, born Eduardo Lincoln Barbosa de Sabóia
, is a Brazilian musician, composer and arranger known for a wide variety of styles. As a bassist, he was present at the earliest moments of bossa nova
Bossa nova is a style of Brazilian music. Bossa nova acquired a large following in the 1960s, initially consisting of young musicians and college students...
and as a Hammond organ
The Hammond organ is an electric organ invented by Laurens Hammond in 1934 and manufactured by the Hammond Organ Company. While the Hammond organ was originally sold to churches as a lower-cost alternative to the wind-driven pipe organ, in the 1960s and 1970s it became a standard keyboard...
player, he was foundational in establishing the sound of Brazilian jazz
Brazilian Jazz may refer to:*Bossa nova*Samba jazz like Zimbo Trio and other Bossa Nova and samba influenced jazz bands.*Brazilian influenced forms of Jazz fusion....
and space age pop
Space age pop is a general and loosely based term for a music genre associated with certain Mexican and American composers and songwriters in the Space Age of the 1950s and 1960s. It is also called bachelor pad music or lounge music...
His most widely-heard compositions include O Ganso
(Ed Lincoln and D'Orlann), É o Cid
(Ed Lincoln and Silvio Cesar), Palladium
(Ed Lincoln and Orlandivo) and Ai que Saudade Dessa Nega
. His most successful arrangements include O Bêbado
(Durval Ferreira and Orlandivo), Na Onda do Berimbau
(Oswaldo Nunes), Romantic Partners
(Nilo Sérgio) and The Blues Walk
, the latter in collaboration with American trumpeter Clifford Brown
Clifford Brown , aka "Brownie," was an influential and highly rated American jazz trumpeter. He died aged 25, leaving behind only four years' worth of recordings...
Lincoln was born on May 31, 1932 in Fortaleza
Fortaleza is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil. With a population close to 2.5 million , Fortaleza is the 5th largest city in Brazil. It has an area of and one of the highest demographic densities in the country...
, the state capitol of Ceará
Ceará is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast. It is currently the 8th largest Brazilian State by population and the 17th by area. It is also one of the main touristic destinations in Brazil. The state capital is the city of...
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...
. His mother played organ in the local Presbyterian Church and his older sister learned classical piano at home, but Lincoln didn't play himself until he saw the film Rhapsody in Blue
Rhapsody in Blue is a 1945 fictionalized screen biography of the American composer and musician George Gershwin . Starring Robert Alda as Gershwin, the film features a few of Gershwin's acquaintances playing themselves...
as a young teenager, and rushed home to scribble notes on musical staff paper. He began learning popular songs such as Ary Barroso
Ary Barroso was a Brazilian composer, pianist, soccer commentator, and talent-show host on radio and TV...
's Aquarela do Brasil
"Aquarela do Brasil" , known in the English-speaking world simply as "Brazil", is one of the most famous Brazilian songs of all time, written by Ary Barroso in 1939.-Background and composition:...
. Playing piano at age 16, Lincoln formed a trio with a cousin and a friend, and performed on a weekly program on Radio Iracema. Lincoln was at the same time the sports editor for the newspaper Diario de Povo.
Lincoln's early influences included jazz performances by Shorty Rogers
Milton “Shorty” Rogers , born Milton Rajonsky in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, was one of the principal creators of West Coast jazz. He played both the trumpet and flugelhorn, and was in demand for his skills as an arranger. Rogers worked first as a professional musician with Will Bradley and...
, Gerry Mulligan
Gerald Joseph "Gerry" Mulligan was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, composer and arranger. Though Mulligan is primarily known as one of the leading baritone saxophonists in jazz history – playing the instrument with a light and airy tone in the era of cool jazz – he was also...
, J. J. Johnson & Kai Winding
Kai Chresten Winding was a popular Danish-born American trombonist and jazz composer. He is well known for a successful collaboration with fellow trombonist J. J. Johnson.-Biography:...
, and Chet Baker
Chesney Henry "Chet" Baker, Jr. was an American jazz trumpeter, flugelhornist and singer.Though his music earned him a large following , Baker's popularity was due in part to his "matinee idol-beauty" and "well-publicized drug habit."He died in 1988 in Amsterdam, the...
; artists whose recordings he heard played on the hi-fi systems belonging to the parents of his rich friends.
At 18, Lincoln left Ceará for Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...
to study architecture. There, Lincoln began performing on piano each midday for Radio Roquette Pinto, where he met and formed friendships with a variety of musicians including Luizinho Eça, Johnny Alf
Alfredo Jos da Silva, popularly known as Johnny Alf, was a Brazilian musician, sometimes known as the "Father of Bossa Nova"....
, Geraldo Vandré
Geraldo Vandré , is a Brazilian singer, composer and guitar player.In 1966 his song Disparada , interpreted by Jair Rodrigues, was a success at the Record Festival...
, Sergio Ricardo
Sergio Ricardo Messios Nerves is a former BrazilianFootballer. Sergio transferred to Turkish club Fenerbahçe in 1998-99 season start and then loaned to Sakaryaspor in January transfer window. 1999-00 season start he loaned again to Al-Ittihad in Saudi Arabia. He won the Arab Cup Winners' Cup with...
, Juquinha (bossa nova drummer), Dick Farney
Dick Farney was a Brazilian pianist, pop-composer, and "crooner" popular in the 1950s.- Discography :...
and Tom Jobim. Lincoln pestered the radio station engineers to play him all the newest North American jazz discs, and formed an early appreciation for the work of Oscar Peterson
Oscar Emmanuel Peterson was a Canadian jazz pianist and composer. He was called the "Maharaja of the keyboard" by Duke Ellington, "O.P." by his friends. He released over 200 recordings, won seven Grammy Awards, and received other numerous awards and honours over the course of his career...
Lincoln agreed to form a combo with Luiz Eça and Johnny Alf, even though they asked him to play double bass
The double bass, also called the string bass, upright bass, standup bass or contrabass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra, with strings usually tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2...
, an instrument he had never touched. After the new trio signed a contract with the Plaza Bar at the Plaza Hotel in Rio, Lincoln used his share of the advance money to buy a bass, learning it in one week. The trio was a success. After a time, Lincoln began to gain notice as a talented young bassist at jam sessions, and recorded with Trio Plaza, Maestro Radamés Gnattali
Radamés Gnattali , was a Brazilian classical composer, conductor, orchestrator, and arranger.Radamés Gnattali was born in Porto Alegre, the son of Alessandro Gnattali and Adélia Fossati. Both his father and mother were musicians...
Quintet and took part in the first bossa nova
Bossa nova is a style of Brazilian music. Bossa nova acquired a large following in the 1960s, initially consisting of young musicians and college students...
recording produced by Aloisio de Oliveira. Eça left to study music in Vienna, and Lincoln reformed the trio with himself on piano, Baden Powell
Baden Powell de Aquino usually known simply as Baden Powell, was one of the greatest Brazilian guitarists. He explored the instrument to its utmost limits, playing it in a distinctive, unique manner, incorporating virtuoso classical techniques together with popular harmony and swing...
on guitar and Luiz Marinho on bass: the Hotel Plaza Trio. The trio included a fourth musician, singer Claudette Soares, billed as the "Princess of the Baiao". Lincoln saw further success with this group, and continued to participate in after-hours jam sessions around town, making friends with Silvia Telles, Carlos Lyra
Carlos Lyra is a Brazilian singer and composer of numerous bossa nova and Música Popular Brasileira classics. He was born on May 11, 1939. Along with Roberto Menescal, he was a primary figure of the younger generation of bossa nova musicians who closely followed the inception of the style by João...
, Miele & Bôscoli, Garoto
Chocolates Garoto S.A. is a Brazilian chocolate manufacturer. Its headquarters are located in Vila Velha, Espírito Santo. The company was founded in 1929 by German immigrant Heinrich Meyerfreund. First Garoto started as a small producer of chocolates, today, it is one of Brazil's largest...
, João Donato
João Donato de Oliveira Neto is a Brazilian jazz and bossa nova pianist from Brazil, probably best known for his numerous albums as bandleader in the idiom...
, João Gilberto
João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira, known as João Gilberto , is a Brazilian singer and guitarist. His seminal recordings, including many songs by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes, established the new musical genre of Bossa nova in the late 1950s.-Biography:From an early age, music...
, Tom Jobim, Milton Banana
Milton Banana was a bossa nova jazz drummer. A self-taught musician, he is best known for his collaboration with João Gilberto and Stan Getz and for his work with the trio he founded....
and even Ary Barroso.
In 1958, Lincoln was playing bass regularly for Hammond organist and club owner Djalma Ferreira at the popular Drink Club in Rio. After Ferreira was wounded by a gunshot to the belly (delivered by business rivals), Lincoln was taken to the club at 5 o'clock in the evening on Friday and directed to learn to play the organ by 9 o'clock when the club opened. Previously, Lincoln hadn't been allowed to touch the instrument, but he proceeded to teach himself enough of its idiosyncrasies that he was able to successfully lead Conjunto Drink through a busy evening. Lincoln soon discovered that the Hammond organ allowed him to use his skill at the piano keyboard while bringing the supporting knowledge of his bass line experience to the organ's foot pedals. The electronic organ
An electronic organ is an electronic keyboard instrument which was derived from the harmonium, pipe organ and theatre organ. Originally, it was designed to imitate the sound of pipe organs, theatre organs, band sounds, or orchestral sounds....
also provided a new array of synthetic tonalities he could experiment with.
On November 2, 1958, Lincoln recorded an album for Helium, a small record label. The owner of Helium decided that 'Eduardo Lincoln' wasn't commercial enough as a name, and released the album as Ao Teu Ouvido
(In Your Ear) by Ed Lincoln. The album was re-released at various times under other titles including Boite
and Ontem Hoje e Sempre
Lincoln signed with Musidisc in 1960 and released another solo album, This is Ed Lincoln
, or Orgao Espetacular
(Organ Spectacular), in 1961. Lincoln combined piano and Hammond organ lines by using recording studio
A recording studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician to achieve optimum acoustic properties...
technology to double and triple himself in the same song. The first cut on the album was his childhood favorite, Aquarela do Brasil
20-year-old Eumir Deodato
Eumir Deodato is a Brazilian pianist, composer, record producer and arranger, primarily based in the jazz realm but who historically has been known for eclectic melding of big band and combo jazz with varied elements of rock/pop, R&B/funk, Brazilian/Latin, and symphonic or orchestral music.Mainly,...
filled in for Lincoln in 1963 when a car accident put Lincoln in recovery for seven months.
In 1968, Lincoln formed his own record label: De Savoya Discos, releasing a self-titled album with liner notes on the back explaining that the 12 songs were in 12 styles that were very different from each other to show the artist's facility as a performer and composer. He formed the "DeSavoya Combo" and began producing albums and arranging songs for other artists, including Elza Soares
Elza Soares is a Brazilian samba singer. She was married to Brazilian football player Garrincha.Born and raised in a favela in Rio de Janeiro, Soares took part in a singing contest presented by the renowned Brazilian musician Ary Barroso, and received the highest marks. In the late 1950s, Soares...
in the 1970s.
In 1989, Polygram released what would be Ed Lincoln's last solo album, Ed Lincoln: Novo Toque
(New Touch). Lincoln began to use computers as a composition tool on this album, beginning with a Commodore 64
The Commodore 64 is an 8-bit home computer introduced by Commodore International in January 1982.Volume production started in the spring of 1982, with machines being released on to the market in August at a price of US$595...
. After that, Lincoln concentrated on producing and arranging.
In the 1990s, some of Ed Lincoln's releases were pirated and played widely by disc jockey
A disc jockey, also known as DJ, is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience. Originally, "disc" referred to phonograph records, not the later Compact Discs. Today, the term includes all forms of music playback, no matter the medium.There are several types of disc jockeys...
s in England to become successful as source material for dance tracks. Two such songs were Cochise
and Se Você Quiser
Several albums have been recorded in Rio at Lincoln's "Studio Ed Lincoln", including one by Marvio Ciribelle called Esa so o que Faltava
in 1993. Lincoln occasionally accepts recording dates, and appeared playing organ on one track, Conversa Mole
, on an Ed Motta
Ed Motta , is a Brazilian MPB, rock, soul music, funk and jazz musician. He is nephew of late Brazilian singer Tim Maia....
album released in 2000. a
Ed Lincoln recorded under many different names during his career; at times he used a new name for each musical style or for each new record. He was originally listed as Eduardo Lincoln when taking part in larger ensembles, then became Ed Lincoln in 1958. He recorded a single album as "Don Pablo de Havana" in 1962, five albums as "Les 4 Cadillacs" or "Os 4 Cadillacs" from 1961 to 1964 and he arranged, produced and performed with the "De Savoya Combo" in 1969 for his own label "Savoya Discos". In the 1970s and 1980s, he recorded under a large number of American-sounding names. Other aliases include Berry Benton, Claudio Marcello and "Muchacho nas Bocas". More recently, Lincoln has created recordings alone at his computer under the names "Orquestra Romance Tropical", Gloria Benson and "Orquestra Los Angeles".
Lincoln has two sons, Marcos and Marcelo Sabóia, who have carried their father's legacy by involving themselves in his recording studio business.
Lincoln appeared in four films: Colégio de Brotos
(1955), Vamos com Calma
(1956), Na Onda do Iê-Iê-Iê
(1966) and Estranho triângulo
(1970). He composed the music for two films, the musical comedy Adorável Trapalhão
in 1967 (in which he also appeared as himself) and the musical Juventude e Ternura
in 1968, working with Érlon Chaves on the latter film.