Zhou Dynasty

Zhou Dynasty

Overview
The Zhou Dynasty ( tʂóʊ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ) was a Chinese dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history.Chinese history is not as neat as is often described and it was rare for one dynasty to change peacefully into the next. Dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they...

 that followed the Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty was, according to traditional sources, the second Chinese dynasty, after the Xia. They ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as "China proper" in the Yellow River valley...

 and preceded the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history
History of China
Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest...

, the actual political and military control of China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 by the Ji
Ji (surname)
姬=Ji is the family name of the family in control of the Zhou Dynasty , which followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China.Thirty-nine members of the family ruled over China during this period.Ji has...

  family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou.

During the Zhou Dynasty, the use of iron
Iron Age China
The Iron Age in Ancient China began in ca. 600 BC . Ancient China is taken to last until the beginning of Early Imperial China and the rise of the Qin Dynasty in the 3rd century BC...

 was introduced to China, though this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze
Bronze
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle, and it was particularly significant in antiquity, so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal...

-ware making.
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Encyclopedia
The Zhou Dynasty ( tʂóʊ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ) was a Chinese dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history.Chinese history is not as neat as is often described and it was rare for one dynasty to change peacefully into the next. Dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they...

 that followed the Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty was, according to traditional sources, the second Chinese dynasty, after the Xia. They ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as "China proper" in the Yellow River valley...

 and preceded the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history
History of China
Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest...

, the actual political and military control of China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 by the Ji
Ji (surname)
姬=Ji is the family name of the family in control of the Zhou Dynasty , which followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China.Thirty-nine members of the family ruled over China during this period.Ji has...

  family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou.

During the Zhou Dynasty, the use of iron
Iron Age China
The Iron Age in Ancient China began in ca. 600 BC . Ancient China is taken to last until the beginning of Early Imperial China and the rise of the Qin Dynasty in the 3rd century BC...

 was introduced to China, though this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze
Bronze
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle, and it was particularly significant in antiquity, so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal...

-ware making. The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved into its modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period
Warring States Period
The Warring States Period , also known as the Era of Warring States, or the Warring Kingdoms period, covers the Iron Age period from about 475 BC to the reunification of China under the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC...

.

Foundation


According to Chinese legend, the Zhou lineage began with Emperor Ku
Emperor Ku
Kù , or Dì Kù , also known as Gāoxīn Shì , was a mythical Emperor of China during the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors period. He was the son of Jiăo Jí , the grandson of Shăohào and the great grandson of Huáng-dì , the Yellow Emperor. According to speculative dates he is supposed to have ruled...

 and proceeded from him to Qi, Buku, Ju, and then Gongliu
Gongliu of Zhou
Gongliu was a semi-legendary person of ancient China. Before the founding of the Zhou Dynasty, in BCE 1046, the Zhou clan already had a long history...

, before Gugong Danfu moved the Zhou clan from Bin (豳 or 邠) to an area in the Wei River
Wei River
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces. It is the largest tributary of the Yellow River and very important in the early development of Chinese civilization....

 valley, where they founded a town that became central to the Zhou clan's growing prosperity.

Gugong Danfu's son, Jili, fought against the Rong
Xirong (people)
Xīróng or Rong was the collective name of various ancient nomadic tribal people who inhabited primarily in and around the extremities of ancient Huaxia, typically to the west of the Zhou state in the modern-day provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia from the Zhou Dynasty onwards, and regarded...

 as a vassal of the Shang Dynasty's King Wen Ding
Wen Ding
Wen Ding was king of the Shang Dynasty of China from 1112 BC to 1102 BC. Another name Da Ding , and his given name is Tuo .According to Bamboo Annals, His capial was at Yin or Zimou ....

 until the king killed him. Jili's son, King Wen of Zhou
King Wen of Zhou
King Wen of Zhou family name : Ji , Clan name : Zhou Personal name: Chang, known as Zhou Chang or Xibo Chang was the founder of the Zhou Dynasty and the first epic hero of Chinese history....

, moved the Zhou capital downstream to Fenghao
Fenghao
Fenghao , is the name given to the twin Chinese Zhou Dynasty settlements of Hàojīng and Fēngjīng which together formed the capital of the Western Zhou. They were located in Xi'an in Shaanxi Province. When King Wen of Zhou Fenghao , is the name given to the twin Chinese Zhou Dynasty (1066-256 BCE)...

; Wen's son, King Wu of Zhou
King Wu of Zhou
King Wu of Zhōu or King Wu of Chou was the first sovereign, or ruler of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 1046-1043 BCE or 1049/45-1043. Various sources quoted that he died at the age of 93, 54 or 43. He was considered a just and able leader. Zhou Gong Dan was one of his...

, led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

 in 1046 BC and conquered the Shang Dynasty's King Di Xin
King Zhou of Shang
Emperor Xin of Shang was the last king of the Shang Dynasty. He was later given the pejorative posthumous name Zhòu . He is also called Zhou Xin or King Zhou . He may also be referred to by adding "Shang" in front of any of his names...

 at the Battle of Muye
Battle of Muye
The Battle of Muye was fought in China perhaps 1046 BC. The battle led to the end of the Shang dynasty, and the beginning of the Zhou dynasty.-Background:...

, marking the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty.

Western and Eastern Zhou



Though King Wu died just a few years after the Battle of Muye, the Duke of Zhou
Duke of Zhou
The Duke of Zhou played a major role in consolidating the newly-founded Zhou Dynasty . He was the brother of King Wu of Zhou, the first king of the ancient Chinese Zhou Dynasty...

 assisted the young and inexperienced King Cheng
King Cheng of Zhou
King Cheng of Zhou or King Ch'eng of Chou was the second sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 1042-1021 BC or 1042/35-1006 BC King Cheng was young when he ascended the throne...

 in consolidating power for the Ji line: he managed a war against rebellious Zhou princes in the eastern lowlands (allied with feudal rulers and Shang remnants); formulated the Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
The Mandate of Heaven is a traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers. It is similar to the European concept of the divine right of kings, in that both sought to legitimaze rule from divine approval; however, unlike the divine right of kings, the Mandate of...

 doctrine to counter Shang claims to a divine right of rule; founded Chengzhou
Luoyang
Luoyang is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province of Central China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast.Situated on the central plain of...

 as an eastern capital; and set up the fengjian
Fengjian
Fēngjiàn is the political ideology of the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. Fengjian is a "decentralized system of government," comparable to European feudalism, though recent scholarship has suggested that fengjian lacks some of the fundamental aspects of feudalism.-Ranks:The sizes of troops and...

"feudal" system designed to maintain Zhou authority as it expanded its rule over a larger amount of territory.

However, this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationship between Zhou Kings and regional rulers thinned over generations and peripheral territories developed local power and prestige on par with that of the Zhou. When King You
King You of Zhou
King You of Zhou was the twelfth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the last of Western Zhou Dynasty. He reigned from 781 to 771 BCE.In 780 BCE, a major earthquake hit Guanzhong...

 replaced Queen Shen with the concubine Baosi
Baosi
Baosi was the concubine of the Ancient Chinese sovereign King You of Zhou. She was considered one of the most beautiful Chinese women ever.-Life:...

 (and designated Baosì's son as the crown prince), the former queen’s powerful father, the Marquess of Shen
Marquess of Shen
The Marquess of Shēn was a ruler of the State of Shēn during the Zhōu Dynasty period of Chinese history. A vassal state of the Zhōu Kings, Shēn state covered the area of modern day Nanyang City in Henan Province....

, joined forces with Quanrong
Quanrong
The Quǎnróng , literally "Dog Rong", were an ethnic group active in the north western part of China during the Zhōu and later dynasties. Their language is classified as part of the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages family....

 to sack the western capital of Haojing
Haojing
This article is about the ancient Zhou Dynasty capital, for Haojing'ao see MacauHaojing was one of the two settlements comprising the capital of the Western Zhou Dynasty , the other of which was Fēngjīng . Together they were known as Fēnghào and stood on opposite banks of the Feng River with...

 in 770 BC. Nobles from Zheng
Zheng (state)
Zheng () was a vassal state in China during the Zhou Dynasty located in the centre of ancient China in modern day Henan Province on the North China Plain about east of the royal capital at Luoyang. It was the most powerful of the vassal states at the beginning of the Eastern Zhou...

, Lu
Lu (state)
The State of Lu, was a Zhou Dynasty ducal vassal state before and during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. Founded in the 10th century BC, its dukes used Ji as their family name. The first duke was Boqin |Qi]] and to the south by the powerful state of Chu...

, Qin
Qin (state)
The State of Qin was a Chinese feudal state that existed during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history...

, Xu
Xu (state)
The State of Xu was a vassal state of ancient China during the Zhou Dynasty and Spring and Autumn Period ruled by descendants of the Yíng family. Xu was a Dongyi state also known as Xurong , Xuyi or Xufang , all meaning either "Xu barbarians" or "Xu Proper". Xu was one of the largest and most...

, and Shen
Shen (state)
The State of Shen was a Chinese vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty ruled by the Jiāng family as an earldom. At the beginning of the Spring and Autumn Period the State of Shen was annexed by the State of Chu and became one of its counties.-Territory:Located around the states of Chén and Zhèng,...

 declared the Marquess's grandson, Ji Yijiu
King Ping of Zhou
King Ping of Zhou , also referred to as Crown Prince Yijiu or King P'ing of Chou was the thirteenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the first of Eastern Zhou Dynasty...

, as the new king. The subsequent move of the capital east from Haojing to Chengzhou in 771 BC marks the historical boundary between Western Zhou
Western Zhou
The Western Zhōu period was the first half of the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou overthrew the Shang Dynasty at the Battle of Muye. C.H...

 and Eastern Zhou.

The Eastern Zhou period, characterized by a breakup of Zhou territory into states that were essentially independent, is further divided into two sub-periods. The first, from 722 to 481 BC, is called the Spring and Autumn Period, after a famous historical chronicle
Spring and Autumn Annals
The Spring and Autumn Annals is the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged on annalistic principles. The text is extremely concise and, if all the commentaries are excluded, about 16,000...

 of the time; the second is known as the Warring States Period
Warring States Period
The Warring States Period , also known as the Era of Warring States, or the Warring Kingdoms period, covers the Iron Age period from about 475 BC to the reunification of China under the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC...

 (403–221 BC), after another famous chronicle and initiated by the partitioning of Jin.

The Eastern Zhou period is also designated as the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought
Hundred Schools of Thought
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophers and schools that flourished from 770 to 221 BC during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period , an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China...

, a golden age of influential cultural and intellectual expansion facilitated by relative freedom of expression. Although there were a host of schools, four of them came to influence Chinese government and culture in meaningful ways: Confucianism
Confucianism
Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

, Mohism
Mohism
Mohism or Moism was a Chinese philosophy developed by the followers of Mozi , 470 BC–c.391 BC...

, Taoism
Taoism
Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

 and Legalism
Legalism (Chinese philosophy)
In Chinese history, Legalism was one of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States Period, although the term itself was invented in the Han Dynasty and thus does not refer to an organized 'school' of thought....

. The changes brought on played a large part in the decline of the Zhou dynasty.

Decline


With the royal line broken, the power of the Zhou court gradually diminished, and the fragmentation of the kingdom accelerated. From King Ping
King Ping of Zhou
King Ping of Zhou , also referred to as Crown Prince Yijiu or King P'ing of Chou was the thirteenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the first of Eastern Zhou Dynasty...

's reign onwards, the Zhou kings ruled in name only, with true power lying in the hands of regional nobles. Towards the end of the Zhou Dynasty, the nobles did not even bother to symbolically acknowledge loyalty to the Ji family, declaring themselves to be independent kings. The dynasty ended in 256 BC when the last king of Zhou died and none of his sons proclaimed the nominal title of King of China. Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang , personal name Ying Zheng , was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 246 BC to 221 BC during the Warring States Period. He became the first emperor of a unified China in 221 BC...

's unification of China concluded in 221 BC with the establishment of the Qin Dynasty.

Feudalism and the rise of Confucian bureaucracy




Western writers often describe the Zhou period as 'feudal
Feudalism
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.Although derived from the...

' because the Zhou's early rule invites comparison with medieval rule in Europe
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 but apart from some similarities in the decentralized system there are a number of important differences. One obvious difference is that the Zhou ruled from walled cities rather than castles. The Chinese term for the Zhou system is fēngjiàn (封建). When the dynasty was established, the conquered land was divided into hereditary fiefs that eventually became powerful in their own right. The fiefs or states themselves tended to become feudally subdivided. At times, a vigorous duke would take power from his nobles and centralize the state. Centralization became more necessary as the states began to war among themselves and centralization encouraged more war. If a duke took power from his nobles, the state would have to be administered bureaucratically by appointed officials.

The lowest rank of the Zhou ruling class was called Shi (士). When a dukedom was centralized these people would find employment as government officials or officers. In contrast to Western chivalry
Chivalry
Chivalry is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood which has an aristocratic military origin of individual training and service to others. Chivalry was also the term used to refer to a group of mounted men-at-arms as well as to martial valour...

, the Shi was expected to be something of a scholar. Being appointed, they could move from one state to another. Some would travel from state to state peddling schemes of administrative or military reform. Those who could not find employment would often end up teaching young men who aspired to official status. The most famous of these was Confucius
Confucius
Confucius , literally "Master Kong", was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period....

, who taught a system of mutual duty between superiors and inferiors. In contrast, the Legalists
Legalism (Chinese philosophy)
In Chinese history, Legalism was one of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States Period, although the term itself was invented in the Han Dynasty and thus does not refer to an organized 'school' of thought....

 had no time for Confucian virtue and advocated a system of strict laws and harsh punishments. The wars of the Warring States were finally ended by the most legalist state of all, Qin. When the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

 fell and was replaced by the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

, many Chinese were relieved to return to the more humane virtues of Confucius.

Military


The early Western Zhou supported a strong army, split into two major units: "the Six Armies of the west" and "the Eight Armies of Chengzhou". The armies campaigned in the northern Loess Plateau
Loess Plateau
The Loess Plateau , also known as the Huangtu Plateau, is a plateau that covers an area of some 640,000 km² in the upper and middle reaches of China's Yellow River. Loess is the name for the silty sediment that has been deposited by wind storms on the plateau over the ages...

, modern Ningxia
Ningxia
Ningxia, formerly transliterated as Ningsia, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Located in Northwest China, on the Loess Plateau, the Yellow River flows through this vast area of land. The Great Wall of China runs along its northeastern boundary...

 and the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

 floodplain. The military prowess of Zhou peaked during the 19th year of King Zhao
King Zhao of Zhou
King Zhao of Zhou or King Chao of Chou was the fourth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 995-977 BC or 977/75-957 ....

's reign, when the six armies were wiped out along with King Zhao on a campaign around the Han River
Han River (Hanshui)
The Han River is a left tributary of the Yangtze River with a length of 1532 km. Historically it was referred to as Hànshuǐ and the name is still occasionally used today....

. Early Zhou kings were true commanders-in-chief. They were in constant wars with barbarians on behalf of the fiefs called guo, meaning "statelet" or "principality."

King Zhao was famous for repeated campaigns in the Yangtze
Yangtze River
The Yangtze, Yangzi or Cháng Jiāng is the longest river in Asia, and the third-longest in the world. It flows for from the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. It is also one of the...

 areas and died in his last action. Later kings' campaigns were less effective. King Li
King Li of Zhou
King Li of Zhou was the tenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 877–841 BC or 857–842 BC ....

 led 14 armies against barbarians in the south, but failed to achieve any victory. King Xuan
King Xuan of Zhou
King Xuan of Zhou was the eleventh sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 827-782 BC or 827/25-782 BC.He worked to restore royal authority after the Gong He interregnum. He fought the 'Western Barbarians' and another group on the Huai River to the southeast. In...

 fought the Quanrong
Quanrong
The Quǎnróng , literally "Dog Rong", were an ethnic group active in the north western part of China during the Zhōu and later dynasties. Their language is classified as part of the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages family....

 nomads in vain. King You
King You of Zhou
King You of Zhou was the twelfth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the last of Western Zhou Dynasty. He reigned from 781 to 771 BCE.In 780 BCE, a major earthquake hit Guanzhong...

 was killed by the Quanrong when Haojing was sacked. Although chariots
Chariot (Ancient China)
The ancient Chinese chariot was used as an attack and pursuit vehicle on the open fields and plains of Ancient China during the Shang The ancient Chinese chariot was used as an attack and pursuit vehicle on the open fields and plains of Ancient China during the Shang The ancient Chinese chariot ...

 had been introduced to China during the Shang Dynasty from Central Asia, the Zhou period saw the first major use of chariots in battle.

Mandate of Heaven


In the Chinese historical tradition, the Zhou defeated the Shang and oriented the Shang system of ancestor worship towards a universalized worship, away from the worship of Shangdi
Shangdi
Shangdi , also known as Di in Oracle Bone Inscription and Thirteen Classics, refers to the supreme god or a divine power regarded as the spiritual ultimate by the Chinese people from the Shang Dynasty. He controlled victory in battle, harvest, the fate of the kingdom, and the weather...

 and to that of Tian
Tian
Tian is one of the oldest Chinese terms for the cosmos and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion. During the Shang Dynasty the Chinese called god Shangdi or Di , and during the Zhou Dynasty Tian "heaven; god" became synonymous with Shangdi...

 or "heaven". They legitimized their rule by invoking the "Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven
The Mandate of Heaven is a traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers. It is similar to the European concept of the divine right of kings, in that both sought to legitimaze rule from divine approval; however, unlike the divine right of kings, the Mandate of...

," the notion that the ruler (the "Son of Heaven
Emperor of China
The Emperor of China refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning between the founding of Qin Dynasty of China, united by the King of Qin in 221 BCE, and the fall of Yuan Shikai's Empire of China in 1916. When referred to as the Son of Heaven , a title that predates the Qin unification, the...

") governed by divine right and that his dethronement would prove that he had lost the Mandate. Disaster
Disaster
A disaster is a natural or man-made hazard that has come to fruition, resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment...

s and successful rebellions would thus show that the ruling family had lost this Mandate.

The doctrine explained and justified the demise of the Xia
Xia Dynasty
The Xia Dynasty is the first dynasty in China to be described in ancient historical chronicles such as Bamboo Annals, Classic of History and Records of the Grand Historian. The Xia Dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him...

 and Shang dynasties and, at the same time, supported the legitimacy of present and future rulers. Before conquering Shang, Zhou was a state in Shaanxi
Shaanxi
' is a province in the central part of Mainland China, and it includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River in addition to the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of this province...

. describes the Zhou state as a "city" which was in contact with the barbarian peoples of the western regions and more warlike than the Shang. The Zhou dynasty was founded by the Ji
Ji (surname)
姬=Ji is the family name of the family in control of the Zhou Dynasty , which followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China.Thirty-nine members of the family ruled over China during this period.Ji has...

 family and operated from four capitals throughout its history. Sharing the language and culture of the Shang, the early Zhou rulers, through conquest and colonization, established a large imperial territory wherein states as far as Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 acknowledged Zhou rulership and took part in elite culture. The spread of Zhou bronzes, though, was concurrent with the continued use of Shang-style pottery in the distant regions, and these states were the last to recede during the late Western war. The mandate of heaven was based on rules. The emperor was granted the right to rule by heaven.

Philosophy


During the Zhou Dynasty, the origins of native Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy is philosophy written in the Chinese tradition of thought. The majority of traditional Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States era, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and...

 developed, its initial stages beginning in the 6th century BC. The greatest Chinese philosophers, those who made the greatest impact on later generations of Chinese, were Confucius
Confucius
Confucius , literally "Master Kong", was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period....

, founder of Confucianism
Confucianism
Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

, and Laozi
Laozi
Laozi was a mystic philosopher of ancient China, best known as the author of the Tao Te Ching . His association with the Tao Te Ching has led him to be traditionally considered the founder of Taoism...

, founder of Taoism
Taoism
Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

. Other philosophers, theorists, and schools of thought in this era were Mozi
Mozi
Mozi |Lat.]] as Micius, ca. 470 BC – ca. 391 BC), original name Mo Di , was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period . Born in Tengzhou, Shandong Province, China, he founded the school of Mohism, and argued strongly against Confucianism and Daoism...

, founder of Mohism
Mohism
Mohism or Moism was a Chinese philosophy developed by the followers of Mozi , 470 BC–c.391 BC...

; Mencius
Mencius
Mencius was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself.-Life:Mencius, also known by his birth name Meng Ke or Ko, was born in the State of Zou, now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng , Shandong province, only thirty kilometres ...

, a famous Confucian who expanded upon Confucius' legacy; Shang Yang
Shang Yang
Shang Yang was an important statesman of the State of Qin during the Warring States Period of Chinese history. Born Wei Yang in the State of Wei, with the support of Duke Xiao of Qin Yang enacted numerous reforms in Qin...

 and Han Fei
Han Fei
Han Fei was a Chinese philosopher who, along with Li Si, Gongsun Yang, Shen Dao and Shen Buhai, developed the doctrine of the School of Law or Legalism...

, responsible for the development of ancient Chinese Legalism
Legalism (Chinese philosophy)
In Chinese history, Legalism was one of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States Period, although the term itself was invented in the Han Dynasty and thus does not refer to an organized 'school' of thought....

 (the core philosophy of the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

); and Xun Zi
Xun Zi
Xun Zi was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States Period and contributed to one of the Hundred Schools of Thought. Xun Zi believed man's inborn tendencies need to be curbed through education and ritual, counter to Mencius's view that man is innately good...

, who was arguably the center of ancient Chinese intellectual life during his time, even more so than iconic intellectual figures such as Mencius.

Li



Established during the Western period, the Li ) ritual system
encoded an understanding of manners as an expression of the social hierarchy, ethics, and regulation concerning material life; the corresponding social practices became idealized within Confucian ideology.

The system was canonized in the Book of Rites, Zhouli, and Yili
Yi li
The Yili or The Ceremonies and Rites and Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial is a Chinese classic text about Zhou Dynasty rituals...

 compendiums of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 (206 BC–220 AD), thus becoming the heart of the Chinese imperial ideology. While the system was initially a respected body of concrete regulations, the fragmentation of the Western Zhou period led the ritual to drift towards moralization and formalization in regard to:
  • The five orders of Chinese nobility
    Chinese nobility
    Chinese sovereignty and peerage, the nobility of China, were an important feature of traditional social and political organization of Imperial China. While the concepts of hereditary sovereign and peerage titles and noble families were featured as early as the semi-mythical, early historical...

    .
  • Ancestral temples (size, legitimate number of pavilions)
  • Ceremonial regulations (number of ritual vessels
    Ding (vessel)
    A ding is an ancient Chinese cauldron with legs, a lid and two handles opposite each other. They were made in two shapes with round vessels having three legs and rectangular ones four....

    , musical instruments, people in the dancing troupe)

Agriculture



Agriculture in the Zhou Dynasty was very intensive and, in many cases, directed by the government. All farming lands were owned by nobles, who then gave their land to their serfs, a situation similar to European feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.Although derived from the...

. For example, a piece of land was divided into nine squares in the well-field system
Well-field system
The well-field system was a Chinese land distribution method existing between the ninth century BCE to around the end of the Warring States Period...

, with the grain from the middle square taken by the government and that of surrounding squares kept by individual farmers. This way, the government was able to store surplus food and distribute it in times of famine or bad harvest. Some important manufacturing sectors during this period included bronze smelting, which was integral to making weapons and farming tools. Again, these industries were dominated by the nobility who directed the production of such materials.

China's first projects of hydraulic engineering
Hydraulic engineering
This article is about civil engineering. For the mechanical engineering discipline see Hydraulic machineryHydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage. One feature of these systems is the extensive...

 were initiated during the Zhou Dynasty, ultimately as a means to aid agricultural irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

. The chancellor of Wei
Wei (state)
The State of Wei was a Zhou Dynasty vassal state during the Warring States Period of Chinese history. Its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern day Henan, Hebei, Shanxi and Shandong...

, Sunshu Ao
Sunshu Ao
Sun Shu-Ao was an ancient Chinese court minister serving the administration of King Zhuang of Chu during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. During his governmental career, SUN Shu-Ao was given notice by King Zhuang, who had him promoted to the rank of Prime Minister in the State of Chu...

, who served King Zhuang of Chu
King Zhuang of Chu
King Zhuāng of Chǔ was a monarch of the Zhou Dynasty vassal State of Chu during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history...

, dammed a river to create an enormous irrigation reservoir
Reservoir
A reservoir , artificial lake or dam is used to store water.Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete.The term reservoir may also be used to...

 in modern-day northern Anhui
Anhui
Anhui is a province in the People's Republic of China. Located in eastern China across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, it borders Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a tiny...

 province. For this, Sunshu is credited as China's first hydraulic engineer. The later Wei statesman Ximen Bao
Ximen Bao
Ximen Bao was an ancient Chinese government minister and court advisor to Marquis Wen of Wei during the Warring States period of China. He was known as an early rationalist, who had the State of Wei abolish by law the inhumane practice of sacrificing people to river deities...

, who served Marquis Wen of Wei (445-396 BC), was the first hydraulic engineer of China to have created a large irrigation canal system. As the main focus of his grandiose project, his canal work eventually diverted the waters of the entire Zhang River
Zhang River
The Zhang River is a river in China. The Zhang River commences in Shanxi province and flows eastward. It then becomes the border of Hebei and Henan province west of Handan and Anyang.A dam on the Zhang River diverts water into the Red Flag Canal....

 to a spot further up the Yellow River
Yellow River
The Yellow River or Huang He, formerly known as the Hwang Ho, is the second-longest river in China and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of . Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into...

.

Kings

Personal name Posthumous name Reign period
Fa
King Wu of Zhou
King Wu of Zhou
King Wu of Zhōu or King Wu of Chou was the first sovereign, or ruler of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 1046-1043 BCE or 1049/45-1043. Various sources quoted that he died at the age of 93, 54 or 43. He was considered a just and able leader. Zhou Gong Dan was one of his...


周武王
1046 BC-1043 BC
Song
King Cheng of Zhou
King Cheng of Zhou
King Cheng of Zhou or King Ch'eng of Chou was the second sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 1042-1021 BC or 1042/35-1006 BC King Cheng was young when he ascended the throne...


周成王
1042 BC-1021 BC
Zhao
King Kang of Zhou
King Kang of Zhou
King Kang of Zhou or King K'ang of Chou was the third sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 1020-996 BC or 1005-978 BC ....


周康王
1020 BC-996 BC
Xia
King Zhao of Zhou
King Zhao of Zhou
King Zhao of Zhou or King Chao of Chou was the fourth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 995-977 BC or 977/75-957 ....


周昭王
995 BC-977 BC
Man
滿
King Mu of Zhou
King Mu of Zhou
King Mu of Zhou or King Mu of Chou or Mu Wang or Mu Wang was the fifth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 976-922 BC or 956-918 BC.-Life:...


周穆王
976 BC-922 BC
Yihu
繄扈
King Gong of Zhou
King Gong of Zhou
King Gong of Zhou or King Kung of Chou was the sixth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 922-900 BC or 917/15-900 ....


周共王/周龔王
922 BC-900 BC
Jian
King Yi of Zhou
King Yi of Zhou (Ji Jian)
King Yi of Zhou or King I of Chou was the seventh sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 899–892 BC or 899–873 BC ....


周懿王
899 BC-892 BC
Pifang
辟方
King Xiao of Zhou
King Xiao of Zhou
King Xiao of Zhou or King Hsiao of Chou was the eighth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 891–886 BC or 872–866 BC ....


周孝王
891 BC-886 BC
Xie
King Yi of Zhou
King Yi of Zhou (Ji Xie)
King Yi of Zhou or King I of Chou was the ninth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 885–878 BC or 865–858 BC....


周夷王
885 BC-878 BC
Hu
King Li of Zhou
King Li of Zhou
King Li of Zhou was the tenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 877–841 BC or 857–842 BC ....


周厲王/周剌王
877 BC-841 BC
  Gonghe Regency
共和
841 BC-828 BC
Jing
King Xuan of Zhou
King Xuan of Zhou
King Xuan of Zhou was the eleventh sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. Estimated dates of his reign are 827-782 BC or 827/25-782 BC.He worked to restore royal authority after the Gong He interregnum. He fought the 'Western Barbarians' and another group on the Huai River to the southeast. In...


周宣王
827 BC-782 BC
Gongsheng
宮湦
King You of Zhou
King You of Zhou
King You of Zhou was the twelfth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the last of Western Zhou Dynasty. He reigned from 781 to 771 BCE.In 780 BCE, a major earthquake hit Guanzhong...


周幽王
781 BC-771 BC
End of Western Zhou / Beginning of Eastern Zhou
Yijiu
宜臼
King Ping of Zhou
King Ping of Zhou
King Ping of Zhou , also referred to as Crown Prince Yijiu or King P'ing of Chou was the thirteenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the first of Eastern Zhou Dynasty...


周平王
770 BC-720 BC
Lin
King Huan of Zhou
King Huan of Zhou
King Huan of Zhou was the fourteenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the second of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Jī Given name Lín Era name none Grandfather...


周桓王
719 BC-697 BC
Tuo
King Zhuang of Zhou
King Zhuang of Zhou
King Zhuang of Zhou or King Chuang of Chou was the fifthteenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the third of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周莊王
696 BC-682 BC
Huqi
胡齊
King Xi of Zhou
King Xi of Zhou
King Xi of Zhou was the sixteenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the fourth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese Given name...


周釐王
681 BC-677 BC
Lang
King Hui of Zhou
King Hui of Zhou
For the King Hui proclaimed as King Nan of Zhou's successor, see King Hui of Eastern ZhouKing Hui of Zhou, ch. 周惠王, py. zhōu hùi wáng, wg...


周惠王
676 BC-652 BC
Zheng
King Xiang of Zhou
King Xiang of Zhou
King Xiang of Zhou was the eighteenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the sixth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty. In 635 he was driven from the capital by his brother Zhao and was restored by Duke Wen of Jin....


周襄王
651 BC-619 BC
Renchen
壬臣
King Qing of Zhou
King Qing of Zhou
King Qing of Zhou or King Ch'ing of Chou was the nineteenth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the seventh of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information:...


周頃王
618 BC-613 BC
Ban
King Kuang of Zhou
King Kuang of Zhou
King Kuang of Zhou or King K'uang of Chou was the twentieth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the eighth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周匡王
612 BC-607 BC
Yu
King Ding of Zhou
King Ding of Zhou
King Ding of Zhou or King Ting of Chou was the twenty-first sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the ninth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周定王
606 BC-586 BC
Yi
King Jian of Zhou
King Jian of Zhou
King Jian of Zhou or King Chien of Chou was the twenty-second sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the tenth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周簡王
585 BC-572 BC
Xiexin
泄心
King Ling of Zhou
King Ling of Zhou
King Ling of Zhou or King Ling of Chou was the twenty-third sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the eleventh of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周靈王
571 BC-545 BC
Gui
King Jing of Zhou
King Jing of Zhou (Ji Gui)
King Jing of Zhou, ch.: 周景王, pinyin: zhōu jĭng wáng, wg: King Ching of Chou, was the twenty-fourth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twelfth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周景王
544 BC-521 BC
Meng
King Dao of Zhou
King Dao of Zhou
King Dao of Zhou, ch.: 周悼王, pinyin: zhōu dào wáng, wg: King Tao of Chou, was the twenty-fifth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the thirteenth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name...


周悼王
520 BC
Gai
King Jing of Zhou
King Jing of Zhou (Ji Gai)
King Jing of Zhou, ch.: 周敬王, pinyin: zhōu jìng wáng, wg: King Ching of Chou, was the twenty-sixth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the fourteenth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周敬王
519 BC-476 BC
Ren
King Yuan of Zhou
King Yuan of Zhou
King Yuan of Zhou, was the twenty-seventh sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the fifteenth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information:...


周元王
475 BC-469 BC
Jie
King Zhendìng of Zhou
周貞定王
468 BC-442 BC
Quji
去疾
King Ai of Zhou
周哀王
441 BC
Shu
King Si of Zhou
周思王
441 BC
Wei
King Kao of Zhou
周考王
440 BC-426 BC
Wu
King Weilie of Zhou
周威烈王
425 BC-402 BC
Jiao
King An of Zhou
King An of Zhou
King An of Zhou, ch.: 周安王, pinyin: zhōu ān wáng, wg: King An of Chou, was the thirty-second sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twentieth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周安王
401 BC-376 BC
Xi
King Lie of Zhou
King Lie of Zhou
King Lie of Zhou, ch.: 周烈王, pinyin: zhōu lìe wáng, wg: King Lieh of Chou, was the thirty-third sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twenty-first of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information: Family name Ji in Chinese...


周烈王
375 BC-369 BC
Bian
King Xian of Zhou
King Xian of Zhou
King Xian of Zhou was the thirty-fourth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twenty-third of Eastern Zhou Dynasty....


周顯王
368 BC-321 BC
Ding
King Shenjing of Zhou
King Shenjing of Zhou
King Shenjing of Zhou, trad. ch.: 周慎靚王, sim. Ch.: 周慎靓王, pinyin: zhaō shèn jìng wáng, wg: King Shenching of Chou was the thirty-fifth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the twenty-fourth of Eastern Zhou Dynasty.-Personal information:...


周慎靚王
320 BC-315 BC
Yan
King Nan of Zhou
King Nan of Zhou
King Nan of Zhou, ch. 周赧王, py. zhōu năn wáng, wg, King Nan of Zhou, or less commonly King Yin of Zhou, trad. ch.: 周隱王, sim. Ch.: 周隐王, py: zhōu yĭn wáng, wg: King Yin of Zhou was the thirty-sixth and last sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. He was King for fifty-nine years, longest in Zhou...


周赧王
314 BC-256 BC
Jie
King Hui of Zhou
King Hui of Eastern Zhou
King Hui of Eastern Zhou, was the last king of the Zhou Dynasty of China. Prior to reigning, he is referred to as Lord Zhaowen...


東周惠王
255 BC-249 BC
Nobles of the Ji family proclaimed Duke Hui of Eastern Zhou as King Nan's successor after their capital, Chengzhou, fell to Qin forces in 256 BC. Ji Zhao, a son of King Nan led a resistance against Qin for five years. The dukedom fell in 249 BC. The remaining Ji family ruled Yan
Yan (state)
Yān was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history. Its capital was Ji...

 and Wei
Wei (Spring and Autumn Period)
This article is about the State of Wei founded during the Spring and Autumn Period. For the Warring States Period state whose name is pronounced identically, see Wei ....

 until 209 BC.

Zhou in astronomy


Zhou is represented by two stars, Eta Capricorni
Eta Capricorni
Eta Capricorni is a binary star in the constellation Capricornus. It also has the traditional star name Arm. It is approximately 158 light years from Earth....

 ( , "the First Star of Zhou") and 21 Capricorni ( , "the Second Star of Zhou"), in "Twelve States"
Girl (Chinese constellation)
The Girl mansion is one of the Twenty-eight mansions of the Chinese constellations. It is one of the northern mansions of the Black Tortoise.- Asterisms :...

 asterism. Zhou is also represented by the star Beta Serpentis
Beta Serpentis
Beta Serpentis is a star system in the constellation Serpens, in its head . It was a member of indigenous Arabic asterism al-Nasaq al-Sha'āmī, "the Northern Line" of al-Nasaqān "the Two Lines", along with β Her , γ Her and γ Ser .According to the catalogue of stars in the Technical Memorandum...

 in asterism "Right Wall", Heavenly Market enclosure
Heavenly Market enclosure
Tian Shi Yuan, the Heavenly Market Enclosure , is one of the San Yuan or Three enclosures. Stars and constellations of this group are visible during late summer and early autumn in the Northern Hemisphere . The summer triangle lies directly to the northwest.-Asterisms:The asterisms are :...

 (see Chinese constellation
Chinese constellation
Chinese constellations are the way the ancient Chinese grouped the stars. They are very different from the modern IAU recognized constellations. This is because the IAU was based on Greco-Roman astronomy instead of Chinese astronomy....

).

See also


  • Family tree of the Zhou Dynasty
    Family tree of the Zhou Dynasty
    This is a family tree of Chinese kings in the ancient periods before the rise of the First Emperor.Chinese emperors family tree → Chinese emperors family tree → Chinese emperors family tree → Chinese emperors family tree...

  • Four occupations
    Four occupations
    The four occupations or "four categories of the people" was a hierarchic social class structure developed in ancient China by either Confucian or Legalist scholars as far back as the late Zhou Dynasty and is considered a central part of the Fengjian social structure...

  • Historical capitals of China
    Historical capitals of China
    The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China traditionally refers to Beijing , Nanjing, Luoyang, and Chang'an ....

  • Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
    Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng
    The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng is an important archaeological site in Suizhou, Hubei, China, dated sometime after 433 BCE. The tomb contained the remains of Marquis Yi of Zeng...

  • Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project
    Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project
    The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project was a multi-disciplinary project commissioned by the People's Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang Dynasty and the Zhou Dynasty...


Further reading

  • Feng, Li. 2006. Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045-771 BC
  • Lee, Yuan-Yuan and Shen, Sinyan. (1999). Chinese Musical Instruments (Chinese Music Monograph Series). Chinese Music Society of North America Press. ISBN 1-880464-03-9
  • Shen, Sinyan (1987), Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells, Scientific American, 256, 94.
  • Sun, Yan. 2006. "Cultural and Political Control in North China: Style and Use of the Bronzes of Yan at Liulihe during the Early Western Zhou." In: Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Edited by Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu. Pages 215–237. ISBN 9780824828844; ISBN 0-8248-2884-4.
  • Wagner, D. G. "The Earliest Use of Iron in China" in Metals in Antiquity, Edited by S. M. M. Young, A. M. Pollard, P. Budd and R. A. Ixer, Oxford: Archaeopress. 1999, pp. 1–9.

External links