Space vector modulation

# Space vector modulation

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Encyclopedia
Space vector modulation (SVM) is an algorithm for the control of pulse width modulation (PWM). It is used for the creation of alternating current
Alternating current
In alternating current the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current , the flow of electric charge is only in one direction....

(AC) waveform
Waveform
Waveform means the shape and form of a signal such as a wave moving in a physical medium or an abstract representation.In many cases the medium in which the wave is being propagated does not permit a direct visual image of the form. In these cases, the term 'waveform' refers to the shape of a graph...

s; most commonly to drive 3 phase AC powered motors at varying speeds from DC using multiple class-D amplifiers
Switching amplifier
A class-D amplifier or switching amplifier is an electronic amplifier where all power devices are operated as binary switches. They are either fully on or fully off. Ideally, zero time is spent transitioning between those two states....

. There are various variations of SVM that result in different quality and computational requirements. One active area of development is in the reduction of total harmonic distortion
Total harmonic distortion
The total harmonic distortion, or THD, of a signal is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency...

(THD) created by the rapid switching inherent to these algorithms.

## Principle

A three phase inverter as shown to the right must be controlled so that at no time are both switches in the same leg turned on or else the DC supply would be shorted. This requirement may be met by the complementary operation of the switches within a leg. i.e. if A+ is on then A is off and vice versa. This leads to eight possible switching vectors for the inverter, V0 through V7 with six active switching vectors and two zero vectors.

Vector A+ B+ C+ A B C VAB VBC VCA
V0 = {000} OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON 0 0 0 zero vector
V1 = {100} ON OFF OFF OFF ON ON +Vdc 0 −Vdc active vector
V2 = {110} ON ON OFF OFF OFF ON 0 +Vdc −Vdc active vector
V3 = {010} OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON −Vdc +Vdc 0 active vector
V4 = {011} OFF ON ON ON OFF OFF −Vdc 0 +Vdc active vector
V5 = {001} OFF OFF ON ON ON OFF 0 −Vdc +Vdc active vector
V6 = {101} ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF +Vdc −Vdc 0 active vector
V7 = {111} ON ON ON OFF OFF OFF 0 0 0 zero vector

To implement space vector modulation a reference signal Vref is sampled with a frequency fs (Ts = 1/fs). The reference signal may be generated from three separate phase references using the transform. The reference vector is then synthesized using a combination of the two adjacent active switching vectors and one or both of the zero vectors. Various strategies of selecting the order of the vectors and which zero vector(s) to use exist. Strategy selection will affect the harmonic content and the switching losses.
More complicated SVM strategies for the unbalanced operation of four-leg three-phase inverters do exist. In these strategies the switching vectors define a 3D shape (a hexagonal prism
Prism (geometry)
In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron with an n-sided polygonal base, a translated copy , and n other faces joining corresponding sides of the two bases. All cross-sections parallel to the base faces are the same. Prisms are named for their base, so a prism with a pentagonal base is called a...

in coordinates or a dodecahedron in abc Three-Dimensional Space Vector Modulation in abc coordinates) rather than a 2D hexagon.