Trichlorofluoromethane

Trichlorofluoromethane

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Encyclopedia
Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon
Chlorofluorocarbon
A chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons , which contain hydrogen, as well. They are also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon...

. It is a colorless, nearly odorless liquid that boils at about room temperature.

Uses


It was the first widely used refrigerant
Refrigerant
A refrigerant is a substance used in a heat cycle usually including, for enhanced efficiency, a reversible phase change from a liquid to a gas. Traditionally, fluorocarbons, especially chlorofluorocarbons, were used as refrigerants, but they are being phased out because of their ozone depletion...

. Because of its high boiling point (compared to most refrigerants), it can be used in systems with a low operating pressure, making the mechanical design of such systems less demanding than that of higher-pressure refrigerants R-12
Dichlorodifluoromethane
Dichlorodifluoromethane , is a colorless gas, and usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane , used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant. Complying with the Montreal Protocol, its manufacture was banned in the United States along with many other...

 or R-22
Chlorodifluoromethane
Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon . This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It was once commonly used as a propellant and in air conditioning applications...

.

Because of the high chlorine content and the ease with which the chlorine atoms can be displaced when the molecule is subject to ultraviolet light, R-11 has the highest ozone depletion potential
Ozone depletion potential
The ozone depletion potential of a chemical compound is the relative amount of degradation to the ozone layer it can cause, with trichlorofluoromethane being fixed at an ODP of 1.0. Chlorodifluoromethane , for example, has an ODP of 0.055...

 of any refrigerant, by definition assigned the value 1.0. U.S. production was ended in January 1, 1996.

Trichlorofluoromethane is used as a reference compound for fluorine-19 NMR
Fluorine-19 NMR
Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance is an analytical technique. 19F has a spin of 1/2, and a relative abundance of 100 % and a high magnetogyric ratio, making measurements very fast . Integrals are reliable due to the lack of a nuclear Overhauser effect...

 studies.

Years ago, prior to the knowledge of the ozone depletion potential of chlorine in refrigerants and other possible harmful effects on the environment, Trichlorofluoromethane was sometimes used as a cleaning/rinsing agent for low pressure systems, often dumping the used and "dirty" liquid (if cool enough) into waterways.

Table for physical properties

Property Value
Density
Density
The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ . In some cases , density is also defined as its weight per unit volume; although, this quantity is more properly called specific weight...

 (ρ) at 0 °C
1.5432 g.cm−3
Density
Density
The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ . In some cases , density is also defined as its weight per unit volume; although, this quantity is more properly called specific weight...

 (ρ) at 18.82 °C
1.4905 g.cm−3
Critical temperature (Tc) 198 °C (471 K)
Critical pressure (pc) 4.410 MPa (44.1 bar)
Critical density (ρc) 4.151 mol.l−1
Refractive index
Refractive index
In optics the refractive index or index of refraction of a substance or medium is a measure of the speed of light in that medium. It is expressed as a ratio of the speed of light in vacuum relative to that in the considered medium....

 (n) at 20 °C, D
1.3821
Acentric factor
Acentric factor
The acentric factor \omega is a conceptual number introduced by Pitzer in 1955, proven to be very useful in the description of matter. It has become a standard for the phase characterization of single & pure components...

 (ω)
0.18875
Dipole moment
Dipole moment
Dipole moment can be defined as the product of magnitude of charge & distance of separation between the charges.Dipole moment may refer to:*Electric dipole moment, the measure of the electrical polarity of a system of charges...

0.450 D
Ozone depletion potential
Ozone depletion potential
The ozone depletion potential of a chemical compound is the relative amount of degradation to the ozone layer it can cause, with trichlorofluoromethane being fixed at an ODP of 1.0. Chlorodifluoromethane , for example, has an ODP of 0.055...

 (ODP)
1 (by definition)
Global warming potential
Global warming potential
Global-warming potential is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. A GWP is calculated over a specific time...

 (GWP)
4600 (CO2
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

= 1)

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