British Jews

British Jews

Overview
British Jews are Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 who live in, or are citizens
British nationality law
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom that concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality. The law is complex because of the United Kingdom's former status as an imperial power.-History:...

 of, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. In the 2001 Census, 266,740 people listed their religion as Jewish. The UK is home to the second largest Jewish population
Jewish population
Jewish population refers to the number of Jews in the world. Precise figures are difficult to calculate because the definition of "Who is a Jew" is a source of controversy.-Total population:...

 in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, and has the fifth largest Jewish community worldwide. The population has a substantially older profile than that of the general population. Most British Jews adhere to Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

, although there are an increasing number of secular Jews.


The first recorded Jewish community in Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 was brought to England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 in 1070 by King William the Conqueror
William I of England
William I , also known as William the Conqueror , was the first Norman King of England from Christmas 1066 until his death. He was also Duke of Normandy from 3 July 1035 until his death, under the name William II...

, who believed that their commercial skills and incoming capital would make England more prosperous.
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Encyclopedia
British Jews are Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 who live in, or are citizens
British nationality law
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom that concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality. The law is complex because of the United Kingdom's former status as an imperial power.-History:...

 of, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. In the 2001 Census, 266,740 people listed their religion as Jewish. The UK is home to the second largest Jewish population
Jewish population
Jewish population refers to the number of Jews in the world. Precise figures are difficult to calculate because the definition of "Who is a Jew" is a source of controversy.-Total population:...

 in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, and has the fifth largest Jewish community worldwide. The population has a substantially older profile than that of the general population. Most British Jews adhere to Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

, although there are an increasing number of secular Jews.

History



The first recorded Jewish community in Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 was brought to England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 in 1070 by King William the Conqueror
William I of England
William I , also known as William the Conqueror , was the first Norman King of England from Christmas 1066 until his death. He was also Duke of Normandy from 3 July 1035 until his death, under the name William II...

, who believed that their commercial skills and incoming capital would make England more prosperous. This community was expelled in 1290 by King Edward I
Edward I of England
Edward I , also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons...

, and emigrated to countries such as Poland which protected them
History of the Jews in Poland
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over a millennium. For centuries, Poland was home to the largest and most significant Jewish community in the world. Poland was the centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy. This ended with the...

 by law
Statute of Kalisz
The General Charter of Jewish Liberties known as the Statute of Kalisz was issued by the Duke of Greater Poland Boleslaus the Pious on September 8, 1264 in Kalisz...

. A small community persisted in hiding despite the expulsion. Jews were not banned from Scotland though in this period as Scotland was an independent nation with different laws than England. In 1656 Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth, and served as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland....

 made it clear that the ban on Jewish settlement would no longer be enforced. At the insistence of Irish leader Daniel O'Connell
Daniel O'Connell
Daniel O'Connell Daniel O'Connell Daniel O'Connell (6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847; often referred to as The Liberator, or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century...

, in 1846, the British law "De Judaismo", which prescribed a special dress for Jews, was repealed. In 2006, the Jewish community celebrated the 350th anniversary of the resettlement in England. Benjamin Disraeli, a British Prime Minister was of Jewish origin however was baptized an Anglican, he was 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS, (lived 21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) he was the Prime Minister, parliamentarian, Conservative statesman and literary figure. He served in government for three decades, twice as Prime Minister.

Population


At the start of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 there were over 500,000 Jews in the United Kingdom, a figure that steadily declined over the century.

The 2001 Census included a (voluntary) religion question ("What is your religion?") for the first time in its history; 266,740 people listed their religion as "Jewish". However, the subject of "Who is a Jew?
Who is a Jew?
"Who is a Jew?" is a basic question about Jewish identity and considerations of Jewish self-identification. The question is based in ideas about Jewish personhood which themselves have cultural, religious, genealogical, and personal dimensions...

" is complex, and the religion question did not record people who may be Jewish through other means, such as ethnically and culturally. Ninety-seven percent of people who chose Jewish as their religion put White as their ethnic group; however, a report by the Institute for Jewish Policy Research
Institute for Jewish Policy Research
The Institute for Jewish Policy Research , founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs, with a particular focus on Jews in Britain and across Europe...

 (JPR) suggests that, although there was an apparent option to write down "Jewish" for this question, it did not occur to many, because of "skin colour" and nationality bias; and that if "Jewish" was an explicit option, the results—only 2594 respondents were Jewish solely by ethnicity—would have been different. The religion question appeared in the 2011 Census, but there was still no explicit option for "Jewish" in the ethnic-group question. The Board of Deputies had encouraged all Jews to indicate they were Jewish, either through the religion question or the ethnicity one.

The figure of 266,740 recorded by the Census is considered an undercount. David Graham and Stanley Waterman give several reasons: the underenumeration for censuses in general; the question did not record secular Jews; the voluntary nature of the question; suspicion by Jews of such questions; and the high non-response rate for large numbers of Haredi Jews.

From 1990 to 2006, the Jewish population showed a decrease from 340,000 Jews to 270,000. According to the 1996 Jewish Policy Review, nearly one in two are marrying people who do not share their faith. From 2005 to 2008, the Jewish population increased from 275,000 to 280,000, attributed largely to the high birth rates of Haredi (or ultra-Orthodox) Jews
Haredi Judaism
Haredi or Charedi/Chareidi Judaism is the most conservative form of Orthodox Judaism, often referred to as ultra-Orthodox. A follower of Haredi Judaism is called a Haredi ....

. Research by the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university located in Manchester, United Kingdom. It is a "red brick" university and a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities and the N8 Group...

 in 2007 showed that 75 percent of British Jewish births were to the Haredi community. Ultra orthodox women have an average of 6.9 children, and secular Jewish women 1.65.

About two-thirds of the UK's Jews live in Greater London
Greater London
Greater London is the top-level administrative division of England covering London. It was created in 1965 and spans the City of London, including Middle Temple and Inner Temple, and the 32 London boroughs. This territory is coterminate with the London Government Office Region and the London...

 or contiguous parts of South Hertfordshire and south-west Essex
Essex
Essex is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of England, and one of the home counties. It is located to the northeast of Greater London. It borders with Cambridgeshire and Suffolk to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent to the South and London to the south west...

. Substantial communities outside the London area include Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

, home to some 30,000 Jews, and Leeds
Leeds
Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. In 2001 Leeds' main urban subdivision had a population of 443,247, while the entire city has a population of 798,800 , making it the 30th-most populous city in the European Union.Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial...

, where now fewer than 9,000 Jews live. Other substantial communities include Gateshead
Gateshead
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England and is the main settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. Historically a part of County Durham, it lies on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne and together they form the urban core of Tyneside...

, Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

 and Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

, as well as other former industrial cities. Barnet and Hertsmere councils in the London borders polled as the first and second most Jewish local authorities in England, with Jews composing one in five and nine residents respectively.

The British Jewish population has a substantially older profile than that of the general population. In England and Wales, the median age of male Jews is 41.2, while the figure for all males is 36.1; Jewish females have a median age of 44.3, while the figure for all females is 38.1. A high proportion (83.2 percent) of Jews in England and Wales were born in the UK. About 24 percent of the community are over the age of 65 (compared to 16 percent of the general population of England and Wales). In the 2001 census Jews were the only group in which the number of persons in the 75-plus cohorts outnumbered those in the 65–74 cohort.

Religion


There are some 409 synagogues in the country, and it is estimated that 74 percent of the country's Jews are affiliated with one. Of those affiliated, the affiliations are distributed across the following groupings:
  • Central Orthodox ("consisting of the United Synagogue
    United Synagogue
    United Synagogue is an organisation of London Jews that was founded with the sanction of an Act of Parliament, in 1870. , it remains the largest religious grouping within the British Jewish community and indeed in Europe, covering 62 Orthodox Jewish communities...

    , the Federation of Synagogues and independent Orthodox synagogues") – 54.7%
  • Reform
    Reform Judaism (United Kingdom)
    Reform Judaism in the United Kingdom in one of the two forms of Progressive Judaism found in the United Kingdom, the other being Liberal Judaism. Reform Judaism is both historically earlier and more traditionalist than Liberal Judaism....

     (Movement for Reform Judaism
    Movement for Reform Judaism
    Movement for Reform Judaism is the main organizational body of the Jewish Reform community in Great Britain....

     and Westminster Synagogue and Chaim V’Tikvah) – 19.4%
  • Strictly Orthodox
    Haredi Judaism
    Haredi or Charedi/Chareidi Judaism is the most conservative form of Orthodox Judaism, often referred to as ultra-Orthodox. A follower of Haredi Judaism is called a Haredi ....

     ("synagogues aligned with the Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations
    Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations
    The Union of Orthodox Hebrew Congregations of England was founded in 1926 with the stated mission "to protect traditional Judaism". It acts as an umbrella organisation for the chareidi Jewish community in London and comprises over a hundred synagogues and educational institutions. It is responsible...

     and others of a similar ethos") – 10.9%
  • Liberal
    Liberal Judaism
    Liberal Judaism , is one of the two forms of Progressive Judaism found in the United Kingdom, the other being Reform Judaism. Liberal Judaism, which developed at the beginning of the twentieth century is less conservative than UK Reform Judaism...

     (Liberal Judaism and Belsize Square) – 8.7%
  • Sephardi – 3.5%
  • Masorti (Assembly of Masorti Synagogues) – 2.7%

Cross-communal organisations


British Jewish communal organisations include:
  • Board of Deputies
    Board of Deputies of British Jews
    The Board of Deputies of British Jews is the main representative body of British Jews. Founded in 1760 as a joint committee of the Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jewish communities in London, it has since become a widely recognised forum for the views of the different sectors of the UK Jewish...

     - founded in 1760, represents the community at a national and international level. All synagogues and communal organisations are entitled to elect deputies to the Board.
  • Scottish Council of Jewish Communities
    Scottish Council of Jewish Communities
    The Scottish Council of Jewish Communities is the representative body of all the Jewish communities of Scotland. Its primary function is to act on behalf of Scotland's Jewish Communities to all external bodies...

     - the representative body of all of the Jewish communities in Scotland.
  • Jewish Leadership Council
    Jewish Leadership Council
    The Jewish Leadership Council was formed in 2003, . The Council was founded by its first Chairman, then President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, Henry Grunwald QC and an array of other senior UK Jewish leaders. The JLC brings together the most senior lay leaders of the major...

     - comprises the chairpeople of the major organisations in each sector of communal life, together with key individual leaders of the community.
  • Community Security Trust
    Community Security Trust
    The Community Security Trust is a British charity established in 1994 to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in the UK. It follows a history of Jewish defence organisations in the United Kingdom dating back to the 1930s...

     - works to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain.
  • Union of Jewish Students
    Union of Jewish Students
    The Union of Jewish Students of the United Kingdom and Ireland was established in 1919, when it was known as the Inter-University Jewish Federation...

     - supports Jewish students at university.
  • London Jewish Forum
    London Jewish Forum
    The London Jewish Forum is dedicated to the promotion of Jewish life in London. The Forum provides a platform for engagement between London Jewry and the Greater London Authority, Mayor's Office, London Boroughs and MPs / MEPs. It works to promote the full and active engagement of the Jewish...

    .

Education


About 60 percent of school-age Jewish children attend Jewish schools. Jewish day schools and yeshiva
Yeshiva
Yeshiva is a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and Torah study. Study is usually done through daily shiurim and in study pairs called chavrutas...

s are found throughout the country. Jewish cultural studies and Hebrew language instruction is commonly offered at synagogues in the form of supplementary Hebrew schools or Sunday schools. The majority of Jewish schools in Britain are funded by the government. Jewish educational centres are plentiful, large-scale projects. One of the country's most famous Jewish schools is the state-funded JFS in London which opened in 1732 and has about 2100 students. It is heavily over-subscribed and applies strict rules on admissions, which led to a discrimination court case
R(E) v Governing Body of JFS
R v Governing Body of JFS [2009] is a United Kingdom discrimination case, concerning the Jewish Free School's policy of denying entry to people whom they defined as belonging to a different religion...

 in 2009. Another school is JCoSS
JCoSS
JCoSS is a state-funded Jewish secondary school in New Barnet, London. Established in 2010, it is the first Jewish cross-denominational secondary school in the UK...

, the first cross-denomination Jewish secondary school in the UK.

The Union of Jewish Students
Union of Jewish Students
The Union of Jewish Students of the United Kingdom and Ireland was established in 1919, when it was known as the Inter-University Jewish Federation...

 is an umbrella organisation that represents Jewish students at university. There are over 50 Jewish Societies.

British Jews generally have high levels of educational achievement. Compared to the general population, they are 40 percent less likely to have no qualifications, and 80 percent more likely to have "higher-level" qualifications. With the exception of under-25s, younger Jews tend to be better educated than older ones.

Limmud


The annual Limmud
Limmud
Limmud is a British-Jewish educational charity which produces a large annual winter conference and several other events around the year on the theme of Jewish learning...

 winter conference is a high-profile educational event of the British Jewish community, attracting a wide range of international presenters.

Employment


The 2001 Census showed that 30.5 percent of economically active Jews were self-employed, compared to a figure of 14.2 percent for the general population. Jews aged 16–24 were more likely to be economically inactive than their counterparts in the general population; 89.2 percent of these were students.

Media


There are a number of Jewish newspaper
Jewish newspaper
A Jewish newspaper refers to a newspaper created by or for Jews. They include daily or weekly titles published in English, Hebrew, Yiddish, or other languages, of a variety of political and religious orientations...

s, magazines and websites published on a national level and more regional levels. The most famous of these is The Jewish Chronicle
The Jewish Chronicle
The Jewish Chronicle is a London-based Jewish newspaper. Founded in 1841, it is the oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the world.-Publication data and readership figures:...

, which was founded in 1841 and is the world's oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper. Other media include The Jewish Chronicle North (for the North of the country), the Jewish News newspaper, Jewish Telegraph
Jewish Telegraph
The Jewish Telegraph is a British Jewish newspaper. It was founded in December 1950 by Frank and Vivienne Harris, the parents of the current Editor, Paul Harris.-Founding:...

, The Jewish Tribune
Jewish Tribune (UK)
The Jewish Tribune is a privately owned Haredi weekly newspaper based in Stamford Hill, London. Founded in 1962, it appears every Thursday, providing news, views, social and cultural reports, as well as editorials and feature articles, and a spectrum of readers' opinions...

, JLifestyle magazine, SomethingJewish website and TotallyJewish
Totally
Totally Plc is a publication company that has an international portfolio of publications and online services that target the world's Jewish communities. It is listed on London's Alternative Investment Market , has offices in London, Boston and Tel Aviv.Totally owns and operates:* Jewish News,...

 website.

Antisemitism


In 2005, the All-Party Parliamentary Group against Anti-Semitism
All-Party Parliamentary Group against Anti-Semitism
The All-Party Parliamentary Group against Anti-Semitism is a group in the Parliament of the United Kingdom chaired by John Mann MP.The Group commissioned the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Antisemitism in 2005...

 commissioned an inquiry into antisemitism, publishing its findings in 2006. The inquiry stated that "until recently, the prevailing opinion both within the Jewish community and beyond [had been] that antisemitism had receded to the point that it existed only on the margins of society", and found a reversal of this progress since 2000.

Jonathan Sacks
Jonathan Sacks
Jonathan Henry Sacks, Baron Sacks, Kt is the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth. His Hebrew name is Yaakov Zvi...

, the chief rabbi, said in 2009 that increased globalisation was allowing a new kind of antisemitism to permeate into the UK. He said in 2010 that UK universities were failing to deal with "inflammatory public speeches" taking place on campus.

The Community Security Trust
Community Security Trust
The Community Security Trust is a British charity established in 1994 to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in the UK. It follows a history of Jewish defence organisations in the United Kingdom dating back to the 1930s...

, a charity to ensure the protection of Jews in the UK, publishes an annual "Antisemitic Incidents Report".

See also

  • List of British Jews
  • History of the Jews in England
    History of the Jews in England
    The history of the Jews in England goes back to the reign of William I. The first written record of Jewish settlement in England dates from 1070, although Jews may have lived there since Roman times...

  • History of the Jews in Scotland
    History of the Jews in Scotland
    The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. It is possible that some arrived, or at least visited, as a result of the Roman Empire's conquest of southern Great Britain, but there is no direct evidence for this...

  • History of the Jews in Ireland
    History of the Jews in Ireland
    The history of the Jews in Ireland extends back nearly a thousand years. Although the Jewish community has always been small in numbers , it is well established and has generally been well-accepted into Irish life.-Early history:The earliest reference to the Jews in Ireland was in the year 1079...

  • Balfour Declaration of 1917

Sources

. All-Party Parliamentary Group against Antisemitism. September 2006. Accessed 1 April 2011. Archived 24 November 2010. See inquiry website.
  • Graham, David; Schmool, Marlena; Waterman; Stanley. . Institute for Jewish Policy Research
    Institute for Jewish Policy Research
    The Institute for Jewish Policy Research , founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs, with a particular focus on Jews in Britain and across Europe...

    . 18 May 2007. Accessed 22 July 2011. Archived 22 July 2011. See webpage.. Jewish Leadership Council
    Jewish Leadership Council
    The Jewish Leadership Council was formed in 2003, . The Council was founded by its first Chairman, then President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, Henry Grunwald QC and an array of other senior UK Jewish leaders. The JLC brings together the most senior lay leaders of the major...

    . 2008. Accessed 4 April 2011.
  • Graham, David; Vulkan, Daniel. . Institute for Jewish Policy Research
    Institute for Jewish Policy Research
    The Institute for Jewish Policy Research , founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs, with a particular focus on Jews in Britain and across Europe...

    . 13 May 2010. Accessed 3 April 2011. Archived 22 July 2011. See webpage.

Further reading


  • Anti-Semitism Worldwide 1999/2000. Stephen Roth Institute
    Stephen Roth Institute
    The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a research institute at Tel Aviv University in Israel. It is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and...

    . Distributed by the University of Nebraska Press
    University of Nebraska Press
    The University of Nebraska Press, founded in 1941, is a publisher of scholarly and popular-press books. It is the second-largest state university press in the United States and, including private institutions, ranks among the 10 largest university presses in the United States...

    . pp. 125–135.
  • Cesarani, David
    David Cesarani
    David Cesarani OBE is an English historian who specialises in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust. He has also written several biographies, notably Arthur Koestler: The Homeless Mind.-Early life:...

     (1994). The Jewish Chronicle and Anglo-Jewry, 1841–1991. Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house, and the second largest university press in the world...

    .
  • Cesarani, David
    David Cesarani
    David Cesarani OBE is an English historian who specialises in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust. He has also written several biographies, notably Arthur Koestler: The Homeless Mind.-Early life:...

    . "British Jews". Liedtke, Rainer; Wendehorst, Stephan. (eds) (1999). The Emancipation of Catholics, Jews and Protestants: Minorities and the Nation State in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Manchester University Press
    Manchester University Press
    Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals. Manchester University Press has developed into an international publisher...

    . pp. 33–55.
  • Endelman, Todd M. (2002). The Jews of Britain, 1656 to 2000. University of California Press
    University of California Press
    University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. It was founded in 1893 to publish books and papers for the faculty of the University of California, established 25 years earlier in 1868...

    .
  • Spector, Sheila A. (ed) (2002). British Romanticism and the Jews: History, Culture, Literature. Palgrave Macmillan
    Palgrave Macmillan
    Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company, headquartered in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England, United Kingdom and with offices in New York, Melbourne, Sydney, Hong Kong, Delhi, Johannesburg. It was created in 2000 when St...

    .
  • Valins, Oliver; Kosmin, Barry; Goldberg, Jacqueline. "The future of Jewish schooling in the United Kingdom". Institute for Jewish Policy Research
    Institute for Jewish Policy Research
    The Institute for Jewish Policy Research , founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs, with a particular focus on Jews in Britain and across Europe...

    . 31 December 2002. Accessed 4 April 2011.
  • London, Louise (2003). Whitehall and the Jews, 1933–1948: British Immigration Policy, Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house, and the second largest university press in the world...

    .
  • Schreiber, Mordecai; Schiff, Alvin I.; Klenicki, Leon. (2003). The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia (3rd edition). Schreiber Publishing. pp. 79–80.
  • Wynne-Jones, Jonathan; additional reporting by Jeffay, Nathan. "Is this the last generation of British Jews?". The Daily Telegraph
    The Daily Telegraph
    The Daily Telegraph is a daily morning broadsheet newspaper distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally. The newspaper was founded by Arthur B...

    . 26 November 2006. Accessed 1 April 2011.
  • Shindler, Colin. "The Reflection of Israel Within British Jewry". Ben-Moshe, Danny; Segev, Zohar (eds) (2007). Israel, the Diaspora, and Jewish Identity. Sussex Academic Press
    Sussex Academic Press
    Sussex Academic Press is a book publishing company based in Eastbourne, United Kingdom.It describes itself as an academic publisher with "core subject disciplines of Middle Eastern Studies, Theology & Religion and History" and additional publishing ventures in other subject categories such as...

    . pp. 227–234.
  • Butt, Riazat. "Faith in numbers". The Guardian
    The Guardian
    The Guardian, formerly known as The Manchester Guardian , is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format...

    . 20 November 2007. Accessed 4 April 2011.
  • Lawless, Jill. "London's Jewish Museum reopens after major facelift". Associated Press
    Associated Press
    The Associated Press is an American news agency. The AP is a cooperative owned by its contributing newspapers, radio and television stations in the United States, which both contribute stories to the AP and use material written by its staff journalists...

     via USA Today
    USA Today
    USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. It was founded by Al Neuharth. The newspaper vies with The Wall Street Journal for the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States, something it previously held since 2003...

    . 17 March 2010. Accessed 1 April 2011.
  • Graham, David; Boyd, Jonathan. . Institute for Jewish Policy Research
    Institute for Jewish Policy Research
    The Institute for Jewish Policy Research , founded as the Institute of Jewish Affairs, is a London-based research institute and think tank. It specializes in contemporary Jewish affairs, with a particular focus on Jews in Britain and across Europe...

    . 15 July 2010. Accessed 4 April 2011. Archived 22 July 2011. See webpage.
  • Brown, Mick. "Inside the private world of London's ultra-Orthodox Jews". The Daily Telegraph
    The Daily Telegraph
    The Daily Telegraph is a daily morning broadsheet newspaper distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally. The newspaper was founded by Arthur B...

    . 25 February 2011. Accessed 1 April 2011.
  • "Publications on British Jews from the Berman Jewish Policy Archive @ NYU Wagner".