Refrigerant

Refrigerant

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Encyclopedia
A refrigerant is a substance used in a heat cycle
Heat engine
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that performs the conversion of heat or thermal energy to mechanical work. It does this by bringing a working substance from a high temperature state to a lower temperature state. A heat "source" generates thermal energy that brings the working substance...

 usually including, for enhanced efficiency, a reversible phase change from a liquid
Liquid
Liquid is one of the three classical states of matter . Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Some liquids resist compression, while others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly...

 to a gas
Gas
Gas is one of the three classical states of matter . Near absolute zero, a substance exists as a solid. As heat is added to this substance it melts into a liquid at its melting point , boils into a gas at its boiling point, and if heated high enough would enter a plasma state in which the electrons...

. Traditionally, fluorocarbons
Organofluorine chemistry
Organofluorine chemistry describes the chemistry of organofluorine compounds, organic compounds that contain the carbon–fluorine bond. Organofluorine compounds find diverse applications ranging from oil- and water-repellents to pharmaceuticals, refrigerants and reagents in catalysis...

, especially chlorofluorocarbon
Chlorofluorocarbon
A chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons , which contain hydrogen, as well. They are also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon...

s, were used as refrigerants, but they are being phased out because of their ozone depletion
Ozone depletion
Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere , and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions. The latter phenomenon...

 effects. Other common refrigerants used in various applications are ammonia
Ammonia
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula . It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or...

, sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula . It is released by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide unless the sulfur compounds are removed before burning the fuel...

, and non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as methane
Methane
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . It is the simplest alkane, the principal component of natural gas, and probably the most abundant organic compound on earth. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel...

.

Physical properties


The ideal refrigerant has favorable thermodynamic properties, is unreactive chemically, and safe. The desired thermodynamic properties are a boiling point
Boiling point
The boiling point of an element or a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid....

 somewhat below the target temperature, a high heat of vaporization, a moderate density
Density
The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ . In some cases , density is also defined as its weight per unit volume; although, this quantity is more properly called specific weight...

 in liquid form, a relatively high density in gaseous form, and a high critical temperature
Critical point (thermodynamics)
In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions at which a phase boundary ceases to exist...

. Since boiling point and gas density are affected by pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

, refrigerants may be made more suitable for a particular application by choice of operating pressure. These properties are ideally met by the chlorofluorocarbons.

Corrosion properties are a matter of materials compatibility with the mechanical components: compressor
Gas compressor
A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas...

, piping
Piping
Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid....

, evaporator
Evaporator
An evaporator is a device used to turn the liquid form of some chemical into its gaseous form. For example, an evaporator is used in an air conditioning system to allow the compressed cooling chemical to evaporate from liquid to gas, absorbing heat in the process.-Uses:As stated above, an...

, and condenser
Condenser (heat transfer)
In systems involving heat transfer, a condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, typically by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance, and will transfer to the condenser coolant...

. Safety considerations include toxicity
Toxicity
Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage a living or non-living organisms. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell or an organ , such as the liver...

 and flammability.

History


Until concerns about depletion of the ozone layer
Ozone layer
The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone . This layer absorbs 97–99% of the Sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is potentially damaging to the life forms on Earth...

 arose in the 1980s, the most widely used refrigerants were the halomethane
Halomethane
Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms . Halomethanes are both naturally occurring, especially in marine environments, and man-made, most notably as refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and fumigants...

s R-12
Dichlorodifluoromethane
Dichlorodifluoromethane , is a colorless gas, and usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane , used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant. Complying with the Montreal Protocol, its manufacture was banned in the United States along with many other...

 and R-22
Chlorodifluoromethane
Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon . This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It was once commonly used as a propellant and in air conditioning applications...

, with R-12 being more common in automotive air conditioning and small refrigerators, and R-22 being used for residential and light commercial air conditioning, refrigerators, and freezers. Some very early systems used R-11
Trichlorofluoromethane
Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon. It is a colorless, nearly odorless liquid that boils at about room temperature.- Uses :It was the first widely used refrigerant...

 because its relatively high boiling point allows low-pressure systems to be constructed, reducing the mechanical strength required for components. New production of R-12 ceased in the United States in 1995, and R-22 is to be phased out by 2020. R-134a
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 , but with less ozone depletion potential...

 and certain blends are now replacing chlorinated compounds. One popular 50/50 blend of R-32 and R-125 now being increasingly substituted for R-22 is R-410A
R-410A
R-410A, sold under the trademarked names Puron, EcoFluor R410, Genetron R410A, and AZ-20, is a zeotropic, but near-azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane and pentafluoroethane , which is used as a refrigerant in air conditioning applications.-Environmental effects:Unlike many alkyl halide...

, often marketed under the trade name Puron. Another popular blend of R-32, R-125, and R-134a with a higher critical temperature, and lower GWP (Global Warming Potential
Global warming potential
Global-warming potential is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. A GWP is calculated over a specific time...

) than R-410A is R-407C. While the R-22 and other ozone depleting refrigerants are being phased out, they still have value and can be easily sold.

Following the ban on chlorofluorocarbon
Chlorofluorocarbon
A chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons , which contain hydrogen, as well. They are also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon...

s (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), substances used as substitute refrigerants such as fluorocarbon
Fluorocarbon
Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are organofluorine compounds that contain only carbon and fluorine bonded together in strong carbon–fluorine bonds. Fluoroalkanes that contain only single bonds are more chemically and thermally stable than alkanes...

s (FCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have also come under criticism. They are currently subject to prohibition discussions on account of their harmful effect on the climate. In 1997, FCs and HFCs were included in the Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change , aimed at fighting global warming...

 to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In 2006, the EU adopted a Regulation on fluorinated greenhouse gases, which makes stipulations regarding the use of FCs and HFCs with the intention of reducing their emissions. The provisions do not affect climate-neutral natural refrigerants.

Early mechanical refrigeration systems employed sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula . It is released by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide unless the sulfur compounds are removed before burning the fuel...

 gas or anhydrous ammonia, with small home refrigerators primarily using the former. Being toxic, sulfur dioxide rapidly disappeared from the market with the introduction of CFCs. Ammonia (R717) has been used in industrial refrigeration plants for more than 130 years and is deemed to be environment-friendly, economical, and energy-efficient. The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

 (R744) has a similarly long tradition in refrigeration technology.

Occasionally, one may encounter older machines which used other transitional refrigerants such as methyl formate
Methyl formate
Methyl formate, also called methyl methanoate, is the methyl ester of formic acid. The simplest example of an ester, it is a clear liquid with an ethereal odor, high vapor pressure, and low surface tension.-Production:...

, chloromethane
Chloromethane
Chloromethane, also called methyl chloride, R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes. It was once widely used as a refrigerant. It is a colorless extremely flammable gas with a minorly sweet odor, which is, however, detected at possibly toxic levels...

, or dichloromethane
Dichloromethane
Dichloromethane is an organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2. This colorless, volatile liquid with a moderately sweet aroma is widely used as a solvent. Although it is not miscible with water, it is miscible with many organic solvents...

 (called carrene in the trade). Perhaps the most common of these to still retain a charge are the methyl formate Monitor Top refrigerators produced by General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

.

Use of highly purified propane
Propane
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula , normally a gas, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, barbecues, portable stoves, and residential central...

 as a refrigerant is gaining favor, especially in systems designed for R-22. Although propane is non-toxic its mixture with air in certain proportions is explosive. An odorant, such as ethyl mercaptan
Ethanethiol
Ethanethiol is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2SH. It consists of an ethyl group, CH3CH2, attached to a thiol group, SH. Its structure parallels that of ethanol, but with S instead of O. The presence of S leads to many different properties, most notably the infamous odour of EtSH...

, can be added in trace amounts to alert persons of system leaks.

Uses


Natural refrigerants such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and non-halogenated hydrocarbons preserve the ozone layer and have no (ammonia) or only a low (carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons) global warming potential. They are used in air-conditioning systems for buildings, in sport and leisure facilities, in the chemical/pharmaceutical industry, in the automotive industry and above all in the food industry (production, storage, retailing). New applications are opening up for natural refrigerants for example in vehicle air-conditioning.

Emissions from automotive air-conditioning are a growing concern because of their impact on climate change. From 2011 on, the European Union will phase out refrigerants with a global warming potential
Global warming potential
Global-warming potential is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. A GWP is calculated over a specific time...

 (GWP) of more than 150 in automotive air conditioning (GWP = 100 year warming potential of one kilogram of a gas relative to one kilogram of CO2). This will ban potent greenhouse gases such as the refrigerant HFC-134a—which has a GWP of 1410—to promote safe and energy-efficient refrigerants. One of the most promising alternatives is the natural refrigerant CO2 (R-744). Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

 is non-flammable, non-ozone depleting, has a global warming potential of 1, but is toxic and potentially lethal in concentrations above 5% by volume. R-744 can be used as a working fluid in climate control systems for cars, residential air conditioning, hot water pumps, commercial refrigeration, and vending machines. R12 is compatible with mineral oil
Mineral oil
A mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of alkanes in the C15 to C40 range from a non-vegetable source, particularly a distillate of petroleum....

, while R134a is compatible with synthetic oil
Synthetic oil
Synthetic oil is a lubricant consisting of chemical compounds that are artificially made . Synthetic lubricants can be manufactured using chemically modified petroleum components rather than whole crude oil, but can also be synthesized from other raw materials...

. GM has announced that it will start using Hydrofluoro olefin, HFO-1234yf, in all of its brands by 2013. This new refrigerant has a GWP rating of 4 and is not a blend. Dimethyl ether
Dimethyl ether
Dimethyl ether , also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula . The simplest ether, it is a colourless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds and an aerosol propellant. When combusted, DME produces minimal soot and CO, though HC and NOx formation is...

 (DME) is also gaining popularity as a refrigerant.

Some refrigerants, such as tetrafluoroethane
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 , but with less ozone depletion potential...

, are seeing rising use as recreational drugs, leading to an extremely dangerous phenomenon known as inhalant abuse.

Disposal


As of July 1, 1992 it is illegal in the United States to release refrigerants into the atmosphere (intentional or accidental) because they can cause severe damage to the ozone layer. When CFCs are removed they should be recycled to clean out any contaminants and return it to a usable condition. Refrigerants should never be mixed together. Some CFCs must be managed as hazardous waste even if recycled, and special precautions are required for their transport, depending on the legislation of the country's government.

Refrigerants by class


Refrigerants may be divided into three classes according to their manner of absorption or extraction of heat from the substances to be refrigerated:
  • Class 1: This class includes refrigerants that cool by phase change (typically boiling), using the refrigerant's latent heat
    Latent heat
    Latent heat is the heat released or absorbed by a chemical substance or a thermodynamic system during a process that occurs without a change in temperature. A typical example is a change of state of matter, meaning a phase transition such as the melting of ice or the boiling of water. The term was...

    .
  • Class 2: These refrigerants cool by temperature change or 'sensible heat
    Sensible heat
    Sensible heat is the energy exchanged by a thermodynamic system that has as its sole effect a change of temperature.The term is used in contrast to a latent heat, which is the amount of energy exchanged that is hidden, meaning it cannot be observed as a change of temperature...

    ', the quantity of heat being the specific heat capacity x the temperature change. They are air, calcium chloride brine, sodium chloride brine, alcohol, and similar nonfreezing solutions. The purpose of Class 2 refrigerants is to receive a reduction of temperature from Class 1 refrigerants and convey this lower temperature to the area to be air-conditioned.
  • Class 3: This group consists of solutions that contain absorbed vapors of liquefiable agents or refrigerating media. These solutions function by nature of their ability to carry liquefiable vapors, which produce a cooling effect by the absorption of their heat of solution. They can also be classified into many categories.

The R-# numbering system was developed by DuPont
DuPont
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company , commonly referred to as DuPont, is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. DuPont was the world's third largest chemical company based on market capitalization and ninth based on revenue in 2009...

 and systematically identifies the molecular structure of refrigerants made with a single halogenated hydrocarbon. The meaning of the codes is as follows:
  • Adding 90 to the number gives three digits which stands for the number of carbon
    Carbon
    Carbon is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds...

    , hydrogen
    Hydrogen
    Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. With an average atomic weight of , hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's chemical elemental mass. Stars in the main sequence are mainly...

     and fluorine
    Fluorine
    Fluorine is the chemical element with atomic number 9, represented by the symbol F. It is the lightest element of the halogen column of the periodic table and has a single stable isotope, fluorine-19. At standard pressure and temperature, fluorine is a pale yellow gas composed of diatomic...

     atoms, respectively.
  • Remaining bonds not accounted for are occupied by chlorine
    Chlorine
    Chlorine is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is the second lightest halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17. The element forms diatomic molecules under standard conditions, called dichlorine...

     atoms.
  • A suffix of a lower-case letter a, b, or c indicates increasingly unsymmetrical isomers.
  • As a special case, the R-400 series is made up of zeotropic blends (those where the boiling point of constituent compounds differs enough to lead to changes in relative concentration because of fractional distillation
    Fractional distillation
    Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. It is a special type of distillation...

    ) and the R-500 series is made up of so-called azeotropic blends
    Azeotrope
    An azeotrope is a mixture of two or more liquids in such a ratio that its composition cannot be changed by simple distillation. This occurs because, when an azeotrope is boiled, the resulting vapor has the same ratio of constituents as the original mixture....

    . The rightmost digit is assigned arbitrarily by ASHRAE, an industry organization.


For example, R-134a
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 , but with less ozone depletion potential...

 has 2 carbon atoms, 2 hydrogen atoms, and 4 fluorine atoms, an empirical formula of tetrafluoroethane. The "a" suffix indicates that the isomer is unbalanced by one atom, giving 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 , but with less ozone depletion potential...

. R-134 (without the "a" suffix) would have a molecular structure of 1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethane—a compound not especially effective as a refrigerant.

The same numbers are used with an R- prefix for generic refrigerants, with a "Propellant" prefix (e.g., "Propellant 12") for the same chemical used as a propellant for an aerosol spray
Aerosol spray
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles. This is used with a can or bottle that contains a liquid under pressure. When the container's valve is opened, the liquid is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist...

, and with trade names for the compounds, such as "Freon 12". Recently, a practice of using HFC- for hydrofluorocarbons, CFC- for chlorofluorocarbon
Chlorofluorocarbon
A chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons , which contain hydrogen, as well. They are also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon...

s, and HCFC- for hydrochlorofluorocarbons has arisen, because of the regulatory differences among these groups.

Blends


  • R-401A is a HCFC zeotropic blend of R-32
    Difluoromethane
    Difluoromethane, also called HFC-32 or R-32, is an organic compound of the dihalogenoalkane variety. It is based on methane, except that two of the four hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine atoms...

    , R-152a, and R-124. It is designed as a replacement for R-12
    Dichlorodifluoromethane
    Dichlorodifluoromethane , is a colorless gas, and usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane , used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant. Complying with the Montreal Protocol, its manufacture was banned in the United States along with many other...

    .
  • R-404A is a HFC "nearly azeotropic" blend of 52 wt.% R-143a
    1,1,1-Trifluoroethane
    1,1,1-Trifluoroethane, or R-143a or simply trifluoroethane, is a fluorocarbon compound that is a clear, colorless gas. It should not be confused with the isomeric compound 1,1,2-trifluoroethane.It has a critical temperature of 73 °C....

    , 44 wt.% R-125
    Pentafluoroethane
    Pentafluoroethane is a refrigerant that has zero ozone depletion potential.It has the formula CF3CHF2. Although it has zero ozone depletion potential, it has high global warming potential, reported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as 3450 times that of carbon...

    , and 4 wt.% R-134a
    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 , but with less ozone depletion potential...

    . It is designed as a replacement of R-22 and R-502 CFC
    Chlorofluorocarbon
    A chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons , which contain hydrogen, as well. They are also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon...

    . Its boiling point at normal pressure is -46.5 °C, its liquid density is 0.485 g/cm3.
  • R-406A
    R-406A
    R-406A is a refrigerant invented by George H Goble. It is a mixture of three components chlorodifluoromethane , isobutane and chlorodifluoroethane in the ratio 55/4/41....

    is a zeotropic blend of 55 wt.% R-22
    Chlorodifluoromethane
    Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon . This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It was once commonly used as a propellant and in air conditioning applications...

    , 4 wt.% R-600a
    Isobutane
    Isobutane, also known as methylpropane, is an isomer of butane. It is the simplest alkane with a tertiary carbon. Concerns with depletion of the ozone layer by freon gases have led to increased use of isobutane as a gas for refrigeration systems, especially in domestic refrigerators and freezers,...

    , and 41 wt.% R-142b
    1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane
    1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, also known by trade names including Freon 142b is a haloalkane with the chemical formula CH3CClF2. It is primarily used as arefrigerant....

    .
  • R-407A is a HFC zeotropic blend of 20 wt.% R-32
    Difluoromethane
    Difluoromethane, also called HFC-32 or R-32, is an organic compound of the dihalogenoalkane variety. It is based on methane, except that two of the four hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine atoms...

    , 40 wt.% R-125
    Pentafluoroethane
    Pentafluoroethane is a refrigerant that has zero ozone depletion potential.It has the formula CF3CHF2. Although it has zero ozone depletion potential, it has high global warming potential, reported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as 3450 times that of carbon...

    , and 40 wt.% R-134a
    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 , but with less ozone depletion potential...

    .
  • R-407C
    R-407c
    R-407c is a mixture of hydrofluorocarbons used as a refrigerant. It is a zeotropic blend of difluoromethane , pentafluoroethane , and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane . Difluoromethane serves to provide the heat capacity, pentafluoroethane decreases flammability, tetrafluoroethane reduces pressure....

     is a zeotropic hydrofluorocarbon blend of R-32
    Difluoromethane
    Difluoromethane, also called HFC-32 or R-32, is an organic compound of the dihalogenoalkane variety. It is based on methane, except that two of the four hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine atoms...

    , R-125
    Pentafluoroethane
    Pentafluoroethane is a refrigerant that has zero ozone depletion potential.It has the formula CF3CHF2. Although it has zero ozone depletion potential, it has high global warming potential, reported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as 3450 times that of carbon...

    , and R-134a
    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane
    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 , but with less ozone depletion potential...

    . The R-32 serves to provide the heat capacity, R-125 decreases flammability, R-134a reduces pressure.
  • R-408A is a zeotropic HCFC blend of R-22
    Chlorodifluoromethane
    Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon . This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It was once commonly used as a propellant and in air conditioning applications...

    , R-125
    Pentafluoroethane
    Pentafluoroethane is a refrigerant that has zero ozone depletion potential.It has the formula CF3CHF2. Although it has zero ozone depletion potential, it has high global warming potential, reported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as 3450 times that of carbon...

    , and R-143a
    1,1,1-Trifluoroethane
    1,1,1-Trifluoroethane, or R-143a or simply trifluoroethane, is a fluorocarbon compound that is a clear, colorless gas. It should not be confused with the isomeric compound 1,1,2-trifluoroethane.It has a critical temperature of 73 °C....

    . It is a substitute for R-502. Its boiling point is -44.4 °C.
  • R-409A is a zeotropic HCFC blend of R-22
    Chlorodifluoromethane
    Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon . This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It was once commonly used as a propellant and in air conditioning applications...

    , R-124, and R-142b
    1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane
    1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, also known by trade names including Freon 142b is a haloalkane with the chemical formula CH3CClF2. It is primarily used as arefrigerant....

    . Its boiling point is -35.3 °C. Its critical temperatiure is 109.4 °C.
  • R-410A
    R-410A
    R-410A, sold under the trademarked names Puron, EcoFluor R410, Genetron R410A, and AZ-20, is a zeotropic, but near-azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane and pentafluoroethane , which is used as a refrigerant in air conditioning applications.-Environmental effects:Unlike many alkyl halide...

    is a near-azeotropic blend of R-32
    Difluoromethane
    Difluoromethane, also called HFC-32 or R-32, is an organic compound of the dihalogenoalkane variety. It is based on methane, except that two of the four hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine atoms...

     and R-125
    Pentafluoroethane
    Pentafluoroethane is a refrigerant that has zero ozone depletion potential.It has the formula CF3CHF2. Although it has zero ozone depletion potential, it has high global warming potential, reported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as 3450 times that of carbon...

    . The US Environmental Protection Agency recognizes it as an acceptable substitute for R-22 in household and light commercial air conditioning systems. It appears to have gained widespread market acceptance under several trade names.
  • R-500 is an azeotropic blend of 73.8 wt.% R-12
    Dichlorodifluoromethane
    Dichlorodifluoromethane , is a colorless gas, and usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane , used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant. Complying with the Montreal Protocol, its manufacture was banned in the United States along with many other...

     and 26.2 wt.% of R-152a.
  • R-502 is an azeotropic blend of R-22
    Chlorodifluoromethane
    Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon . This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22. It was once commonly used as a propellant and in air conditioning applications...

     and R-115
    Chloropentafluoroethane
    Chloropentafluoroethane is a chlorofluorocarbon once used as a refrigerant. Its production and consumption has been banned since 1 January 1996 under the Montreal Protocol because of its ozone-depleting potential....

    .

Air as a refrigerant



Air has been used for residential, automobile, and turbine-powered aircraft air-conditioning and/or cooling. The reason why air is not more widely used as a general-purpose refrigerant is the misperception that the use of air is too inefficient to be practical.

Yet, with suitable compression and expansion technology, air can be a practical (albeit not the most efficient) refrigerant, free of the possibility of environmental contamination or damage, and almost completely harmless to plants and animals.

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