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Satellite (biology)

Satellite (biology)

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A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid
Nucleic acid
Nucleic acids are biological molecules essential for life, and include DNA and RNA . Together with proteins, nucleic acids make up the most important macromolecules; each is found in abundance in all living things, where they function in encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information...

 that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper or master virus
A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea...

 for its multiplication. When a satellite encodes the coat protein
Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of...

 in which its nucleic acid is encapsidated
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers. The observable 3-dimensional morphological subunits, which may or may not correspond to individual proteins, are called capsomeres. The capsid encloses the genetic...

 it is referred to as a satellite virus. A satellite virus of mimivirus
Mimivirus is a viral genus containing a single identified species named Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus , or is a group of phylogenetically related large viruses . In colloquial speech, APMV is more commonly referred to as just “mimivirus”...

 that inhibits the replication of its host has been termed a virophage.

Satellite viral particles should not be confused with satellite DNA
Satellite DNA
Satellite DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA. Satellite DNA is the main component of functional centromeres, and form the main structural constituent of heterochromatin....



  • Satellite viruses
    • Single-stranded RNA
      Ribonucleic acid , or RNA, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life....

       satellite viruses
      • Subgroup 1: Chronic bee-paralysis virus associated satellite
        • Chronic bee-paralysis satellite virus
      • Subgroup 2: Tobacco necrosis virus satellite
        • Maize white line mosaic satellite virus
        • Panicum mosaic satellite virus
          Panicum mosaic satellite virus
          Panicum mosaic satellite virus is a plant satellite virus. It only infects grasses which are infected by Panicum mosaic virus. One study found that 72% of Stenotaphrum secundatum infected with panicum mosaic virus was also infected with SPMV...

        • Tobacco mosaic satellite virus
        • Tobacco necrosis satellite virus
  • Satellite nucleic acids
    • Single-stranded satellite DNA
      Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

      • Tomato leaf curl virus satellite DNA
    • Double-stranded satellite RNA
      Ribonucleic acid , or RNA, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life....

      • Saccharomyces cerevisiae M virus satellite
      • Trichomonas vaginalis T1 virus satellite
    • Single-stranded satellite RNAs
      • Subgroup 1: Large satellite RNAs
        • Arabis mosaic virus large satellite RNA
        • Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA
        • Chicory yellow mottle virus large satellite RNA
        • Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus satellite RNA
        • Grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNA
        • Myrobalan latent ringspot virus satellite RNA
        • Tomato black ring virus satellite RNA
        • Beet ringspot virus satellite RNA
      • Subgroup 2: Small linear satellite RNAs
        • Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA
        • Cymbidium ringspot virus satellite RNA
        • Pea enation mosaic virus satellite RNA
        • Groundnut rosette virus satellite RNA
        • Panicum mosaic virus small satellite RNA
        • Peanut stunt virus satellite RNA
        • Turnip crinkle virus satellite RNA
        • Tomato bushy stunt virus satellite RNA, B10
        • Tomato bushy stunt virus satellite RNA, B1
      • Subgroup 3: Circular satellite RNAs, or "virusoid
        Virusoids are circular single-stranded RNAs dependent on plant viruses for replication and encapsidation. The genome of virusoids consist of several hundred nucleotides and only encodes structural proteins....

        • Arabis mosaic virus small satellite RNA
        • Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV satellite RNA
        • Chicory yellow mottle virus satellite RNA
        • Lucerne transient streak virus satellite RNA
        • Solanum nodiflorum mottle virus satellite RNA
        • Subterranean clover mottle virus satellite RNA
        • Tobacco ringspot virus satellite RNA
        • Velvet tobacco mottle virus satellite RNA

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