Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro
(21 March 1846 - 23 January 1905) was a Portuguese
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...
artist known for his illustration, caricature
A caricature is a portrait that exaggerates or distorts the essence of a person or thing to create an easily identifiable visual likeness. In literature, a caricature is a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others.Caricatures can be...
s, sculpture and ceramics designs, and is considered the first Portuguese comics creator
A comic book creator is someone who creates a comic book or graphic novel.The production of a comic book by one of the major comic book companies in the U.S...
He was a disciple of his father, the painter Manuel Maria Bordalo Pinheiro, and brother of painter Columbano
Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro , who is usually referred to as Columbano, was a Portuguese Realist painter...
and mother D. Maria Augusta do Ó Carvalho Prostes. He started publishing illustrations and caricatures in humoristic magazines such as A Berlinda
and O Calcanhar de Aquiles
, frequently demonstrating a sarcastic humour with a political or social message.
In 1875 he travelled to Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...
to work as an illustrator and cartoonist for the publication Mosquito
(and later,another publication called O Besouro
), which was also employing the Italian/Brazilian illustrator Angelo Agostini
Angelo Agostini was an illustrator, journalist and founder of several publications, and although born in Italy, is considered the first Brazilian cartoonist.-Biography:...
, until then the unrivaled cartooning authority of Brazil.
Pinheiro eventually became editor of other humorous, politically critical magazines. His fame as a caricaturist led the Illustrated London News
to become one of his collaborators.
Zé Povinho and comics
In 1875, Bordalo Pinheiro created the cartoon
A cartoon is a form of two-dimensional illustrated visual art. While the specific definition has changed over time, modern usage refers to a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic drawing or painting intended for satire, caricature, or humor, or to the artistic style of such works...
character Zé Povinho
Zé Povinho is a Portuguese everyman created in 1875 by Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro. He became first a symbol of the Portuguese working-class people, and eventually into the unofficial personification of Portugal....
, a Portuguese everyman
In literature and drama, the term everyman has come to mean an ordinary individual, with whom the audience or reader is supposed to be able to identify easily, and who is often placed in extraordinary circumstances...
, portrayed as a poor peasant. Zé Povinho
became, and still is, the most popular character in Portugal.
In Zé Povinho
, as in his other works, Bordalo Pinheiro's drawing style was innovative and influential, making extensive use of onomatopoeia
, graphical signs (such as those to used represent movement), strong images (the manguito
), and his unique style of mixing punctuation marks, such as brackets, with drawing.
In 1885, he founded a ceramics factory in Caldas da Rainha
Caldas da Rainha is a city in western central Portugal. The city serves as the seat of the larger municipality of the same name and is the seat of the Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste...
, where he created many of the pottery designs for which this city is known. The factory is still in business.