Space Adventures

Space Adventures

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Space Adventures, Ltd. is a Virginia, USA-based space tourism company founded in 1998 by Eric C. Anderson
Eric C. Anderson
Eric Anderson is an entrepreneur and aerospace engineer known for co-founding Space Adventures, a commercial spaceflight company that brokers spaceflight experiences.-Early life and education:...

. , offerings include zero-gravity atmospheric flights, orbital
Orbital spaceflight
An orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit. To do this around the Earth, it must be on a free trajectory which has an altitude at perigee above...

 spaceflight
Spaceflight
Spaceflight is the act of travelling into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft which may, or may not, have humans on board. Examples of human spaceflight include the Russian Soyuz program, the U.S. Space shuttle program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station...

s (with the option to participate in a spacewalk), and other spaceflight-related experiences including cosmonaut training, spacewalk training, and launch tours. Future plans announced thus far include sub-orbital
Sub-orbital spaceflight
A sub-orbital space flight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it does not complete one orbital revolution....

 and lunar
Lunar sortie
A lunar sortie is a human spaceflight mission to the Moon. In contrast with lunar outpost missions, lunar sorties will be of relatively brief duration.- NASA sorties :...

 spaceflights. , seven clients have participated in the orbital spaceflight program with Space Adventures, with many reservations in the upcoming suborbital spaceflight program as well.

Background


Eric C. Anderson
Eric C. Anderson
Eric Anderson is an entrepreneur and aerospace engineer known for co-founding Space Adventures, a commercial spaceflight company that brokers spaceflight experiences.-Early life and education:...

 is the president and CEO of Space Adventures. He co-founded the company in 1998 with several other entrepreneurs from the aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

, adventure travel and entertainment industries. The company is headquartered in Vienna, Virginia with an office in Moscow.

Space Adventures offers a variety of programs such as Orbital spaceflight missions to the International Space Station, Circumlunar missions around the moon, zero gravity flights, cosmonaut training programs, spaceflight qualification programs, and reservations on future suborbital spacecrafts.

Since 2001, Space Adventures has launched seven clients on eight successful missions to the International Space Station (ISS). In April 2001, the company sent American businessman Dennis Tito for a reported $20 million payment, making him the first space tourist. South African businessman Mark Shuttleworth did the same in April 2002, becoming the first African in space. Gregory Olsen became the third private citizen to travel to the ISS in October 2005, followed by the first female space tourist, Anousheh Ansari, who completed her 10-day orbital mission in September 2006. Charles Simonyi, an ex-executive at Microsoft, became the fifth space tourist who visited the ISS in April 2007, then again in March 2009. He is the world’s first private space explorer who launched to space twice. In 2008, game developer Richard Garriott, the first second-generation U.S. astronaut, became the sixth client to travel to the ISS. In October 2009, Cirque du Soleil
Cirque du Soleil
Cirque du Soleil , is a Canadian entertainment company, self-described as a "dramatic mix of circus arts and street entertainment." Based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and located in the inner-city area of Saint-Michel, it was founded in Baie-Saint-Paul in 1984 by two former street performers, Guy...

 founder, Guy Laliberté, became the first Canadian space tourist to have launched to space.

In January 2008, Space Adventures acquired Zero Gravity Corporation which is the first and only FAA-approved provider of weightless flights to the general public.

The company's advisory board includes Apollo 11
Apollo 11
In early 1969, Bill Anders accepted a job with the National Space Council effective in August 1969 and announced his retirement as an astronaut. At that point Ken Mattingly was moved from the support crew into parallel training with Anders as backup Command Module Pilot in case Apollo 11 was...

 moonwalker Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin is an American mechanical engineer, retired United States Air Force pilot and astronaut who was the Lunar Module pilot on Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing in history...

, Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
The Space Shuttle was a manned orbital rocket and spacecraft system operated by NASA on 135 missions from 1981 to 2011. The system combined rocket launch, orbital spacecraft, and re-entry spaceplane with modular add-ons...

 astronaut
Astronaut
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft....

s Sam Durrance
Samuel T. Durrance
Samuel Thornton Durrance is an American scientist who flew aboard two NASA Space Shuttle missions as a payload specialist.-Background:Durrance was born September 17, 1943, in Tallahassee, Florida, but considers Tampa, Florida his hometown...

, Tom Jones, Byron Lichtenberg, Norm Thagard, Kathy Thornton
Kathryn C. Thornton
Kathryn Ryan Cordell Thornton is an American scientist and a former NASA astronaut with over 975 hours in space, including 21 hours of extravehicular activity...

, Pierre Thuot, and Charles Walker
Charles Walker
Charles David "Charlie" Walker is an American engineer who flew on three Space Shuttle missions in 1984 and 1985 as a Payload Specialist for the McDonnell Douglas Corporation...

, Skylab
Skylab
Skylab was a space station launched and operated by NASA, the space agency of the United States. Skylab orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, and included a workshop, a solar observatory, and other systems. It was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V rocket, with a mass of...

/Shuttle astronaut Owen Garriott, and Russian
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

 cosmonaut Yuri Usachev.

Dennis Tito


Space Adventures’ first orbital spaceflight client and the world’s first private space explorer launched to the ISS in April 2001 on Soyuz TM-32. American businessman Dennis Tito
Dennis Tito
Dennis Anthony Tito is an Italian American engineer and multimillionaire, most widely known as the first space tourist to fund his own trip into space. In mid-2001, he spent nearly eight days in orbit as a crew member of ISS EP-1, a visiting mission to the International Space Station...

 received training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City in Russia. Tito participated in Space Adventures’ other programs, including a Zero-Gravity flight, centrifuge training and a supersonic jet flight to the Edge of Space prior to his orbital flight.

Mark Shuttleworth



Mark Shuttleworth
Mark Shuttleworth
Mark Richard Shuttleworth is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist. Shuttleworth founded Canonical Ltd. and as of 2010, provides leadership for the Ubuntu operating system...

 spent 10 days in space. He launched with two crewmates, Russian commander Yuri Gidzenko and Italian astronaut Roberto Vittori. They launched on Soyuz rocket TM-34 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 25, 2002. Prior to his flight, Mr. Shuttleworth completed Space Adventures’ Orbital Pre-Qualification Program and underwent almost eight months of training and medical exams, including a one-week orientation program at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. A zero-gravity flight, centrifuge training, and spacecraft communication, guidance and control system lessons of the Russian Soyuz spacecraft and ISS were also part of his training. Shuttleworth dedicated his flight to educating South African youth and conducting scientific research.

Gregory Olsen


Dr. Gregory Olsen
Gregory Olsen
Gregory Hammond "Greg" Olsen is an American entrepreneur, engineer and scientist who, in October 2005, became the third private citizen to make a self-funded trip to the International Space Station with the company Space Adventures....

 completed over 900 hours of training in Star City, Russia in preparation for his mission. He and his crew mates launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on October 1, 2005 aboard Soyuz TMA-7. While aboard the ISS, he participated in a research program prepared by the European Space Agency that studied the human body’s response to the microgravity environment. Through Amateur Radio on the ISS, Dr. Olsen contacted high school students in New Jersey and New York.

Anousheh Ansari


Anousheh Ansari
Anousheh Ansari
Anousheh Ansari is an engineer and the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems. Her previous business accomplishments include serving as co-founder and CEO of Telecom Technologies, Inc. . The Ansari family is also the title sponsor of the Ansari X Prize. On September 18, 2006,...

 lifted off on Soyuz TMA-9 on September 18, 2006 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Ansari became the fourth (and first female) space tourist. During her eight day stay on board the International Space Station, Ansari conducted four experiments for the European Space Agency, including researching the mechanisms behind anemia, how changes in muscles influence lower back pain, consequences of space radiation on ISS crew members and different species of microbes that have made a home for themselves on the space station.

Charles Simonyi


Dr. Charles Simonyi
Charles Simonyi
Charles Simonyi is a Hungarian-American computer software executive who, as head of Microsoft's application software group, oversaw the creation of Microsoft's flagship Office suite of applications. He now heads his own company, Intentional Software, with the aim of developing and marketing his...

 is the first repeat orbital spaceflight client of Space Adventures'. His first spaceflight mission was in 2007 aboard Soyuz TMA-10 and his second was in 2009 aboard Soyuz TMA-14. Simonyi's goals for both of his missions were to advance civilian spaceflight, assist space station research and involve the world’s youth in the science of space travel. His website, www.charlesinspace.com, had 33 million viewers.

Richard Garriott


Richard Garriott
Richard Garriott
Richard Allen Garriott is a British-American video game developer and entrepreneur.He is also known as his alter egos Lord British in Ultima and General British in Tabula Rasa...

 became the first second-generation space traveler following his astronaut father Owen Garriott into space. He is also the second person to wear the British flag in space. He launched for the International Space Station on October 12, 2008 aboard Soyuz TMA-13. Richard's main objective for his mission was to encourage commercial participation. By fostering the involvement of individuals, companies and organizations in his spaceflight, Richard hoped to demonstrate that there is commercial potential in private space exploration, while furthering the understanding of space.

Guy Laliberté


Guy Laliberté
Guy Laliberté
Guy Laliberté, OC, CQ is a Canadian entrepreneur, philanthropist, poker player, space tourist and the current CEO of Cirque du Soleil...

 is the first Canadian space tourist who reached orbit on September 30, 2009 aboard Soyuz TMA-16. While in orbit, Laliberté promoted the One Drop Foundation and proclaimed his mission as a “Poetic Social Mission”. He also conducted the first ever artistic and social event, “Moving Stars and Earth for Water,” to originate from space that took place on October 9, 2009.[9] It was a two hour event that was hosted by Laliberté and many celebrities such as Salma Hayak, Shakira and Bono, who participated from Earth. He returned to Earth on board Soyuz TMA-14
Soyuz TMA-14
The Soyuz TMA-14 was a Soyuz flight to the International Space Station, which launched on 26 March 2009. It transported two members of the Expedition 19 crew as well as spaceflight participant Charles Simonyi on his second self-funded flight to the space station...

.

Orbital Mission Explorers Circle



This program allows individuals to reserve seats on future orbital spaceflights. They have the option to fly to orbit as their schedule allows with preferential access to mission seats or they can opt to sell their seat to another private astronaut. Sergey Brin
Sergey Brin
Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin is a Russian-born American computer scientist and internet entrepreneur who, with Larry Page, co-founded Google, one of the largest internet companies. , his personal wealth is estimated to be $16.7 billion....

, co-founder and president of technology for Google Inc.
Google
Google Inc. is an American multinational public corporation invested in Internet search, cloud computing, and advertising technologies. Google hosts and develops a number of Internet-based services and products, and generates profit primarily from advertising through its AdWords program...

, has become the founding member of the "Founding Explorer" group by placing a $5 million deposit on a future orbital spaceflight.

Space Adventures has established the Orbital Mission Explorers Circle to build a definitive consortium of future private space explorers who share a lifetime goal of orbital spaceflight or the investment therein. Space Adventures has initially created six "Founding Explorer" positions in the Orbital Mission Explorers Circle, each of whom will have priority access to participate in future orbital space missions.

Spacewalk


In 2006, the company announced that it would begin offering a spacewalk option to its clients traveling to the ISS. The spacewalk would allow participants to spend up to 1.5 hours outside of the space station and costs about $15 million. It would lengthen the orbital mission approximately six to eight days. The spacewalk would be completed in the Russian designed Orlan space suit. The training for the spacewalk would require an extra month of training on top of the six months already required.

Lunar Mission



Space Adventures is offering advance booking for a future lunar mission
DSE-Alpha
Deep Space Expedition Alpha , is the name given to the mission proposed in 2005 to take the first space tourists to fly around the Moon. The mission is organized by Space Adventures Ltd., a commercial spaceflight company...

 involving travel to circumnavigate the moon, on a circumlunar trajectory
Circumlunar trajectory
A Circumlunar trajectory, Trans-Lunar trajectory or Lunar free return is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon, and back to Earth.-Background:...

. Pricing has been announced at US$100 million per seat. This mission will utilize two Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n launch vehicles. One Soyuz capsule will be launched into low-earth orbit by a Soyuz rocket
Soyuz (rocket)
The Soyuz was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Samara, Russia. It was used to launch Soyuz spacecraft as part of the Soyuz programme, initially on unmanned test flights, followed by the first 19 manned launches of the...

. Once in orbit, the manned capsule will dock with a second, unmanned, lunar-propulsion module which will then power the circumlunar portion of the trip
Spaceflight
Spaceflight is the act of travelling into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft which may, or may not, have humans on board. Examples of human spaceflight include the Russian Soyuz program, the U.S. Space shuttle program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station...

.
The mission will last 8–9 days. It will take 2–3 days to approach the Upper Stage (Block DM), 2–3 days to approach the moon, there's approximately a 45 minute observation of the moon from 100 km-1000 km above the moon’s surface, and will return to Earth in 2–3 days. Space Adventures has announced that they have sold one of the seats on the lunar voyage for $150 million, and are in negotiations for selling a second seat. They wouldn't reveal the name of the person to whom the ticket was sold but claim he or she is well known. Space Adventures hopes the circumlunar voyage will occur sometime in 2015.

Explorer suborbital vehicle



The company, along with Prodea and FSA, began to develop a suborbital space transportation system, called Explorer. The vehicle has been designed by Myasishchev
Myasishchev
V. M. Myasishchev Experimental Design Bureau or OKB-23, founded in 1951 by Vladimir Myasishchev) was one of the chief Soviet aerospace design bureaus until its dissolution in 1960. Vladimir Myasishchev went on to head TsAGI...

 Design Bureau, a Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n aerospace organization which has developed other aircraft and space systems.

, the Explorer aerospace system
Cosmopolis XXI
Cosmopolis XXI is a planned Russian vehicle that is billed as a space tourism vehicle, similar to Mojave Aerospace's Tier One program. Designed and built by the Myasishchev Design Bureau, it would use the M-55X launch aircraft , and the proposed C-21 spaceplane or its successor the Explorer...

 was intended to consist of a flight-operational carrier aircraft, the M-55X, and a rocket spacecraft, having the capability to transport up to five people to space.

Space Adventures abandoned the Explorer project because "it got too expensive."

Armadillo suborbital rocket


Armadillo Aerospace
Armadillo Aerospace
Armadillo Aerospace is an aerospace startup company based in Mesquite, Texas. Its initial goal is to build a manned suborbital spacecraft capable of space tourism, but it has stated long-term ambitions of orbital spaceflight. The company was founded by John Carmack.On October 24, 2008, Armadillo...

 is currently working on a sub-orbital commercial rocket that will be marketed through Space Adventures. The per-passenger price point was announced in April 2010 to be $102,000 for a flight to 62 miles altitude, above the Karman line
Karman line
The Kármán line lies at an altitude of above the Earth's sea level, and is commonly used to define the boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and outer space...

.

The Armadillo-developed technology will be a vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL
VTVL
Vertical takeoff, vertical landing is a form of takeoff and landing using rockets . Multiple VTVL craft have flown. , at least five VTVL rocket vehicles are currently under development at four different aerospace companies...

) suborbital vehicle carrying space tourists
Space tourism
Space Tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. A number of startup companies have sprung up in recent years, hoping to create a space tourism industry...

 to at least 100 kilometers altitude, with Space Adventures selling the seats. The spacecraft development effort is jointly funded by both Armadillo and Space Adventures.

Lawsuit


Japanese businessman Daisuke Enomoto
Daisuke Enomoto
is a Japanese businessman and former livedoor executive who hoped to become the fourth space tourist. He had trained at Star City, Moscow in Russia to fly with two members of Expedition 14 on board Soyuz TMA-9, which was launched on September 18, 2006....

 sued Space Adventures as his trip was canceled by them for medical reasons after he paid $21,000,000 and no refund was given.

See also


  • Commercial Astronaut
    Commercial Astronaut
    A commercial astronaut is a person trained to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a privately funded spacecraft.-Criteria:The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over of altitude...

  • Private spaceflight
    Private spaceflight
    Private spaceflight is flight above Earth altitude conducted by and paid for by an entity other than a government. In the early decades of the Space Age, the government space agencies of the Soviet Union and United States pioneered space technology augmented by collaboration with affiliated design...

  • Quasi Universal Intergalactic Denomination
    Quasi Universal Intergalactic Denomination
    The Quasi Universal Intergalactic Denomination was a proposed "space currency" created as a viral marketing campaign launched by Travelex with the London-based public relations and advertising firm, talkPR. The full name is a backronym from 'quid', a slang term for the British Pound...


External links