7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano
| 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano
11. Parasitic cone
12. Lava flow
15. Ash cloud
A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust
, which allows hot magma
, volcanic ash
and gases to escape from below the surface.
Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates
1783 The volcano Laki, in Iceland, begins an eight-month eruption which kills over 9,000 people and starts a seven-year famine.
1883 Krakatoa begins to erupt. The volcano's final and most notable explosion occurs on August 26.
1973 A volcanic eruption devastates Heimaey in the Vestmannaeyjar chain of islands off the south coast of Iceland.
1986 Carbon dioxide gas erupts from volcanic Lake Nyos in Cameroon, killing up to 1,800 people within a 20-kilometer range.