham in England, which has been a metropolitan district since 1974. It is the most populated local authority in the United Kingdom with, following a reorganisation of boundaries in June 2004, 120 Birmingham...

, maintain a list of locally listed buildings as separate to the statutory list (and in addition to it). There is no statutory protection of a building or object on the local list. Councils hope that owners will recognise the merits of their properties and keep them unaltered if at all possible.

These grades are used by Birmingham:
Grade A: This is of statutory list quality. To be the subject of notification to English Heritage and/or the serving of a Building Preservation Notice if imminently threatened.
Grade B: Important in the city wide architectural or local street scene context, warranting positive efforts to ensure retention.
Grade C: Of significance in the local historical/vernacular context, including industrial archaeological features, and worthy of retention.

Northern Ireland



Listing began later in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

 than in the rest of the UK: the first provision for listing was contained in the Planning (Northern Ireland) Order 1972; and the current legislative basis for listing is the Planning (Northern Ireland) Order 1991. Under Article 42 of the Order, the Department of the Environment
Department of the Environment (Northern Ireland)
The Department of the Environment is a devolved Northern Ireland government department in the Northern Ireland Executive. The minister with overall responsibility for the department is the Minister for the Environment.-Aim:...

 of the Northern Ireland Executive
Northern Ireland Executive
The Northern Ireland Executive is the executive arm of the Northern Ireland Assembly, the devolved legislature for Northern Ireland. It is answerable to the Assembly and was established according to the terms of the Northern Ireland Act 1998, which followed the Good Friday Agreement...

 is required to compile lists of buildings of "special architectural or historic interest". The responsibility for the listing process rests with the Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA), an executive agency
Executive agency
An executive agency, also known as a next-step agency, is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate in order to carry out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly or Northern Ireland...

 within the Department of the Environment.

Following the introduction of listing, an initial survey of Northern Ireland's building stock was begun in 1974. By the time of the completion of this First Survey in 1994, the listing process had developed considerably, and it was therefore decided to embark upon a Second Survey to update and cross-check the original information. , the Second Survey had been completed for 147 of Northern Ireland's 547 council ward
Wards of the United Kingdom
A ward in the United Kingdom is an electoral district at sub-national level represented by one or more councillors. It is the primary unit of British administrative and electoral geography .-England:...

s, and completion is anticipated by 2016. Information gathered during this survey, relating to both listed and unlisted buildings, is entered into the publicly-accessible Northern Ireland Buildings Database. A range of listing criteria, which aim to define architectural and historic interest, have been developed by the NIEA, and are used to determine whether or not to list a building. Listed building consent must be obtained from local authorities prior to any alteration to a listed structure.

The scheme of listing is as follows:
  • Grade A: "buildings of greatest importance to Northern Ireland including both outstanding architectural set-pieces and the least altered examples of each representative style, period and type."
  • Grade B+: "buildings which might have merited grade A status but for detracting features such as an incomplete design, lower quality additions or alterations. Also included are buildings that because of exceptional features, interiors or environmental qualities are clearly above the general standard set by grade B buildings. A building may merit listing as grade B+ where its historic importance is greater than a similar building listed as grade B."
  • Grade B: "buildings of local importance and good examples of a particular period or style. A degree of alteration or imperfection of design may be acceptable."


There are approximately 8,500 listed buildings in Northern Ireland, representing 2% of the total building stock. Of these, around 200 are listed at Grade A, 400 at Grade B+, and the remainder at Grade B. Since 1987, buildings within Grade B are separated into Grade B1, which is applied to buildings that qualify on a wider range of attributes, and Grade B2, which is applied to buildings with a narrower range of qualifying features.

Examples of Grade A listed buildings


  • Bangor Abbey
    Bangor Abbey
    Bangor Abbey was established by Saint Comgall in 558 in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland and was famous for its learning and austere rule. It is not to be confused with the even older abbey in Wales on the site of Bangor Cathedral. Bangor Abbey was a centre of learning which trained...

    , County Down
  • Grand Opera House
    Grand Opera House (Belfast)
    The Grand Opera House is a theatre in Belfast, Northern Ireland, designed by the most prolific theatre architect of the period, Frank Matcham. It opened on 23 December 1895....

    , Belfast

Examples of Grade B+ listed buildings


  • Dundarave House
    Dundarave House
    Dundarave is a country house in the village of Bushmills, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is currently the home to the Macnaghten family which is the chiefly family of Clan Macnaghten....

    , County Antrim
  • Necarne
    Necarne
    Necarne Castle, formerly known as Castle Irvine, is situated within walking distance of Irvinestown in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is just a few miles from Lough Erne....

    , County Fermanagh

Examples of Grade B1 listed buildings


  • Campbell College
    Campbell College
    Campbell College is a Voluntary Grammar school in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The College educates boys from ages 11–18. It is one of the eight Northern Irish schools represented on the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference and is a member of the Independent Schools Council.The school occupies...

    , Belfast
  • Linen Hall Library
    Linen Hall Library
    The Linen Hall Library is located at 17 Donegall Square North, Belfast, Northern Ireland. It is the oldest library in Belfast and the last subscribing library in Northern Ireland. The Library is physically in the centre of Belfast, and more generally at the centre of the cultural and creative life...

    , Belfast

Scotland




In Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1947, and the current legislative basis for listing is the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997. As with other matters regarding planning, conservation is a power devolved to the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
The Scottish Parliament is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland, located in the Holyrood area of the capital, Edinburgh. The Parliament, informally referred to as "Holyrood", is a democratically elected body comprising 129 members known as Members of the Scottish Parliament...

 and the Scottish Government. The authority for listing rests with Historic Scotland
Historic Scotland
Historic Scotland is an executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland.-Role:As its website states:...

, an executive agency
Executive agency
An executive agency, also known as a next-step agency, is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate in order to carry out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly or Northern Ireland...

 of the Scottish Government, which inherited this role from the Scottish Development Department in 1991. Listed building consent must be obtained from local authorities prior to any alteration to a listed structure.

The scheme for classifying buildings is:
  • Category A: "buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of some particular period, style or building type."
  • Category B: "buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of some particular period, style or building type which may have been altered."
  • Category C(s): "buildings of local importance, lesser examples of any period, style, or building type, as originally constructed or moderately altered; and simple traditional buildings which group well with others in categories A and B."


There are approximately 47,400 listed buildings in Scotland. Of these, around 8 percent (some 3,800) are Category A, and 51 percent (24,000) are Category B, with the rest listed at Category C(s).

Examples of Category A listed buildings



  • Craigellachie Bridge
    Craigellachie Bridge
    The Craigellachie Bridge is a cast iron arch bridge located at Craigellachie which is near to the village of Aberlour in Moray, Scotland. It was designed by the renowned civil engineer Thomas Telford and built from 1812–1814...

    , Moray
  • Glasgow City Chambers
    Glasgow City Chambers
    The City Chambers in Glasgow, Scotland has functioned as the headquarters of Glasgow City Council since 1996, and of preceding forms of civic government in the city since 1889, located on the eastern side of the city's George Square...

    , Glasgow
  • Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh
  • Ravelston Garden
    Ravelston Garden
    Ravelston Garden is a 1930s Art Deco development of residential buildings in the suburb of Ravelston in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland.It was designed by Andrew Neil and Robert Hurd, 1935-36, and consists of three white-harled International Style blocks of 4-storey flats. They were originally...

    , Edinburgh

Examples of Category B listed buildings


  • Harbourmaster's House, Dysart
    Harbourmaster's House, Dysart
    The Harbourmaster's House is a B-listed 18th-century building located by Dysart Harbour, near Kirkcaldy in Fife, Scotland. It houses the first coastal centre in Fife, which was opened by Gordon Brown in 2006....

    , Fife
  • National War Museum of Scotland
    National War Museum of Scotland
    The National War Museum is housed in Edinburgh, and forms part of the National Museums of Scotland. It is located within Edinburgh Castle, and admission is included in the entry charge for the castle....

    , within Edinburgh Castle
  • Sabhal Mòr Ostaig
    Sabhal Mòr Ostaig
    Sabhal Mòr Ostaig is a Scottish Gaelic medium college located about north of Armadale on the Sleat peninsula of the island of Skye in northwestern Scotland. It is part of the University of the Highlands and Islands and also has a campus on Islay known as Ionad Chaluim Chille Ìle.The college was...

    , Isle of Skye

Examples of Category C(S) listed buildings


  • St John's Cathedral, Oban
    St John's Cathedral, Oban
    St John's Cathedral or the Cathedral Church of St John the Divine is a cathedral of the Scottish Episcopal Church, located in the town of Oban...

    , Argyll
  • The Belmont Picturehouse, Aberdeen
    The Belmont Picturehouse, Aberdeen
    The Belmont Picturehouse is an arts cinema on Belmont Street, Aberdeen, Scotland which shows films that generally would not be shown in a chain cinema...

  • Craigend Castle
    Craigend Castle
    Craigend Castle is a ruined country house, located to the north of Milngavie, in East Dunbartonshire, central Scotland.The lands of Craigend were part of the Barony of Mugdock in medieval times, but the estate was sold in the mid-17th century to the Smith family. John Smith was born at Craigend...

    , East Dunbartonshire

How to find a listed building


Although the 2008 draft legislation was abandoned, English Heritage published a single list of all designated heritage assets within England in 2011. The National Heritage List for England is an online searchable database which includes 400,000 (most but not all) of England’s listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered parks and gardens, protected historic wrecks and registered battlefields in one place. The legislative frameworks for each type of historic asset remains unchanged (2011).

In Scotland, the national dataset of listed buildings and other heritage assets can be searched online via Historic Scotland, or through the map database Pastmap.

To find a listed building in Wales, it is necessary to contact the appropriate local authority or Cadw
Cadw
-Conservation and Protection:Many of Wales's great castles and other monuments, such as bishop's palaces, historic houses, and ruined abbeys, are now in Cadw's care. Cadw does not own them but is responsible for their upkeep and for making them accessible to the public...

. Also British Listed Buildings (website) has sections on England, Wales and Scotland. It can be seacrhed either by browsing for listed buildings by country, county and parish/locality, or by keyword search or via the online map. Not all buildings have photographs, as it is run on a volunteer basis.

The Northern Ireland Buildings Database contains details of all listed buildings in Northern Ireland.

A photographic library of English listed buildings was started in 1999 as a snap shot of buildings listed at the turn of the millennium. This is not an up-to-date record of all listed buildings in England - the listing status and descriptions are only correct as at February 2001. The photographs were taken between 1999 and 2008. It is maintained by the English Heritage archive at the Images of England
Images of England
rightImages of England is an online photographic record of all the listed buildings in England at the date of February 2001. The archive gives access to over 323,000 colour images, each of which is matched with the item’s listed designation architectural description.This ‘snapshot’ is not an...

 project website. The National Heritage List for England contains the up-to-date list of listed buildings.

Listed buildings in danger of being lost through damage or decay in England started to be recorded by survey in 1991. This was extended in 1998 with the publication of English Heritage's 'Buildings at Risk Register' which surveyed Grade I and Grade II* buildings. In 2008 this survey was re-named ‘Heritage at Risk’ and extended to include all listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered parks and gardens, registered battlefields, protected wreck sites and conservation areas. The register is complied by survey using information from local authorities, official and voluntary heritage groups and the general public. It is possible to search this list online.

In Scotland, a buildings at risk register was started in 1990 by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland is an executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government 'sponsored' [financed and with oversight] through Historic Scotland, an executive agency of the Scottish Government...

 (RCAHMS)in response to similar concerns at the number of listed buildings that were vacant and in disrepair. RCAHMS maintain the register on behalf of Historic Scotland, and provides information on properties of architectural or historic merit throughout the country that are considered to be at risk.

In Wales, at risk registers of listed buildings are complied by local planning authorities and CADW produced a report in 2009. The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales's (RCAHMW) Emergency Buildings Recording team is responsible for surveying historic buildings threatened with destruction, substantial alteration, or serious decay.

Equivalent status outside the United Kingdom

- Monument historique
Monument historique
A monument historique is a National Heritage Site of France. It also refers to a state procedure in France by which national heritage protection is extended to a building or a specific part of a building, a collection of buildings, or gardens, bridges, and other structures, because of their...

 - Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz
Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz
The Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz is a German private initiative founded in 1985 which works for the preservation of cultural heritage in Germany and to promote the idea of cultural heritage management....

 and National Heritage Sites (Kulturdenkmal
Kulturdenkmal
Kulturdenkmal is the official term to describe National Heritage Sites listed by law in German speaking areas of Europe, to protect and spread awareness of cultural heritage.-Austria:...

) - Historic Building, see List of Grade I historic buildings in Hong Kong, List of Grade II historic buildings in Hong Kong and List of Grade III historic buildings in Hong Kong - Rijksmonument
Rijksmonument
A rijksmonument is a National Heritage Site of the Netherlands, listed by the agency Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed acting for the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.-History and criteria:...

 - New Zealand Historic Places Trust
New Zealand Historic Places Trust
The New Zealand Historic Places Trust is a non-profit trust that advocates for the protection of ancestral sites and heritage buildings in New Zealand...

 - National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 and National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...


For other countries' equivalents see List of heritage registers.

See also

  • Cadw
    Cadw
    -Conservation and Protection:Many of Wales's great castles and other monuments, such as bishop's palaces, historic houses, and ruined abbeys, are now in Cadw's care. Cadw does not own them but is responsible for their upkeep and for making them accessible to the public...

  • English Heritage
    English Heritage
    English Heritage . is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport...

  • Historic Scotland
    Historic Scotland
    Historic Scotland is an executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland.-Role:As its website states:...

  • National Monuments Record (England)
  • Conservation area
    Conservation area
    A conservation areas is a tract of land that has been awarded protected status in order to ensure that natural features, cultural heritage or biota are safeguarded...

  • Images of England
    Images of England
    rightImages of England is an online photographic record of all the listed buildings in England at the date of February 2001. The archive gives access to over 323,000 colour images, each of which is matched with the item’s listed designation architectural description.This ‘snapshot’ is not an...


Grade I listed buildings in England by county
Grade II* listed buildings in England by county
Grade II listed buildings in England by county
  • Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England
    National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens
    In England, the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England provides a listing and classification system for historic parks and gardens similar to that used for listed buildings. The register is managed by English Heritage under the provisions of the National...

  • Scheduled Ancient Monument
    Scheduled Ancient Monument
    In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is a 'nationally important' archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorized change. The various pieces of legislation used for legally protecting heritage assets from damage and destruction are grouped under the term...

  • Site of Special Scientific Interest
    Site of Special Scientific Interest
    A Site of Special Scientific Interest is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom. SSSIs are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in Great Britain are based upon...

  • Tree preservation order
    Tree preservation order
    A Tree Preservation Order or TPO is a part of town and country planning in the United Kingdom. A TPO is made by a Local Planning Authority to protect specific trees or a particular area, group or woodland from deliberate damage and destruction...


External links