Wyoming

Wyoming

Overview
Wyoming is a state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 in the mountain region of the Western United States
Western United States
.The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West or simply "the West," traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time...

. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High Plains
High Plains (United States)
The High Plains are a subregion of the Great Plains mostly in the Western United States, but also partly in the Midwest states of Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota, generally encompassing the western part of the Great Plains before the region reaches the Rocky Mountains...

. Wyoming is the least populous U.S. state, with a U.S. Census
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

 population of 563,626 in 2010. This is a 14.1% increase since 2000. It is the tenth largest U.S.
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Encyclopedia
Wyoming is a state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 in the mountain region of the Western United States
Western United States
.The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West or simply "the West," traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time...

. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High Plains
High Plains (United States)
The High Plains are a subregion of the Great Plains mostly in the Western United States, but also partly in the Midwest states of Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota, generally encompassing the western part of the Great Plains before the region reaches the Rocky Mountains...

. Wyoming is the least populous U.S. state, with a U.S. Census
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

 population of 563,626 in 2010. This is a 14.1% increase since 2000. It is the tenth largest U.S. state by area. Cheyenne
Cheyenne, Wyoming
Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population is 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the...

 is the capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 and the most populous city of Wyoming with a population of nearly 60,000 people within its city proper.

Location and size


As specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude
Latitude
In geography, the latitude of a location on the Earth is the angular distance of that location south or north of the Equator. The latitude is an angle, and is usually measured in degrees . The equator has a latitude of 0°, the North pole has a latitude of 90° north , and the South pole has a...

, 41°N
41st parallel north
The 41st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean....

 and 45°N, and longitude
Longitude
Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds, and denoted by the Greek letter lambda ....

, 104°3'W and 111°3'W (27° W and 34° W of the Washington Meridian
Washington meridian
The Washington meridian was one of four prime meridians of the United States which passed through Washington, D.C.. The four which have been specified are:# through the Capitol# through the White House# through the old Naval Observatory...

), making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states (along with Colorado
Colorado
Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

 and Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

) to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks. Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile (.8 km) in some spots, especially in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

, on the east by South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

 and Nebraska
Nebraska
Nebraska is a state on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States. The state's capital is Lincoln and its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River....

, on the south by Colorado
Colorado
Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

, on the southwest by Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

, and on the west by Idaho
Idaho
Idaho is a state in the Rocky Mountain area of the United States. The state's largest city and capital is Boise. Residents are called "Idahoans". Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, as the 43rd state....

. It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97818 square miles (253,347.5 km²) and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles (444.2 km); and from the east to the west border is 365 miles (587.4 km) at its south end and 342 miles (550.4 km) at the north end.

Mountain ranges


The Great Plains
Great Plains
The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

 meet the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

 in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau
Plateau
In geology and earth science, a plateau , also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. A highly eroded plateau is called a dissected plateau...

 broken by many mountain range
Mountain range
A mountain range is a single, large mass consisting of a succession of mountains or narrowly spaced mountain ridges, with or without peaks, closely related in position, direction, formation, and age; a component part of a mountain system or of a mountain chain...

s. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak
Gannett Peak
Gannett Peak is the highest peak in the U.S. state of Wyoming and straddles the boundary between Fremont and Sublette Counties along the Continental Divide.- Overview :...

 in the Wind River Mountain Range
Wind River Range
The Wind River Range , is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in western Wyoming in the United States. The range runs roughly NW-SE for approximately 100 miles . The Continental Divide follows the crest of the range and includes Gannett Peak, which at 13,804 feet , is the highest peak...

, at 13804 feet (4,207.5 m), to the Belle Fourche River
Belle Fourche River
The Belle Fourche River is a tributary of the Cheyenne River, approximately long, in the U.S. states of Wyoming and South Dakota. It is part of the Mississippi River watershed via the Cheyenne and Missouri rivers....

 valley in the state’s northeast corner, at 3125 feet (952.5 m). In the northwest are the Absaroka
Absaroka Range
The Absaroka Range is a sub-range of the Rocky Mountains in the United States. The range stretches about 150 mi across the Montana-Wyoming border, forming the eastern boundary of Yellowstone National Park and the western side of the Bighorn Basin. The range borders the Beartooth Mountains...

, Owl Creek
Owl Creek Mountains
The Owl Creek Mountains are a subrange of the Rocky Mountains in central Wyoming in the United States, running east to west to form a bridge between the Absaroka Range to the northwest and the Bridger Mountains to the east. The range forms the boundary between the Bighorn Basin to the north and the...

, Gros Ventre, Wind River and the Teton
Teton Range
The Teton Range is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in North America. A north-south range, it is on the Wyoming side of the state's border with Idaho, just south of Yellowstone National Park. Most of the range is in Grand Teton National Park....

 ranges. In the north central are the Big Horn Mountains
Big Horn Mountains
The Big Horn Mountains are a mountain range in northern Wyoming and southern Montana in the United States, forming a northwest-trending spur from the Rocky Mountains extending approximately 200 miles northward on the Great Plains...

; in the northeast, the Black Hills
Black Hills
The Black Hills are a small, isolated mountain range rising from the Great Plains of North America in western South Dakota and extending into Wyoming, USA. Set off from the main body of the Rocky Mountains, the region is something of a geological anomaly—accurately described as an "island of...

; and in the southern region the Laramie
Laramie Mountains
The Laramie Mountains are a range of moderately high peaks on the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S states of Wyoming and Colorado. The range is the northernmost extension of the line of the ranges along the eastern side of the Rockies, and in particular of the higher peaks of the...

, Snowy and Sierra Madre
Sierra Madre Range (Wyoming)
The Sierra Madre Range is located in south-central Wyoming. Geologically, it may be considered an extension of the Park Range or Front Range of Colorado. Its terrain lies within the US Continental Divide. Its western basins drain into the Colorado River and its eastern into the North Platte River...

 ranges.

The Snowy Range
Medicine Bow Mountains
The Medicine Bow Mountains are a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains that extend for from northern Colorado into southern Wyoming. The northern extent of this range is the sub-range the Snowy Range...

 in the south central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado Rockies
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

 in both geology and appearance. The Wind River Range
Wind River Range
The Wind River Range , is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in western Wyoming in the United States. The range runs roughly NW-SE for approximately 100 miles . The Continental Divide follows the crest of the range and includes Gannett Peak, which at 13,804 feet , is the highest peak...

 in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of 13000 ft (3,962.4 m) tall in addition to Gannett Peak
Gannett Peak
Gannett Peak is the highest peak in the U.S. state of Wyoming and straddles the boundary between Fremont and Sublette Counties along the Continental Divide.- Overview :...

, the highest peak in the state. The Big Horn Mountains
Big Horn Mountains
The Big Horn Mountains are a mountain range in northern Wyoming and southern Montana in the United States, forming a northwest-trending spur from the Rocky Mountains extending approximately 200 miles northward on the Great Plains...

 in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains.


The Teton Range
Teton Range
The Teton Range is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in North America. A north-south range, it is on the Wyoming side of the state's border with Idaho, just south of Yellowstone National Park. Most of the range is in Grand Teton National Park....

 in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80.5 km), part of which is included in Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, U.S. The Park consists of approximately and includes the major peaks of the long Teton Range as well as most of the northern sections of the valley known as Jackson Hole. Only south of Yellowstone...

. The park includes the Grand Teton
Grand Teton
Grand Teton is the highest mountain in Wyoming's Grand Teton National Park, and a classic destination in American mountaineering.- Geography :...

, the second highest peak in Wyoming.

The Continental Divide
Continental Divide
The Continental Divide of the Americas, or merely the Continental Gulf of Division or Great Divide, is the name given to the principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas that separates the watersheds that drain into the Pacific Ocean from those river systems that drain...

 spans north-south across the central portion of the state. Rivers east of the divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

. They are the North Platte
North Platte River
The North Platte River is a major tributary of the Platte River and is approximately long counting its many curves, It travels about distance. Its course lies in the U.S...

, Wind
Wind River (Wyoming)
The Wind River is the name applied to the upper reaches of the Bighorn River in Wyoming in the United States. The Wind River is long. The two rivers are sometimes referred to as the Wind/Bighorn.-Course:...

, Big Horn and the Yellowstone
Yellowstone River
The Yellowstone River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately long, in the western United States. Considered the principal tributary of the upper Missouri, the river and its tributaries drain a wide area stretching from the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the Yellowstone National...

 rivers. The Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

 in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River
Columbia River
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, flows northwest and then south into the U.S. state of Washington, then turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state...

 and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

, as does the Green River
Green River, Wyoming
Green River is a city in and the county seat of Sweetwater County, Wyoming, United States, in the southwestern part of the state. The population was 11,808 at the 2000 census....

 through the Colorado River
Colorado River
The Colorado River , is a river in the Southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately long, draining a part of the arid regions on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. The watershed of the Colorado River covers in parts of seven U.S. states and two Mexican states...

 Basin.

The continental divide forks in the south central part of the state in an area known as the Great Divide Basin
Great Divide Basin
The Great Divide Basin is a drainage basin of the Continental Divide of the Americas. The basin is between the Green River watershed on the west and the Medicine Bow River watershed on the east . From the northwest, the basin begins in the "Wind River Range .....

 where the waters that flow or precipitate into this area remain there and cannot flow to any ocean. Instead, because of the overall aridity of Wyoming, water in the Great Divide Basin simply sinks into the soil or evaporates.

Several river
River
A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including...

s begin or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
The Yellowstone River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately long, in the western United States. Considered the principal tributary of the upper Missouri, the river and its tributaries drain a wide area stretching from the Rocky Mountains in the vicinity of the Yellowstone National...

, Bighorn River, Green River
Green River, Wyoming
Green River is a city in and the county seat of Sweetwater County, Wyoming, United States, in the southwestern part of the state. The population was 11,808 at the 2000 census....

, and the Snake River
Snake River
The Snake is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean...

.

Public lands


More than 48% of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. Government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth in the U.S. in total acres and fifth in percentage of a state's land owned by the Federal government. This amounts to about 30099430 acres (121,808.2 km²) owned and managed by the U.S. Government. The state government owns an additional 6% of all Wyoming lands, or another 3864800 acres (15,640.3 km²).

The vast majority of this government land is managed by the Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior which administers America's public lands, totaling approximately , or one-eighth of the landmass of the country. The BLM also manages of subsurface mineral estate underlying federal, state and private...

 and U.S. Forest Service in numerous National Forests
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of federal lands in the United States.National Forests are largely forest and woodland areas owned by the federal government and managed by the United States Forest Service, part of the United States Department of Agriculture. Land management of these areas...

, a National Grassland, and a number of vast swaths of public land, in addition to the F.E. Warren Air Force Base near Cheyenne.

In addition, Wyoming contains areas that are under the management of the National Park Service
National Park Service
The National Park Service is the U.S. federal agency that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations...

 and other agencies. They include:


Recreation areas

  • Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area
    Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area
    Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area was established by an act of Congress on October 15, 1966, following the construction of the Yellowtail Dam by the Bureau of Reclamation. This dam, named after the famous Crow chairman Robert Yellowtail, harnessed the waters of the Bighorn River and turned...

  • Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area
    Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area
    Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in the states of Wyoming and Utah. The centerpiece of the recreation area is the 91 mile long Flaming Gorge Reservoir, a reservoir created by the Flaming Gorge Dam along the Green River in 1964...

     (Forest Service-Ashley National Forest)

National historic trails and sites

  • California National Historic Trail
  • Independence Rock (Wyoming)
    Independence Rock (Wyoming)
    Independence Rock is a large granite rock, approximately high, in southwestern Natrona County in the U.S. state of Wyoming, along Wyoming Highway 220. During the middle of the 19th century, the rock was a prominent and well-known landmark on the Oregon, Mormon and California emigrant trails. It...

  • Fort Laramie National Historic Site
    Fort Laramie National Historic Site
    Fort Laramie was a significant 19th century trading post and diplomatic site located at the confluence of the Laramie River and the North Platte River in the upper Platte River Valley in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Wyoming...

  • Medicine Wheel National Historic Site
    Medicine Wheel National Historic Landmark
    The Medicine Wheel/Medicine Mountain National Historic Landmark is a medicine wheel located in the Big Horn Mountains of the U.S. state of Wyoming....

  • Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Wyoming
  • Oregon National Historic Trail
  • Pony Express National Historic Trail

National parkways

  • John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway
    John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway
    John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway is a scenic road that connects Grand Teton National Park and Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States. It is federally owned and managed by the National Park Service. It is named in remembrance of John D...

     between Yellowstone National Park
    Yellowstone National Park
    Yellowstone National Park, established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872, is a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho...

     and Grand Teton National Park
    Grand Teton National Park
    Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, U.S. The Park consists of approximately and includes the major peaks of the long Teton Range as well as most of the northern sections of the valley known as Jackson Hole. Only south of Yellowstone...


Wildlife refuges and hatcheries

  • Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge
    Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge
    Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge is located in western Sweetwater County in the U.S. state of Wyoming and includes 26,400 acres . Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge is located in southwestern Wyoming. The refuge is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, an agency within the U.S...

  • National Elk Refuge
    National Elk Refuge
    The National Elk Refuge is located in the U.S. state of Wyoming and was created in 1912 to protect habitat and provide sanctuary for the largest elk herd on Earth. The refuge borders the town of Jackson, Wyoming on the northeast while Bridger-Teton National Forest is to the east and Grand Teton...

  • Jackson National Fish Hatchery
    Jackson National Fish Hatchery
    Jackson National Fish Hatchery is a National fish hatchery in Jackson, Wyoming. The hatchery is run by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The hatchery is physically located on the National Elk Refuge, a protected feeding ground for elk that winter in the Jackson Hole valley...

  • Saratoga National Fish Hatchery

Climate



Wyoming's climate is generally semi-arid and continental
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk), and is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 with greater temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 °F (29.4 °C) and 95 °F (35 °C) in most of the state. With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above 9000 feet (2,743.2 m) averaging around 70 °F (21.1 °C). Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with even the hottest locations averaging in the 50 – range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in the late spring and early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between generally mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches (254 mm) of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin
Bighorn Basin
The Bighorn Basin is a plateau region and intermontane basin, approximately 100 miles wide, in north-central Wyoming in the United States. It is bounded by the Absaroka Range on the west, the Bighorn Mountains on the east, and the Owl Creek Mountains and Bridger Mountains on the south...

 averaging 5–8 in (127–203.2 mm) (making the area nearly a true desert
Desert
A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Most deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than...

). The lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains typically average around 10–12 in (254–304.8 mm), making the climate there semi-arid
Semi-arid
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate describes climatic regions that receive precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely...

. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches (508 mm) or more, much of it as snow
Snow
Snow is a form of precipitation within the Earth's atmosphere in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Since snow is composed of small ice particles, it is a granular material. It has an open and therefore soft structure, unless packed by...

, sometimes 200 inches (508 cm) or more annually. The states highest recorded temperature is 114 °F (45.6 °C) at Basin
Basin, Wyoming
Basin is a town in, and the county seat of, Big Horn County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 1,239 at the 2000 census. The community is located near the center of the Bighorn Basin with the Big Horn River east of the town...

 on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is -66 F at Riverside
Riverside, Wyoming
Riverside is a town in Carbon County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 59 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Riverside is located at ....

 on February 9, 1933.

The climate of any area in Wyoming is largely determined by its latitude, altitude and local topography. When put together, these factors have a lot to do with airflow patterns, temperature variations, precipitation and humidity brought in by the weather systems that migrate eastward.
In winter, Wyoming is often beneath the jet stream, or north of it, which accounts for its frequent strong winds, blasts of Arctic air and precipitation, all the necessary ingredients for great snow conditions at Wyoming's northwestern ski areas
Ski resort
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing and other winter sports. In Europe a ski resort is a town or village in a ski area - a mountainous area, where there are ski trails and supporting services such as hotels and other accommodation, restaurants, equipment rental and a ski lift system...

. In summer, the jet stream retreats northward to Canada, leaving the state's weather mild and pleasant at a time when the majority of Wyoming's visitors choose to arrive. Jackson, located at 6230 feet (1,898.9 m) above sea level and surrounded by mountains, can expect a high temperature in July of 80 °F (26.7 °C). The average is more likely to be 65 °F (18.3 °C). The closest National Weather Station (in Riverton on the other side of the Wind River Mountains at 4955 feet (1,510.3 m)) reports slightly warmer July weather.

The number of thunderstorm
Thunderstorm
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, a lightning storm, thundershower or simply a storm is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere known as thunder. The meteorologically assigned cloud type associated with the...

 days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during the late spring and early summer. The southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado
Tornado
A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider...

 activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops dramatically with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur a little further east.
Casper climate: Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average max. temperature °F
Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit is the temperature scale proposed in 1724 by, and named after, the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit . Within this scale, the freezing of water into ice is defined at 32 degrees, while the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 degrees...

 (°C
Celsius
Celsius is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius , who developed a similar temperature scale two years before his death...

)
32
(0)
37
(3)
45
(7)
56
(13)
66
(19)
78
(26)
87
(31)
85
(29)
74
(23)
60
(16)
44
(7)
34
(1)
58
(14)
Average min. temperature
°F (°C)
12
(-11)
16
(-9)
21
(-6)
28
(-2)
37
(3)
46
(8)
54
(12)
51
(11)
41
(5)
32
(0)
21
(-6)
14
(-10)
31
(-1)
Average rainfall
inches (mm)
0.6
(15.2)
0.6
(15.2)
1.0
(25.4)
1.6
(40.6)
2.1
(53.3)
1.5
(38.1)
1.3
(33.0)
0.7
(17.8)
0.9
(22.9)
1.0
(25.4)
0.8
(20.3)
0.7
(17.8)
12.8
(325.1)
Source:

Jackson climate: Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average max. temperature °F
Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit is the temperature scale proposed in 1724 by, and named after, the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit . Within this scale, the freezing of water into ice is defined at 32 degrees, while the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 degrees...

 (°C
Celsius
Celsius is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius , who developed a similar temperature scale two years before his death...

)
24
(-4)
28
(-2)
37
(3)
47
(8)
58
(14)
68
(20)
78
(26)
77
(25)
67
(19)
54
(12)
37
(3)
24
(-4)
49
(9)
Average min. temperature
°F (°C)
-1
(-18)
2
(-17)
10
(-12)
21
(-6)
30
(-1)
36
(2)
41
(5)
38
(3)
31
(-1)
22
(-6)
14
(-10)
0
(-18)
20
(-7)
Average rainfall
inches (mm)
2.6
(66.0)
1.9
(48.3)
1.6
(40.6)
1.4
(35.6)
1.9
(48.3)
1.8
(45.7)
1.3
(33.0)
1.3
(33.0)
1.5
(38.1)
1.3
(33.0)
2.3
(58.4)
2.5
(63.5)
21.4
(543.6)
Source:

History


Several American Indian
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 groups originally inhabited the region now known as Wyoming. The Crow
Crow Nation
The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a Siouan people of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota. They now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana and in several...

, Arapaho
Arapaho
The Arapaho are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the eastern plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne tribe and loosely aligned with the Sioux. Arapaho is an Algonquian language closely related to Gros Ventre, whose people are seen as an early...

, Lakota, and Shoshone
Shoshone
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe in the United States with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern....

 were but a few of the original inhabitants encountered when white
White people
White people is a term which usually refers to human beings characterized, at least in part, by the light pigmentation of their skin...

 explorers first entered the region. What is now southwestern Wyoming became a part of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire comprised territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, in America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. It originated during the Age of Exploration and was therefore one of the first global empires. At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power....

 and later Mexican territory of Alta California
Alta California
Alta California was a province and territory in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and later a territory and department in independent Mexico. The territory was created in 1769 out of the northern part of the former province of Las Californias, and consisted of the modern American states of California,...

, until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican-American War. French Canadian trappers from Québec and Montréal have ventured into the state in the late 18th century, leaving French toponyms such as Téton, La Ramie, etc. John Colter
John Colter
John Colter was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition . Though party to one of the more famous expeditions in history, Colter is best remembered for explorations he made during the winter of 1807–1808, when Colter became the first known person of European descent to enter the region now known...

. A member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, or ″Corps of Discovery Expedition" was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States. Commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson and led by two Virginia-born veterans of Indian wars in the Ohio Valley, Meriwether Lewis and William...

, itself guided by French Canadian Toussaint Charbonneau and his young Shoshone wife, Sacagawea, first described the region in 1807. At the time, his reports of the Yellowstone
Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is one of the last remaining large, nearly intact ecosystems in the northern temperate zone of the Earth and is partly located in Yellowstone National Park. Conflict over management has been controversial, and the area is a flagship site among conservation groups...

 area were considered to be fictional. Robert Stuart
Robert Stuart (explorer)
Robert Stuart was the son of Charles Stuart, a partner of John Jacob Astor who as one of the North West Company men, or Nor'westers, enlisted by Astor to help him found his intended fur empire...

 and a party of five men returning from Astoria
Astoria, Oregon
Astoria is the county seat of Clatsop County, Oregon, United States. Situated near the mouth of the Columbia River, the city was named after the American investor John Jacob Astor. His American Fur Company founded Fort Astoria at the site in 1811...

 discovered South Pass
South Pass
South Pass is two mountain passes on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. The passes are located in a broad low region, 35 miles broad, between the Wind River Range to the north and the Oregon Buttes and Great Divide Basin to the south, in southwestern Fremont...

 in 1812. The Oregon Trail
Oregon Trail
The Oregon Trail is a historic east-west wagon route that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon and locations in between.After 1840 steam-powered riverboats and steamboats traversing up and down the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri rivers sped settlement and development in the flat...

 later followed that route. In 1850, Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
James Felix "Jim" Bridger was among the foremost mountain men, trappers, scouts and guides who explored and trapped the Western United States during the decades of 1820-1850, as well as mediating between native tribes and encroaching whites...

 located what is now known as Bridger Pass
Bridger Pass
Bridger Pass is a mountain pass in Carbon County, Wyoming on the Continental Divide of the Americas at the south Great Divide Basin bifurcation point....

, which the Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad , headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, is the largest railroad network in the United States. James R. Young is president, CEO and Chairman....

 used in 1868—as did Interstate 80, 90 years later. Bridger also explored Yellowstone and filed reports on the region that, like those of Colter, were largely regarded as tall tale
Tall tale
A tall tale is a story with unbelievable elements, related as if it were true and factual. Some such stories are exaggerations of actual events, for example fish stories such as, "that fish was so big, why I tell ya', it nearly sank the boat when I pulled it in!" Other tall tales are completely...

s at the time.

The region may have acquired the name Wyoming as early as 1865, when Representative J. M. Ashley of Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 introduced a bill to Congress to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming
Wyoming Territory
The Territory of Wyoming was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 25, 1868, until July 10, 1890, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Wyoming. Cheyenne was the territorial capital...

". The name Wyoming derives from the Munsee
Munsee language
Munsee is an endangered language of the Eastern Algonquian subgroup of the Algonquian language family, itself a branch of the Algic language family. Munsee is one of the two Delaware languages...

 name xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat", but also named after the Wyoming Valley
Wyoming Valley
Wyoming Valley is a region of northeastern Pennsylvania. As a metropolitan area, it is also known as the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre area, after its principal cities, Scranton and Wilkes-Barre....

 in Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming
Gertrude of Wyoming
Gertrude of Wyoming; A Pennsylvanian Tale is a romantic epic in Spenserian stanza composed by Scottish poet Thomas Campbell . The poem was well received, but not a financial success for its author....

 by Thomas Campbell.

After the Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific Railroad , headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, is the largest railroad network in the United States. James R. Young is president, CEO and Chairman....

 had reached the town of Cheyenne
Cheyenne, Wyoming
Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population is 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the...

 in 1867, the region's population began to grow steadily, and the federal government established the Wyoming Territory on July 25, 1868. Unlike Colorado
Colorado
Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

 to the south, Wyoming enjoyed no significant discovery of such celebrated mineral
Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids and does not...

s as gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

 and silver
Silver
Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

—nor Colorado's consequent boom in population—although South Pass City
South Pass City, Wyoming
South Pass City is an unincorporated community in Fremont County, Wyoming, United States. It is located 2 miles south of the intersection of highways 28 and 131. The closest town is Atlantic City...

 experienced a short-lived boom after the Carissa Mine began producing gold in 1867. Moreover, some areas, such as between the Sierra Madre Mountains
Sierra Madre Range (Wyoming)
The Sierra Madre Range is located in south-central Wyoming. Geologically, it may be considered an extension of the Park Range or Front Range of Colorado. Its terrain lies within the US Continental Divide. Its western basins drain into the Colorado River and its eastern into the North Platte River...

 and the Snowy Range near Grand Encampment
Grand Encampment, Wyoming
Grand Encampment is a town in Carbon County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 443 at the 2000 census.-History:Known also as "Encampment", this town along the Colorado-Wyoming border was, at the turn of the twentieth century, a booming center of copper mining and smelting...

, produced copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

.

Once government sponsored expeditions to the Yellowstone country were undertaken, the previous reports by men like Colter and Bridger were found to be true. This led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park, established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872, is a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho...

, which became the world's first national park
National park
A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or...

 in 1872. Nearly all of Yellowstone National Park lies within the far northwestern borders of Wyoming.

On December 10, 1869, territorial Gov. John Allen Campbell
John Allen Campbell
John Allen Campbell was a politician and officer in the U.S. Army. During the Civil War, he advanced from lieutenant to brevet brigadier general. He was appointed the first Governor of Wyoming Territory in 1869 and again in 1873...

 signed a suffrage act into law, which extended the right to vote to women. And in addition to being the first U.S. state to grant suffrage
Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

 to women, Wyoming was also the home of other firsts for U.S. women in politics. For the first time, women served on a jury in Wyoming (Laramie
Laramie, Wyoming
Laramie is a city in and the county seat of Albany County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 30,816 at the . Located on the Laramie River in southeastern Wyoming, the city is west of Cheyenne, at the junction of Interstate 80 and U.S. Route 287....

 in 1870). Wyoming had the first female court bailiff (Mary Atkinson, Laramie, in 1870) and the first female justice of the peace
Justice of the Peace
A justice of the peace is a puisne judicial officer elected or appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. Depending on the jurisdiction, they might dispense summary justice or merely deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions...

 in the country (Esther Hobart Morris
Esther Hobart Morris
Esther Hobart Morris , a Tioga County, New York native, distinguished herself as the first female Justice of the Peace in the United States. A mother of three boys, she began her tenure as justice in South Pass City, Wyoming, on February 14, 1870, and served a term of less than nine months...

, South Pass City, in 1870). Wyoming became the first state in the Union to elect a female governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross
Nellie Tayloe Ross
Nellie Tayloe Ross was an American politician, the 14th Governor of Wyoming from 1925 to 1927, and director of the United States Mint from 1933-1953. She was the first woman to serve as governor of a U.S. state. To date, she remains the only woman to have served as governor of Wyoming...

, (Wyoming and Texas both elected a female governor at the same time. The Wyoming female Governor took office a few days before the one in Texas did) Source: History of Wyoming by Dr. T. A. Larsonwho was elected in 1924 and took office in January 1925. Because of rights given to women, Wyoming earned the nickname of "The Equality State".

Wyoming's constitution included women's suffrage
Women's suffrage
Women's suffrage or woman suffrage is the right of women to vote and to run for office. The expression is also used for the economic and political reform movement aimed at extending these rights to women and without any restrictions or qualifications such as property ownership, payment of tax, or...

 and a pioneering article on water right
Water right
Water right in water law refers to the right of a user to use water from a water source, e.g., a river, stream, pond or source of groundwater. In areas with plentiful water and few users, such systems are generally not complicated or contentious...

s. The United States admitted Wyoming into the Union as the 44th state on July 10, 1890.

Wyoming was the location of the Johnson County War
Johnson County War
The Johnson County War, also known as the War on Powder River, was a range war which took place in April 1892 in Johnson County, Natrona County and Converse County in the U.S. state of Wyoming...

 of 1892, on which the controversial 1980 film Heaven's Gate was based, which erupted between competing groups of cattle
Cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

 ranchers. The passage of the federal Homestead Act
Homestead Act
A homestead act is one of three United States federal laws that gave an applicant freehold title to an area called a "homestead" – typically 160 acres of undeveloped federal land west of the Mississippi River....

 led to an influx of small ranchers. A range war
Range war
A range war is a type of conflict that occurs in agrarian or stockrearing societies. Typically fought over water rights or grazing rights to unfenced/unowned land, it could pit competing farmers or ranchers against each other...

 broke out when either or both of the groups chose violent conflict over commercial competition in the use of the public land.

See: List of counties in Wyoming

Demographics




Population


The center of population
Center of population
In demographics, the center of population of a region is a geographical point that describes a centerpoint of the region's population...

 of Wyoming is located in Natrona County.

As of 2005, Wyoming had an estimated population of 509,293, which was an increase of 3,407, or 0.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 15,512, or 3.1%, since the 2000 census. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 12,165 people (that is 33,704 births minus 21,539 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 4,035 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 2,264 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 1,771 people. In 2004, the foreign-born population was 11,000 (2.2%). In 2005, total births in Wyoming numbered 7,231 (Birth Rate of 14.04).
Sparsely populated, Wyoming is the least populous (total number of people) state of the United States, and has the second lowest population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

, behind Alaska
Alaska
Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area. It is situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent, with Canada to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, with Russia further west across the Bering Strait...

. It is the only state with a lower population than the nation's capital, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

.

The largest ancestry groups in Wyoming are: German (26.0%), English
English American
English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

 (16.0%), Irish
Irish American
Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

 (13.3%), American (6.5%), Norwegian (4.3%), and Swedish (3.5%).

Religion


The religious affiliations of the people of Wyoming are shown in the table below:
  • Christian
    Christianity
    Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

     – 79%
    • Protestant
      Protestantism
      Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

       – 53%
      • Lutheran
        Lutheranism
        Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation...

         – 8%
      • Baptist
        Baptist
        Baptists comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers , and that it must be done by immersion...

         – 8%
      • Methodist
        Methodism
        Methodism is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to John Wesley's evangelistic revival movement within Anglicanism. His younger brother...

         – 6%
      • Presbyterian
        Presbyterianism
        Presbyterianism refers to a number of Christian churches adhering to the Calvinist theological tradition within Protestantism, which are organized according to a characteristic Presbyterian polity. Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures,...

         – 4%
      • Episcopal – 4%
      • Other Protestant or general Protestant – 21%
    • Catholic – 16%
    • LDS (Mormon
      Mormon
      The term Mormon most commonly denotes an adherent, practitioner, follower, or constituent of Mormonism, which is the largest branch of the Latter Day Saint movement in restorationist Christianity...

      ) – 11%*
  • Other Religions – 1%

  • Non-Religious – 18%


The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Catholic Church with 80,421; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints recorded 47,129; and the Wyoming Southern Baptist Convention
Wyoming Southern Baptist Convention
The Wyoming Southern Baptist Convention is a group of churches affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention located in the U.S. state of Wyoming...

 counted 17,101.

Economy



According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming’s gross state product
Gross state product
Gross state product is a measurement of the economic output of a state or province...

 was $27.4 billion.

As of January 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 7.6%.
Components of Wyoming's economy differ significantly from those of other states.

The mineral extraction industry and travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyoming’s economy. The Federal government owns about 50% of its landmass, while 6% is controlled by the state. Total taxable values of mining production in Wyoming for 2001 was over $6.7 billion. The tourism industry
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 accounts for over $2 billion in revenue for the state.

In 2002, more than six million people visited Wyoming’s national park
National park
A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or...

s and monuments. The key tourist attractions in Wyoming include Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, U.S. The Park consists of approximately and includes the major peaks of the long Teton Range as well as most of the northern sections of the valley known as Jackson Hole. Only south of Yellowstone...

, Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park, established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872, is a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho...

, Devils Tower National Monument
Devils Tower National Monument
Devils Tower is an igneous intrusion or laccolith located in the Black Hills near Hulett and Sundance in Crook County, northeastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River...

, Independence Rock (Wyoming)
Independence Rock (Wyoming)
Independence Rock is a large granite rock, approximately high, in southwestern Natrona County in the U.S. state of Wyoming, along Wyoming Highway 220. During the middle of the 19th century, the rock was a prominent and well-known landmark on the Oregon, Mormon and California emigrant trails. It...

 and Fossil Butte National Monument
Fossil Butte National Monument
Fossil Butte National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service located 15 miles west of Kemmerer, Wyoming; the national monument was established on October 23, 1972. The site preserves the best paleontological record of Tertiary aquatic communities in North America and possibly the world,...

. Each year Yellowstone National Park, the world's first national park, receives three million visitors.

Historically, agriculture has been an important component of Wyoming’s economy. Its overall importance to the performance of Wyoming’s economy has waned. However, agriculture is still an essential part of Wyoming’s culture and lifestyle. The main agricultural commodities produced in Wyoming include livestock (beef), hay
Hay
Hay is grass, legumes or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing livestock such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. Hay is also fed to pets such as rabbits and guinea pigs...

, sugar beets, grain
GRAIN
GRAIN is a small international non-profit organisation that works to support small farmers and social movements in their struggles for community-controlled and biodiversity-based food systems. Our support takes the form of independent research and analysis, networking at local, regional and...

 (wheat and barley), and wool
Wool
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, vicuña, alpaca, camel from animals in the camel family, and angora from rabbits....

. More than 91% of land in Wyoming is classified as rural
Rural
Rural areas or the country or countryside are areas that are not urbanized, though when large areas are described, country towns and smaller cities will be included. They have a low population density, and typically much of the land is devoted to agriculture...

.

Mineral production



Wyoming’s mineral commodities include coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

, natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

, coalbed methane
Coalbed methane
Coalbed methane or Coal Bed Methane, coalbed gas or coal mine methane is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. In recent decades it has become an important source of energy in United States, Canada, and other countries...

, crude oil, uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

, and trona
Trona
Trona ; Na3•2H2O is an evaporite mineral. It is mined as the primary source of sodium carbonate in the United States, where it has replaced the Solvay process used in most of the rest of the world for sodium carbonate production.- Etymology :The word "trona" comes to English by way of either...

.
  • Coal: Wyoming produced 395.5 million short tons (358.8 million metric tons) of coal in 2004. The state is the number one producer of coal in the U.S. Wyoming possesses a reserve of 68.7 billion tons (62.3 billion metric tons) of coal. Major coal areas include the Powder River Basin
    Powder River Basin
    The Powder River Basin is a geologic region in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, about east to west and north to south, known for its coal deposits. The region supplies about 40 percent of coal in the United States. It is both a topographic drainage and geologic structural basin...

     and the Green River Basin
  • Natural gas: Wyoming produced 2,254 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in 2007. The state ranked 2nd nationwide for natural gas production in 2007. The major markets for natural gas include industrial, commercial, and domestic heating.

  • Coal Bed Methane (CBM): The boom for CBM began in the mid-1990s. CBM is characterized as methane gas that is extracted from Wyoming’s coal bed seams. It is another means of natural gas production. There has been substantial CBM production in the Powder River Basin
    Powder River Basin
    The Powder River Basin is a geologic region in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, about east to west and north to south, known for its coal deposits. The region supplies about 40 percent of coal in the United States. It is both a topographic drainage and geologic structural basin...

    . In 2002, the CBM production yield was 327.5 billion cubic feet (9.3 km³).
  • Crude oil: Wyoming produced 53400000 barrels (8,489,921,553 l) of crude oil in 2007. The state ranked 5th nationwide in oil production in 2007. Petroleum is most often used as a motor fuel, but it is also utilized in the manufacture of plastics, paints, and synthetic rubber.
  • Trona: Wyoming possesses the largest known reserve of trona
    Trona
    Trona ; Na3•2H2O is an evaporite mineral. It is mined as the primary source of sodium carbonate in the United States, where it has replaced the Solvay process used in most of the rest of the world for sodium carbonate production.- Etymology :The word "trona" comes to English by way of either...

     in the world Trona is used for manufacturing glass, paper, soaps, baking soda, water softeners, and pharmaceuticals. In 2008 Wyoming produced 46 million short tons (41.7 million metric tons) of trona, 25% of the world's production.
  • Diamonds: The Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine
    Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine
    Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine is a defunct diamond mine in Colorado, USA. It is located in the State Line Kimberlite District, near the Wyoming border, and consists of nine kimberlite volcanic pipes, of which two were open pit mined....

    , located in Colorado less than 1000 feet (304.8 m) from the Wyoming border, produced gem quality diamond
    Diamond
    In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions...

    s for several years. The Wyoming craton
    Wyoming craton
    The Wyoming craton is a craton located in the west-central United States and western Canada – more specifically, in Montana, Wyoming, southern Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, and parts of northern Utah...

    , which hosts the kimberlite
    Kimberlite
    Kimberlite is a type of potassic volcanic rock best known for sometimes containing diamonds. It is named after the town of Kimberley in South Africa, where the discovery of an diamond in 1871 spawned a diamond rush, eventually creating the Big Hole....

     volcanic pipe
    Volcanic pipe
    Volcanic pipes are subterranean geological structures formed by the violent, supersonic eruption of deep-origin volcanoes. They are considered to be a type of diatreme. Volcanic pipes are composed of a deep, narrow cone of solidified magma , and are usually largely composed of one of two...

    s that were mined, underlies most of Wyoming.
  • Uranium: Although uranium mining in Wyoming
    Uranium mining in Wyoming
    Uranium mining in Wyoming, a state of the United States was formerly a much larger industry than it is today. Wyoming once had many operating uranium mines, and still has the largest known uranium ore reserves of any state in the U.S. The Wyoming uranium mining industry was hard-hit in the 1980s...

     is much less active than it was in previous decades, recent increases in the price of uranium
    Uranium
    Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

     have generated new interest in uranium prospecting and mining.

Taxes


Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax
Income tax
An income tax is a tax levied on the income of individuals or businesses . Various income tax systems exist, with varying degrees of tax incidence. Income taxation can be progressive, proportional, or regressive. When the tax is levied on the income of companies, it is often called a corporate...

. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax
Sales tax
A sales tax is a tax, usually paid by the consumer at the point of purchase, itemized separately from the base price, for certain goods and services. The tax amount is usually calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale....

 of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 1% tax for specific purposes, if approved by voters. Food for human consumption is not subject to sales tax. There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The state collects a use tax
Use tax
A use tax is a type of excise tax levied in the United States. It is assessed upon otherwise "tax free" tangible personal property purchased by a resident of the assessing state for use, storage or consumption of goods in that state , regardless of where the purchase took place...

 of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming.
All property tax
Property tax
A property tax is an ad valorem levy on the value of property that the owner is required to pay. The tax is levied by the governing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located; it may be paid to a national government, a federated state or a municipality...

 is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 mill
Mill (currency)
The mill or mille is a now-abstract unit of currency used sometimes in accounting. In the United States, it is a notional unit equivalent to of a United States dollar...

s (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to 8 mill
Mill (currency)
The mill or mille is a now-abstract unit of currency used sometimes in accounting. In the United States, it is a notional unit equivalent to of a United States dollar...

s (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes.

Personal property
Personal property
Personal property, roughly speaking, is private property that is moveable, as opposed to real property or real estate. In the common law systems personal property may also be called chattels or personalty. In the civil law systems personal property is often called movable property or movables - any...

 held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped access. Minerals are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax and a severance tax
Severance tax
Severance taxes are incurred when non-renewable natural resources are separated from a taxing jurisdiction. Industries that typically incur such taxes are oil and gas, coal, mining, and timber industries....

 when produced. Underground mining equipment is tax exempt.

Wyoming does not collect inheritance tax
Inheritance tax
An inheritance tax or estate tax is a levy paid by a person who inherits money or property or a tax on the estate of a person who has died...

es. Because of the phase-out of the federal estate tax credit, Wyoming's estate tax is not imposed on estates of persons who died in 2005. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.

In 2008, the Tax Foundation
Tax Foundation
The Tax Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank founded in 1937 that collects data and publishes research studies on tax policies at the federal and state levels. The organization is broken into three primary areas of research which are the Center for Federal Fiscal Policy, The and the...

 ranked Wyoming as having the single most "business friendly" tax climate of all 50 states. Wyoming state and local governments in fiscal year 2007 collected $2.242 billion in taxes, levies, and royalties from the oil and gas industry. The state's mineral industry, including oil, gas, trona
Trona
Trona ; Na3•2H2O is an evaporite mineral. It is mined as the primary source of sodium carbonate in the United States, where it has replaced the Solvay process used in most of the rest of the world for sodium carbonate production.- Etymology :The word "trona" comes to English by way of either...

, and coal provided $1.3 billion in property taxes from 2006 mineral production.

Transportation



The largest airport in Wyoming is Jackson Hole Airport
Jackson Hole Airport
Jackson Hole Airport is a public airport located seven miles north of the central business district of Jackson, a town in Teton County, Wyoming, United States...

, with over 500 employees. Three interstate highways and thirteen U.S. highways pass through Wyoming. In addition, the state is served by the Wyoming state highway system
State highways in Wyoming
-External links:**...

.

Interstate 25 enters the state south of Cheyenne and runs north, intersecting Interstate 80 in Cheyenne. It passes through Casper
Casper, Wyoming
Casper is the county seat of Natrona County, Wyoming, United States.. Casper is the second-largest city in Wyoming , according to the 2010 census, with a population of 55,316...

 and ends at Interstate 90 near Buffalo
Buffalo, Wyoming
Buffalo is a city in Johnson County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 3,900 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Johnson County...

. Interstate 80 crosses the Utah border west of Evanston
Evanston, Wyoming
Evanston is a city in Uinta County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 12,359 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Uinta County.-Geography:Evanston is located at...

 and runs east through the southern half of the state, passing through Cheyenne before entering Nebraska near Pine Bluffs
Pine Bluffs, Wyoming
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 1,153 people, 482 households, and 332 families residing in the town. The population density was 357.4 people per square mile . There were 517 housing units at an average density of 160.3 per square mile...

. Interstate 90 comes into Wyoming near Parkman
Parkman, Wyoming
Parkman is a census-designated place in Sheridan County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 137 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Parkman is located at ....

 and cuts through the northern part of the state. It serves Gillette
Gillette, Wyoming
Gillette is a city in and the county seat of Campbell County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 29,087 in 2010. Gillette is a city centrally located in an area involved with the development of vast quantities of American coal, oil, and coal bed methane gas...

 and enters South Dakota east of Sundance
Sundance, Wyoming
Sundance is a town in Crook County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 1,161 at the 2000 census. The town is named for the Sun Dance ceremony practiced by several North American Indian Nations.-Sundance in popular culture:...

.

The U.S. highways
United States Numbered Highways
The system of United States Numbered Highways is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid...

 that pass through the state are U.S. Highways 14, 16, 18, 20, 26, 30, 85, 87, 89, 189, 191, 212, and 287.

See also: List of Wyoming railroads, List of airports in Wyoming, State highways in Wyoming
State highways in Wyoming
-External links:**...

.

Wyoming is one of only two States (the other being South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

) in the 48 contiguous states not serviced by Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

.

Wind River Indian Reservation



The Wind River Indian Reservation
Indian reservation
An American Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs...

 is shared by the Eastern Shoshone
Shoshone
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe in the United States with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern....

 and Northern Arapaho
Arapaho
The Arapaho are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the eastern plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne tribe and loosely aligned with the Sioux. Arapaho is an Algonquian language closely related to Gros Ventre, whose people are seen as an early...

 tribes of Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 in the central western portion of the state near Lander
Lander, Wyoming
Lander is a city in, and the county seat of, Fremont County, Wyoming, United States. Named for transcontinental explorer Frederick W. Lander, Lander is located in central Wyoming, along the Middle Fork of the Popo Agie River. A tourism center with several dude ranches nearby, Lander is located just...

. The reservation is home to 2,500 Eastern Shoshone and 5,000 Northern Arapaho.

Chief Washakie established the reservation in 1868 as the result of negotiations with the federal government in the Fort Bridger
Fort Bridger
Fort Bridger was originally a 19th century fur trading outpost established in 1842 on Blacks Fork of the Green River and later a vital resupply point for wagon trains on the Oregon Trail, California Trail and Mormon Trail. The Army established a military post here in 1858 during the Utah War until...

 Treaty. However, the Northern Arapaho were forced onto the Shoshone reservation in 1876 by the federal government after the government failed to provide a promised separate reservation.

Today the Wind River Indian Reservation is jointly owned, with each tribe having a 50% interest in the land, water, and other natural resources. The reservation is a sovereign, self-governed land with two independent governing bodies: the Eastern Shoshone Tribal Government and the Northern Arapaho Tribal Government. The Eastern Shoshone Business Council meets jointly with the Northern Arapaho Business Council as the Joint Business Council to decide matters that affect both tribes. Six elected council members from each tribe serve on the joint council.

State law and government


Wyoming's Constitution established three branches of government: the executive
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

, legislative
Wyoming Legislature
The Wyoming State Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. State of Wyoming. It is a bicameral state legislature, consisting of a 60 member Wyoming House of Representatives, and a 30 member Wyoming Senate. The legislature meets at the Wyoming State Capitol in Cheyenne...

, and judicial
Wyoming Supreme Court
The Wyoming Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The Court consists of a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices. Each Justice is appointed by the Governor of Wyoming for an eight-year term. The five Justices select the Chief Justice from amongst themselves. The person...

 branches.

The Wyoming state legislature comprises a House of Representatives
Wyoming House of Representatives
The Wyoming House of Representatives is the lower house of the Wyoming State Legislature. There are 60 Representatives in the House, representing an equal amount of single-member constituent districts across the state, each with a population of at least 9,000. The House convenes at the Wyoming...

 with 60 members and a Senate
Wyoming Senate
The Wyoming Senate is the upper house of the Wyoming State Legislature. There are 30 Senators in the Senate, representing an equal amount of constituencies across Wyoming, each with a population of at least 17,000. The Senate meets at the Wyoming State Capitol in Cheyenne.Members of the Senate...

 with 30 members.

The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Wyoming does not have a lieutenant governor. Instead the secretary of state stands first in the line of succession.

Wyoming's sparse population warrants it only a single at-large
At-Large
At-large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body , rather than a subset of that membership...

 seat in the U.S. House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

, and hence only three votes in the Electoral College. Its low population renders Wyoming voters effectively more powerful in presidential elections than those in more populous states. For example, while Montana had a 2000 census population of 902,195 to Wyoming's 493,782, they both have the same number of electoral votes.

Wyoming is an alcoholic beverage control state
Alcoholic beverage control state
Alcoholic beverage control states, generally called control states, are those in the United States that have state monopoly over the wholesaling and/or retailing of some or all categories of alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits....

.

Judicial system


Wyoming's highest court is the Supreme Court of Wyoming, with five justices presiding over appeals from the state's lower courts. Wyoming is unusual in that it does not have an intermediate appellate court
Appellate court
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court or court of appeals or appeal court , is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal...

, like most states. This is largely attributable to the state's size and correspondingly lower caseload. Appeals from the state district courts go directly to the Wyoming Supreme Court. Wyoming also has state circuit courts (formerly county courts), of limited jurisdiction, which handle certain types of cases, such as civil claims with lower dollar amounts, misdemeanor criminal offenses, and felony
Felony
A felony is a serious crime in the common law countries. The term originates from English common law where felonies were originally crimes which involved the confiscation of a convicted person's land and goods; other crimes were called misdemeanors...

 arraignment
Arraignment
Arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal complaint in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant of the charges against him or her. In response to arraignment, the accused is expected to enter a plea...

s. Circuit court judges also commonly hear small claims cases as well. All state court judges in Wyoming are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and appointed by the Governor. They are then subject to a retention vote by the electorate.

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republicans
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

Democrats
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

2008
United States presidential election, 2008
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on November 4, 2008. Democrat Barack Obama, then the junior United States Senator from Illinois, defeated Republican John McCain, the senior U.S. Senator from Arizona. Obama received 365...

64.78% 164,958 32.54% 82,868
2004
United States presidential election, 2004
The United States presidential election of 2004 was the United States' 55th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004. Republican Party candidate and incumbent President George W. Bush defeated Democratic Party candidate John Kerry, the then-junior U.S. Senator...

68.86% 167,629 29.07% 70,776
2000
United States presidential election, 2000
The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush , and Democratic candidate Al Gore, then-Vice President....

67.76% 147,947 27.70% 60,481
1996
United States presidential election, 1996
The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice President Al Gore of Tennessee and the Republican national ticket of former Senator Bob Dole of Kansas for President and former Housing Secretary Jack...

49.81% 105,388 36.84% 77,934
1992
United States presidential election, 1992
The United States presidential election of 1992 had three major candidates: Incumbent Republican President George Bush; Democratic Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, and independent Texas businessman Ross Perot....

39.70% 79,347 34.10% 68,160
1988
United States presidential election, 1988
The United States presidential election of 1988 featured no incumbent president, as President Ronald Reagan was unable to seek re-election after serving the maximum two terms allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment. Reagan's Vice President, George H. W. Bush, won the Republican nomination, while the...

60.53% 106,867 38.01% 67,113
1984
United States presidential election, 1984
The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate, and former Vice President Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate. Reagan was helped by a strong economic recovery from the deep recession of 1981–1982...

70.51% 133,241 28.24% 53,370
1980
United States presidential election, 1980
The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, as well as Republican Congressman John B. Anderson, who ran as an independent...

62.64% 110,700 27.97% 49,427
1976
United States presidential election, 1976
The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. It pitted incumbent President Gerald Ford, the Republican candidate, against the relatively unknown former governor of Georgia, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic...

59.30% 92,717 39.81% 62,239
1972
United States presidential election, 1972
The United States presidential election of 1972 was the 47th quadrennial United States presidential election. It was held on November 7, 1972. The Democratic Party's nomination was eventually won by Senator George McGovern, who ran an anti-war campaign against incumbent Republican President Richard...

69.01% 100,464 30.47% 44,358
1968
United States presidential election, 1968
The United States presidential election of 1968 was the 46th quadrennial United States presidential election. Coming four years after Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson won in a historic landslide, it saw Johnson forced out of the race and Republican Richard Nixon elected...

55.76% 70,927 35.51% 45,173
1964
United States presidential election, 1964
The United States presidential election of 1964 was held on November 3, 1964. Incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson had come to office less than a year earlier following the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. Johnson, who had successfully associated himself with Kennedy's...

43.44% 61,998 56.56% 80,718
1960
United States presidential election, 1960
The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th American presidential election, held on November 8, 1960, for the term beginning January 20, 1961, and ending January 20, 1965. The incumbent president, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, was not eligible to run again. The Republican Party...

55.01% 77,451 44.99% 63,331


Wyoming's political history defies easy classification. The state was the first to grant women the right to vote and to elect a woman governor. While the state elected notable Democrats to federal office in the 60's and 70's, politics have become decidedly more conservative since the 1980s as the Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 party came to dominate the state's congressional delegation. Today, Wyoming is represented in Washington by its two Senators, Mike Enzi
Mike Enzi
Michael Bradley "Mike" Enzi is the senior U.S. Senator from Wyoming and a member of the Republican Party.Raised in Thermopolis, Wyoming, Enzi attended George Washington University and the University of Denver. He expanded his father's shoe store business in Gillette before being elected mayor of...

 and John Barrasso
John Barrasso
John Anthony Barrasso is the junior U.S. Senator from Wyoming and a member of the Republican Party. He was appointed to the Senate following Craig L. Thomas's death and won a special election in 2008 to fill the remaining four years of Thomas's term....

, and its one member of the House of Representatives, Congresswoman Cynthia Lummis
Cynthia Lummis
Cynthia Marie Lummis Wiederspahn is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2009. She is a member of the Republican Party. She previously served as a state representative , state senator , and state treasurer .-Early life:Lummis was born on September 10, 1954 in Cheyenne...

. All three are Republicans. The state has not voted for a Democrat
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 for president since 1964, one of only five times since statehood. At present, there are only two relatively reliably Democratic counties: affluent Teton
Teton County, Wyoming
Teton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wyoming. As of 2010, the population was 21,294. Its county seat is Jackson. Teton County contains the affluent Jackson Hole skiing area...

 and college county Albany. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

 won his second-largest victory, with 69% of the vote. Former Vice President
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United States Constitution. The Vice President, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by the people, through the Electoral College, to a four-year term...

 Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney served as the 46th Vice President of the United States , under George W. Bush....

 is a Wyoming resident and represented the state in Congress from 1979 to 1989.

Republicans are no less dominant at the state level. They have held a majority in the state senate continuously since 1936 and in the state house since 1964. However, Democrats have held the governorship for all but eight years since 1975. Uniquely, Wyoming elected Democrat Nellie Tayloe Ross
Nellie Tayloe Ross
Nellie Tayloe Ross was an American politician, the 14th Governor of Wyoming from 1925 to 1927, and director of the United States Mint from 1933-1953. She was the first woman to serve as governor of a U.S. state. To date, she remains the only woman to have served as governor of Wyoming...

 as the first woman in U.S. history to serve as state governor. She served from 1925 to 1927 after winning a special election after her husband, governor at the time, unexpectedly died.

Counties



The State of Wyoming has 23 counties
County (United States)
In the United States, a county is a geographic subdivision of a state , usually assigned some governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 of the 50 states; Louisiana is divided into parishes and Alaska into boroughs. Parishes and boroughs are called "county-equivalents" by the U.S...

.
Wyoming Counties Ranked By 2009 Population
Rank County Population Rank County Population
1 Laramie County
Laramie County, Wyoming
Laramie County is the most populous of the 23 counties of the U.S. state of Wyoming. The county is located in the southeastern corner of the state. The county's population was 91,738 at the 2010 census. The county seat is Cheyenne, the state capital...

91,738 13 Converse County 13,578
2 Natrona County 74,508 14 Goshen County 12,319
3 Campbell County 43,967 15 Big Horn County 11,581
4 Sweetwater County 41,226 16 Sublette County 8,792
5 Fremont County 38,719 17 Johnson County 8,531
6 Albany County 33,979 18 Platte County 8,196
7 Sheridan County 29,163 19 Washakie County 7,911
8 Park County 27,976 20 Weston County 7,009
9 Uinta County
Uinta County, Wyoming
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 19,742 people, 6,823 households, and 5,144 families residing in the county. The population density was 10 people per square mile . There were 8,011 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile...

20,927 21 Crook County 6,653
10 Teton County
Teton County, Wyoming
Teton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wyoming. As of 2010, the population was 21,294. Its county seat is Jackson. Teton County contains the affluent Jackson Hole skiing area...

20,710 22 Hot Springs County 4,590
11 Lincoln County 16,995 23 Niobrara County 2,366
12 Carbon County
Carbon County, Wyoming
Carbon County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wyoming. As of 2010, the population was 15,885. Its county seat is Rawlins.- History :Carbon County was organized in 1868....

15,720 Wyoming Total 544,270


In 2005, 52.4% of Wyoming residents lived in one of the five most populous Wyoming counties.

Wyoming license plates contain a number on the left that indicates the county where the vehicle is registered. The county license plate numbers are as follows:
Number on
License Plate
County Number on
License Plate
County Number on
License Plate
County
1 Natrona 9 Big Horn 17 Campbell
2 Laramie 10 Fremont 18 Crook
3 Sheridan 11 Park 19 Uinta
4 Sweetwater 12 Lincoln 20 Washakie
5 Albany 13 Converse 21 Weston
6 Carbon 14 Niobrara 22 Teton
7 Goshen 15 Hot Springs 23 Sublette
8 Platte 16 Johnson    

Cities and towns



The State of Wyoming has 98 incorporated municipalities
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

.
The 20 Most Populous Wyoming Cities and Towns
Rank City County Population
1 City of Cheyenne
Cheyenne, Wyoming
Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population is 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the...

Laramie County
Laramie County, Wyoming
Laramie County is the most populous of the 23 counties of the U.S. state of Wyoming. The county is located in the southeastern corner of the state. The county's population was 91,738 at the 2010 census. The county seat is Cheyenne, the state capital...

59,466
2 City of Casper
Casper, Wyoming
Casper is the county seat of Natrona County, Wyoming, United States.. Casper is the second-largest city in Wyoming , according to the 2010 census, with a population of 55,316...

Natrona County 55,316
3 City of Laramie
Laramie, Wyoming
Laramie is a city in and the county seat of Albany County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 30,816 at the . Located on the Laramie River in southeastern Wyoming, the city is west of Cheyenne, at the junction of Interstate 80 and U.S. Route 287....

Albany County 30,816
4 City of Gillette
Gillette, Wyoming
Gillette is a city in and the county seat of Campbell County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 29,087 in 2010. Gillette is a city centrally located in an area involved with the development of vast quantities of American coal, oil, and coal bed methane gas...

Campbell County 29,087
5 City of Rock Springs
Rock Springs, Wyoming
Rock Springs is a city in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 18,708 at the 2000 census. Rock Springs is the principal city of the Rock Springs micropolitan statistical area, which has a population of 37,975....

Sweetwater County 20,905
6 City of Sheridan
Sheridan, Wyoming
Sheridan is a city in Sheridan County, Wyoming, United States. The 2010 census put the population at 17,444 and a Micropolitan Statistical Area of 29,116...

Sheridan County 17,461
7 City of Green River
Green River, Wyoming
Green River is a city in and the county seat of Sweetwater County, Wyoming, United States, in the southwestern part of the state. The population was 11,808 at the 2000 census....

Sweetwater County 12,149
8 City of Evanston
Evanston, Wyoming
Evanston is a city in Uinta County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 12,359 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Uinta County.-Geography:Evanston is located at...

Uinta County
Uinta County, Wyoming
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 19,742 people, 6,823 households, and 5,144 families residing in the county. The population density was 10 people per square mile . There were 8,011 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile...

11,781
9 City of Riverton
Riverton, Wyoming
Riverton is a city in Fremont County, Wyoming, United States. It is both the largest city in the county and the largest within the historical boundaries of the Wind River Indian Reservation. The city's population was 9,310 at the 2000 census...

Fremont County 10,032
10 Town of Jackson
Jackson, Wyoming
Jackson is a town located in the Jackson Hole valley of Teton County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 8,647 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Teton County....

Teton County
Teton County, Wyoming
Teton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wyoming. As of 2010, the population was 21,294. Its county seat is Jackson. Teton County contains the affluent Jackson Hole skiing area...

9,806
11 City of Cody
Cody, Wyoming
Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming, United States. It is named after William Frederick Cody, primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William Cody's part in the creation of the original town. The population was 9,520 at the 2010 census...

Park County 9,309
12 City of Rawlins
Rawlins, Wyoming
Rawlins is a city in Carbon County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 8,538 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Carbon County...

Carbon County
Carbon County, Wyoming
Carbon County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wyoming. As of 2010, the population was 15,885. Its county seat is Rawlins.- History :Carbon County was organized in 1868....

8,740
13 City of Lander
Lander, Wyoming
Lander is a city in, and the county seat of, Fremont County, Wyoming, United States. Named for transcontinental explorer Frederick W. Lander, Lander is located in central Wyoming, along the Middle Fork of the Popo Agie River. A tourism center with several dude ranches nearby, Lander is located just...

Fremont County 7,264
14 City of Douglas
Douglas, Wyoming
Douglas is a city in Converse County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 5,288 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Converse County...

Converse County 5,971
15 City of Powell
Powell, Wyoming
Powell is a city in Park County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 5,373 at the 2000 census. Powell is an All-America City and home to Northwest College.-Geography:Powell is located at ....

Park County 5,524
16 City of Torrington
Torrington, Wyoming
Torrington is a city in and the county seat of Goshen County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 5,776 at the 2000 census. Torrington is the home of Eastern Wyoming College....

Goshen County 5,514
17 City of Worland
Worland, Wyoming
Worland is a city in Washakie County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 5,250 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Washakie County. The City of Worland is served by the Worland Municipal Airport.-Geography:...

Washakie County 4,958
18 City of Buffalo
Buffalo, Wyoming
Buffalo is a city in Johnson County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 3,900 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Johnson County...

Johnson County 4,832
19 Town of Newcastle
Newcastle, Wyoming
Newcastle is a city in and the county seat of Weston County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 3,065 at the 2000 census.- Geography :Newcastle is located at...

Weston County 3,390
20 Town of Wheatland
Wheatland, Wyoming
Wheatland is a town in and the county seat of Platte County in southeastern Wyoming, United States. The population was 3,548 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Wheatland is located at ....

Platte County 3,298


In 2005, 50.6% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 13 most populous Wyoming municipalities.

Metropolitan areas


The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

 has defined two Metropolitan Statistical Areas
United States metropolitan area
In the United States a metropolitan statistical area is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are not legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like...

 and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas
United States micropolitan area
United States Micropolitan Statistical Areas , as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, are urban areas in the United States based around a core city or town with a population of 10,000 to 49,999. The micropolitan area designation was created in 2003...

 for the State of Wyoming.
U.S. Census Bureau Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of Wyoming
Census Area County Population
Cheyenne, WY, Metropolitan Statistical Area Laramie County, Wyoming
Laramie County, Wyoming
Laramie County is the most populous of the 23 counties of the U.S. state of Wyoming. The county is located in the southeastern corner of the state. The county's population was 91,738 at the 2010 census. The county seat is Cheyenne, the state capital...

91,738
Casper, WY, Metropolitan Statistical Area Natrona County, Wyoming 75,450
Gillette, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Campbell County, Wyoming 46,133
Rock Springs, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Sweetwater County, Wyoming 43,806
Riverton, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Fremont County, Wyoming 40,123
Laramie, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Albany County, Wyoming 36,299
Jackson, WY-ID, Micropolitan Statistical Area Teton County, Wyoming
Teton County, Wyoming
Teton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wyoming. As of 2010, the population was 21,294. Its county seat is Jackson. Teton County contains the affluent Jackson Hole skiing area...

21,294
Teton County, Idaho
Teton County, Idaho
Teton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. Established in 1915, it was named after the Teton Mountains. As of the 2000 Census the county had a population of 5,999...

8,833
Total 30,127
Sheridan, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Sheridan County, Wyoming 29,116
Evanston, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Uinta County, Wyoming
Uinta County, Wyoming
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 19,742 people, 6,823 households, and 5,144 families residing in the county. The population density was 10 people per square mile . There were 8,011 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile...

21,118


In 2008, 30.4% of Wyomingites lived in either of the Metropolitan Statistical Areas
United States metropolitan area
In the United States a metropolitan statistical area is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are not legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like...

, and 73% lived in either a Metropolitan Statistical Area
United States metropolitan area
In the United States a metropolitan statistical area is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are not legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like...

 or a Micropolitan Statistical Area
United States micropolitan area
United States Micropolitan Statistical Areas , as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, are urban areas in the United States based around a core city or town with a population of 10,000 to 49,999. The micropolitan area designation was created in 2003...

.

Education


Public education
Public education
State schools, also known in the United States and Canada as public schools,In much of the Commonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom, the terms 'public education', 'public school' and 'independent school' are used for private schools, that is, schools...

 is directed by the state superintendent of public instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and text book selections; these are the prerogatives of local school boards. The Wyoming School for the Deaf
Wyoming School for the Deaf
The Wyoming School for the Deaf was a school for deaf elementary students located Casper, Wyoming in the United States. The school was open from 1961 until it was closed due to lack of students in 2000. The school was created to accommodate the concerns of parents who did not want to send their...

 was the only in-state school dedicated to supporting deaf students in Wyoming, but it closed in summer of 2000.

Higher education



Wyoming has one public four-year institution, the University of Wyoming
University of Wyoming
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university...

 in Laramie
Laramie, Wyoming
Laramie is a city in and the county seat of Albany County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 30,816 at the . Located on the Laramie River in southeastern Wyoming, the city is west of Cheyenne, at the junction of Interstate 80 and U.S. Route 287....

. In addition, there are seven two-year community college
Community college
A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries.-Australia:Community colleges carry on the tradition of adult education, which was established in Australia around mid 19th century when evening classes were held to help adults...

s spread through the state.

Before the passing of a new law in 2006, Wyoming had hosted unaccredited institutions, many of them suspected diploma mill
Diploma mill
A diploma mill is an organization that awards academic degrees and diplomas with substandard or no academic study and without recognition by official educational accrediting bodies. The purchaser can then claim to hold an academic degree, and the organization is motivated by making a profit...

s. The 2006 law is forcing unaccredited institutions to make one of three choices: move out of Wyoming, close down, or apply for accreditation. The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization
Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization
The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization is a unit of the Oregon Student Assistance Commission with responsibilities related to maintaining high standards in private higher education institutions in Oregon...

 predicts that in a few years the problem of diploma mills in Wyoming might be resolved.

Sports

  • Wyoming Cavalry
    Wyoming Cavalry
    The Wyoming Cavalry are a professional indoor football team of the Indoor Football League. They play their home games in Casper, Wyoming at Casper Events Center....

    , American Indoor Football Association
  • University of Wyoming
    University of Wyoming
    The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet , between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university...

    , football, basketball, Swimming, diving, soccer, golf, wrestling, tennis, volleyball, track and field

Miscellaneous information


  • USS Wyoming
    USS Wyoming
    One ship of the United States Navy has been named USS Wyoming in honor of the Wyoming Valley in eastern Pennsylvania that runs along the Susquehanna River...

     was named in honor of this state.

Wyoming was chosen as the official state for the Free State Wyoming
Free State Wyoming
Free State Wyoming is a political migration project whose goal is to bring people of "demonstrably ethical character" to the state of Wyoming in the western United States to encourage "political liberty, free trade and voluntary cooperation."...

 project; a splinter of the Free State Project
Free State Project
The Free State Project is a political movement, founded in 2001, to recruit at least 20,000 libertarian-leaning people to move to New Hampshire in order to make the state a stronghold for libertarian ideas....

. The purpose of the project is to relocate Libertarians to a single state, making it possible to live a "free life".

In 2008, The first American State Litter Scorecard rated Wyoming a nationally "Best" state for statewide litter/debris eradication from public properties/spaces.

Rooster Teeth's web series Red Vs Blue created a freelancer character bearing the state name.

State symbols



  • State bird: Western Meadowlark
    Western Meadowlark
    Not to be confused with Eastern MeadowlarkThe Western Meadowlark is a medium-sized icterid bird, about 8.5 in long. It nests on the ground in open country in western and central North America. It feeds mostly on insects, but also seeds and berries...

     (Sturnella neglecta)
  • State coin: Sacagawea dollar
    Sacagawea dollar
    The Sacagawea dollar is a United States dollar coin that has been minted every year since 2000. These coins have a copper core clad by manganese brass, giving them a distinctive golden color. The coin features an obverse by Glenna Goodacre. The reverse design has varied, from 2000 to 2008...

  • State dinosaur: Triceratops
    Triceratops
    Triceratops is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur which lived during the late Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, around 68 to 65 million years ago in what is now North America. It was one of the last dinosaur genera to appear before the great Cretaceous–Paleogene...

  • State emblem: Bucking Horse and Rider
    Bucking Horse and Rider
    The Bucking Horse and Rider is a registered trademark of the State of Wyoming. Wyoming trademarked the image for the state's license plates in 1936. However, the state's usage of the logo is traced back to as early as 1918. Wyoming is popularly known as the "Cowboy State," in part because of the...

  • State fish: Cutthroat Trout
    Cutthroat trout
    The cutthroat trout is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. It is one of the many fish species colloquially known as trout...

     (Oncorhynchus clarki)
  • State flag
    Flags of the U.S. states
    The flags of the U.S. states exhibit a wide variety of regional influences and local histories, as well as widely different styles and design principles. Modern state flags date from the 1890s when states wanted to have distinctive symbols at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago...

    : Flag of the State of Wyoming
  • State flower: Wyoming Indian paintbrush (Castilleja linariifolia
    Castilleja linariifolia
    Castilleja linariifolia is a perennial plant, native to the United States and is the state flower of Wyoming. It has a number of common names including Wyoming Indian paintbrush, Narrow-leaved Indian paintbrush, desert paintbrush, Wyoming desert paintbrush, Wyoming paintbrush, linaria-leaved Indian...

    )
  • State fossil
    State fossil
    Most American states have made a state fossil designation, in many cases during the 1980s. It is common to designate one species in which fossilization has occurred, rather than a single specimen, or a category of fossils not limited to a single species....

    : Knightia
    Knightia
    Knightia is an extinct genus of bony fish which lived in the fresh water lakes and rivers of North America during the Eocene epoch. It was named by David Starr Jordan in 1907, in honor of the late University of Wyoming professor Wilbur Clinton Knight, "an indefatigable student of the paleontology...

  • State gemstone: Wyoming nephrite jade
    Nephrite
    Nephrite is a variety of the calcium and magnesium-rich amphibole mineral actinolite . The chemical formula for nephrite is Ca25Si8O222. It is one of two different mineral species called jade. The other mineral species known as jade is jadeite, which is a variety of pyroxene...

  • State grass: Western Wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii)
  • State mammal: American Bison
    American Bison
    The American bison , also commonly known as the American buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds...

     (Bison bison)
  • State motto: Equal Rights
  • State nicknames: Equality State; Cowboy State; Big Wonderful Wyoming
  • State reptile: Horned lizard
    Horned lizard
    Horned lizards are a genus of lizards which are the type genus of the family Phrynosomatidae. The horned lizard is popularly called a "horned toad", "horny toad", or "horned frog", but it is neither a toad nor a frog. The popular names come from the lizard's rounded body and blunt snout, which...

     (Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre)
  • State seal
    Seals of the U.S. states
    The following gallery displays the official seals of the 50 states, federal district, and territories of the United States of America:-See also:* Coat of Arms of the U.S. States* Seals of Governors of the U.S. States* Flags of the U.S. states...

    : Great Seal of the State of Wyoming
  • State soil: Forkwood (unofficial)
  • State song: Wyoming (song)
    Wyoming (song)
    Wyoming is the state song of Wyoming, written by C.E. Winter, becoming the state song in 1955.I: In the far and mighty West, Where the crimson sun seeks rest, There's a growing splendid State that lies above, On the breast of this great land;...

     by Charles E. Winter & George E. Knapp
  • State sport: Rodeo
    Rodeo
    Rodeo is a competitive sport which arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later the United States, Canada, South America and Australia. It was based on the skills required of the working vaqueros and later, cowboys, in what today is the western United States,...

  • State tree: Plains Cottonwood (Populus sargentii)

Notable Wyomingites


  • John Perry Barlow
    John Perry Barlow
    John Perry Barlow is an American poet and essayist, a retired Wyoming cattle rancher, and a cyberlibertarian political activist who has been associated with both the Democratic and Republican parties. He is also a former lyricist for the Grateful Dead and a founding member of the Electronic...

  • John Barrasso
    John Barrasso
    John Anthony Barrasso is the junior U.S. Senator from Wyoming and a member of the Republican Party. He was appointed to the Senate following Craig L. Thomas's death and won a special election in 2008 to fill the remaining four years of Thomas's term....

  • Eli Bebout
    Eli Bebout
    Eli Daniel Bebout is a veteran Wyoming politician and a member of the Wyoming State Senate. He represents District 26 from Riverton, the seat of Fremont County in the central portion of his state. A Republican, Bebout is a former member of the Wyoming House of Representatives, Speaker of the...

  • Charles Belden
    Charles Belden
    Charles Josiah Belden was a photographer and rancher who was famous for his visceral photographs of the area around Meetseetse, Wyoming....

  • Tom Bell
    Wyoming Outdoor Council
    The Wyoming Outdoor Council is Wyoming’s oldest, independent, membership-based conservation organization. Wyoming native Tom Bell founded the group in 1967, along with Carrol R. Noble, Margaret E. “Mardy” Murie, Dr. Harold McCracken, Ann Lindahl and others...

  • James Bridger
  • Cale Case
    Cale Case
    Cale Case is an economist, businessman, and politician from Lander in central Wyoming. Since 1998, Case has served in the Wyoming State Senate. From 1994 to 1998, he was a member of the Wyoming House of Representatives. He is considered a principal advocate in Wyoming of individual freedom and...

  • Dick Cheney
    Dick Cheney
    Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney served as the 46th Vice President of the United States , under George W. Bush....

  • Lynne Cheney
    Lynne Cheney
    Lynne Ann Cheney is the wife of former United States Vice President Dick Cheney and served as the Second Lady of the United States from 2001 to 2009...

  • William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody
    Buffalo Bill
    William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody was a United States soldier, bison hunter and showman. He was born in the Iowa Territory , in LeClaire but lived several years in Canada before his family moved to the Kansas Territory. Buffalo Bill received the Medal of Honor in 1872 for service to the US...

  • Barbara Cubin
    Barbara Cubin
    Barbara Lynn Cubin was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives, having served as the sole member of that body from Wyoming. In the 109th Congress, she was a member of the House Resources Committee and the House Energy and Commerce Committee...

  • Lance Deal
    Lance Deal
    Lance Earl Deal is a former American athlete who won a silver medal in the hammer throw in the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. He also competed in the 1988, 1992, and 2000 Summer Olympics....

  • Mike Enzi
    Mike Enzi
    Michael Bradley "Mike" Enzi is the senior U.S. Senator from Wyoming and a member of the Republican Party.Raised in Thermopolis, Wyoming, Enzi attended George Washington University and the University of Denver. He expanded his father's shoe store business in Gillette before being elected mayor of...

  • Matthew Fox
    Matthew Fox (actor)
    Matthew Chandler Fox is an American actor. He is mostly known for his role as Charlie Salinger on Party of Five, and for portraying Jack Shephard on the supernatural drama television series Lost.- Early life :...

  • Dave Freudenthal
    Dave Freudenthal
    David Duane "Dave" Freudenthal , is an American politician who served as the 31st Governor of Wyoming. A Democrat, he was reelected to his second term on November 7, 2006, and announced on March 4, 2010, that he would not attempt to seek a third term as Governor.-Education and early...

  • John Frullo
    John Frullo
    John Frullo is a businessman from Lubbock, Texas, who is a conservative Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from District 84, and a member of the Tea Party Caucus. Since 1993, Frullo has owned Midtown Printing Company in Lubbock...

  • Rulon Gardner
    Rulon Gardner
    Rulon Gardner is an American Olympian who competed in the 2000 Olympic games, winning the gold medal in Greco-Roman wrestling upon defeating Russian Aleksandr Karelin, who was previously undefeated in 13 years of international competition...

  • Jim Geringer
    Jim Geringer
    James Edward "Jim" Geringer was the 30th Governor of Wyoming.-Early life and education:Geringer was raised on a farm in Wheatland, Wyoming. He attended Kansas State University and was a member of Triangle Fraternity, earning a degree in mechanical engineering. He served for ten years in the...

  • Curt Gowdy
    Curt Gowdy
    Curtis Edward "Curt" Gowdy was an American sportscaster, well known as the longtime "voice" of the Boston Red Sox and for his coverage of many nationally-televised sporting events, primarily for NBC Sports in the 1960s and 1970s.-Early years:The son of a manager for the Union Pacific railroad,...

  • Clifford Hansen
    Clifford Hansen
    Clifford Peter Hansen was a Republican politician from the American state of Wyoming. He served as both the 26th Governor and U.S. senator...

  • William Henry Harrison
    William H. Harrison (Wyoming Congressman)
    William Henry Harrison was an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. representative from Wyoming.-Political career:...

  • Stanley K. Hathaway
    Stanley K. Hathaway
    Stanley Knapp Hathaway served as 27th Governor of Wyoming from 1967–1975, and as United States Secretary of the Interior under President Gerald R. Ford.- Early life and military service :Stanley K...

  • Harold Hellbaum
    Harold Hellbaum
    Harold Hellbaum was a prominent farmer, rancher, and businessman in Platte County near Wheatland north of Cheyenne who was a Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives from 1963-1977...

  • Edgar Herschler
    Edgar Herschler
    Edgar Jacob Herschler , popularly known as "Gov. Ed", was the 28th Governor of Wyoming from 1975 to 1987. Herschler built a personal appeal to voters based on charisma, a small-town background, and shrewd political maneuvering to such an extent that he was the only three-term governor in Wyoming...

  • Tom Horn
    Tom Horn
    Thomas "Tom" Horn, Jr. was an American Old West lawman, scout, soldier, hired gunman, detective, outlaw and assassin. On the day before his 43rd birthday, he was hanged in Cheyenne, Wyoming, for the murder of Willie Nickell.-Early life:Born to Thomas S. Horn, Sr...

  • Ray Hunkins
    Ray Hunkins
    Raymond Breedlove "Ray" Hunkins is an attorney, rancher, former law enforcement officer, United States Marine Corps veteran, and the Republican nominee for Governor of Wyoming in the general election held on November 7, 2006...

  • Craig Johnson
    Craig Johnson (author)
    Craig Allen Johnson is an American novelist and playwright. He has written seven novels. His Sheriff Walt Longmire novels include The Cold Dish, Death Without Company, Kindness Goes Unpunished, Another Man's Moccasins, Junkyard Dogs, and The Dark Horse, which received starred reviews from Kirkus,...

  • Ralph S. Johnson
    Ralph S. Johnson
    Ralph Samuel Johnson was a pioneer of American aviation who served a single term from 1951-1953 as a Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives. He represented Cheyenne, the seat of Laramie County, Wyoming, where he resided from 1935-1988...

  • Richard R. "Dick" Jones
    Dick Jones (Wyoming politician)
    Richard R. "Dick" Jones was a trucking executive from Cody and Powell in Park County, Wyoming, who served in his state's House of Representatives and Senate from 1955 to 1974. He was the unsuccessful Republican gubernatorial nominee in the nationally Democratic year of 1974. A conservative, Jones...

  • Mike Leach
  • Chris LeDoux
    Chris LeDoux
    Chris Ledoux was an American country music singer-songwriter, bronze sculptor and rodeo champion.During his career LeDoux recorded 36 albums which have sold more than six million units in the United States as of January 2007...

  • Cynthia Lummis
    Cynthia Lummis
    Cynthia Marie Lummis Wiederspahn is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2009. She is a member of the Republican Party. She previously served as a state representative , state senator , and state treasurer .-Early life:Lummis was born on September 10, 1954 in Cheyenne...

  • Randall Luthi
    Randall Luthi
    Randall B. Luthi is an attorney and rancher from Freedom, in northwestern Lincoln County in western Wyoming, who served as a Republican in the Wyoming House of Representatives from 1995—2007. He was the Speaker for his last two-year term, 2005—2007. Prior to 2005, he had been the House...

  • Nate Marquardt
  • Max Maxfield
    Max Maxfield
    Max Maxfield is the Republican Secretary of State of Wyoming.-Biography:A native of Janesville, Wisconsin, Maxfield graduated from Janesville High School in 1963...

  • Leonard McEwan
    Leonard McEwan
    Leonard A. McEwan was an American jurist who was a member of both the Wyoming Supreme Court, which meets in the capital city of Cheyenne, and the Fourth Judicial District Court, which convenes in Sheridan and serves Sheridan and Johnson counties...

  • Gale W. McGee
    Gale W. McGee
    Gale William McGee was a United States Senator of the Democratic Party, and United States Ambassador to the Organization of American States...

  • Ron Micheli
    Ron Micheli
    Joseph Ronald Micheli, known as Ron Micheli , is a former director of the Wyoming Department of Agriculture who also served from 1977-1992 in the Wyoming House of Representatives. He ran a strong third-place finish as a candidate for the Republican gubernatorial nomination in 2010. His primary...

  • Esther Hobart Morris
    Esther Hobart Morris
    Esther Hobart Morris , a Tioga County, New York native, distinguished herself as the first female Justice of the Peace in the United States. A mother of three boys, she began her tenure as justice in South Pass City, Wyoming, on February 14, 1870, and served a term of less than nine months...

  • Warren A. Morton
    Warren A. Morton
    Warren Allen Morton was a Casper oilman and engineer who served as Speaker of the Wyoming House of Representatives from 1979 to 1980, prior to mounting a Republican gubernatorial campaign in 1982. He served in the Wyoming House from Natrona County from January 1, 1967, to December 31, 1980...

  • John C. Ostlund
    John C. Ostlund
    John Chapman Ostlund was a diversified businessman from Gillette and Cheyenne, Wyoming, who served in the Wyoming State Senate from 1973 to 1978, when he resigned to seek the Republican gubernatorial nomination...

  • Gordon L. Park
    Gordon L. Park
    Gordon Lesley Park was a petroleum engineer and geologist for the Chevron Oil Company, who served from 1993-1996 as a Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives from District 49 in Uinta County....

  • Bryan Pedersen
    Bryan Pedersen
    Bryan K. Pedersen is a financial consultant with RBC Wealth Management in Cheyenne, Wyoming, who is a Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives...

  • Jackson Pollock
    Jackson Pollock
    Paul Jackson Pollock , known as Jackson Pollock, was an influential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. During his lifetime, Pollock enjoyed considerable fame and notoriety. He was regarded as a mostly reclusive artist. He had a volatile personality, and...

  • Annie Proulx
  • Charles E. Richardson
    Charles E. Richardson
    Charles E. Richardson was a publisher of the Rock Springs Daily Rocket-Miner in Rock Springs, Wyoming. He worked in his family newspaper business throughout his youth before attending the University of Wyoming at Laramie and entering the United States Army...

  • Nellie Tayloe Ross
    Nellie Tayloe Ross
    Nellie Tayloe Ross was an American politician, the 14th Governor of Wyoming from 1925 to 1927, and director of the United States Mint from 1933-1953. She was the first woman to serve as governor of a U.S. state. To date, she remains the only woman to have served as governor of Wyoming...

  • William B. Ross
    William B. Ross
    William Bradford Ross was the 12th Governor of Wyoming from 1923 to 1924. He was born in Dover, Tennessee to Ambrose B. Ross and Sue Ross....

  • George R. Salisbury, Jr.
    George R. Salisbury, Jr.
    George Ralph Salisbury, Jr. , was the patriarch of the Ladder Ranch, a cattle and sheep operation in Carbon County in southern Wyoming, and a Democratic member of the Wyoming House of Representatives from 1975 to 1986...

  • Robert Schliske
    Robert Schliske
    Robert Paul Edward Schliske, I , was a founder of Laramie County Community College in Cheyenne and a former Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives. He served in the House from 1971-1975 during the administration of Republican Governor Stanley K...

  • Joseph Selby
  • Bryan Sharratt
    Bryan Sharratt
    Bryan Edwards Sharratt was a United States Navy and Air Force officer, a lawyer, a Certified Public Accountant, a real estate broker, and a Democratic politician from Wyoming. After losing his Wyoming's at-large seat in the United States House of Representatives to Richard B...

  • Matthew Shepard
    Matthew Shepard
    Matthew Wayne Shepard was a student at the University of Wyoming who was tortured and murdered near Laramie, Wyoming, in October 1998...

  • Larry D. Shippy
    Larry D. Shippy
    Larry Deleo Shippy was a Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives, having served in Laramie County District 8, including part of Cheyenne, from 1993–1996. Shippy was known for his efforts to expand the privatizing of government services...

  • Alan K. Simpson
    Alan K. Simpson
    Alan Kooi Simpson is an American politician who served from 1979 to 1997 as a United States Senator from Wyoming as a member of the Republican Party. His father, Milward L. Simpson, was also a member of the U.S...

  • Colin M. Simpson
    Colin M. Simpson
    Colin Simpson is a Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives, representing the 24th district since 1999 and has been the Speaker of the House since 2008. He finished fourth in the race for the 2010 gubernatorial election...

  • Milward Simpson
  • Mike Sullivan
  • Craig Thomas
  • Richard V. Thomas
    Richard V. Thomas
    Richard Van Thomas was a member of the Wyoming Supreme Court, having served from December 1974 until his retirement in February 2001. From 1985–1986, he was chief justice of the Wyoming high court.-Background:...

  • Elton Trowbridge
    Elton Trowbridge
    Elton F. Trowbridge was a dairy farmer from Carbon County, Wyoming, who served as a Democrat in the Wyoming House of Representatives from 1961 until his death during his seventh consecutive two-year term....

  • Thomas E. Trowbridge
    Thomas E. Trowbridge
    Thomas E. Trowbridge, known as Tom Trowbridge , originally a dairy farmer from Carbon County, Wyoming, served as a Democrat in both houses of the Wyoming State Legislature from 1979 to 1986. He was a member of the Wyoming House of Representatives for two two-year terms, and he served a single...

  • Malcolm Wallop
    Malcolm Wallop
    Malcolm Wallop was a Republican politician and former three-term United States Senator from Wyoming.-Early years:...

  • Tom Walsh
  • Alvin Wiederspahn
    Alvin Wiederspahn
    Alvin Laramie Wiederspahn, usually known as Al Wiederspahn , is a prominent attorney in Cheyenne who served for ten years as a Democrat in the Wyoming House of Representatives and the Wyoming State Senate...

  • Larry Wilcox
    Larry Wilcox
    Larry Wilcox is an American actor, best known for his role as Officer Jonathan "Jon" Baker in CHiPs, an American television series.-Military service:...


See also



  • Rocky Mountains
    Rocky Mountains
    The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

  • U.S. state
    U.S. state
    A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

  • Yellowstone National Park
    Yellowstone National Park
    Yellowstone National Park, established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872, is a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho...



External links