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is a town
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world, so that, for example, many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages, while...
in northwestern Latvia
Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...
| Year || Population
|| 1 929
|| 1 800
|| 1 817
|| 1 804
|| 1 778
|| 1 776
|| 1 738
|| 1 736
|| 1 717
|| 1 705
|| 1 683
Population (Year): 40,000 (1795)
- September 1234: Bishopric of Courland
Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland.- Geography and climate :...
(Bistum Kurland) established (formally declared in 11 February 1232), consisting of three separate enclaves after numerous distributions of the Couronian lands among the Bishops of Courland, and of Riga, and the Teutonic Order.
- Note: the bishops were also rulers of the island of Runö (now Ruhnu
Ruhnu is an island situated in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea. It belongs to Estonia and is an administrative part of Saare County. At 11.9 km2 it has currently less than 100, mostly ethnic Estonian permanent inhabitants...
in southwest Estonia) from at least 1341.
- 1290: The cathedral chapter is incorporated into the Teutonic Order lands, the bishopric is subjected to the Order.
- 1520: Made a sovereign principality (prince-bishopric) of the Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...
(formally from January 1521), but style of prince not used.
- 20 May 1560: Sold to the King of Denmark, given as an appanage
An apanage or appanage or is the grant of an estate, titles, offices, or other things of value to the younger male children of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture...
(Stift Kurland) to the brother of the King, Magnus, Duke of Holstein.
- 1578: Bishop Magnus accepts sovereignty of Poland-Lithuania (not ratified by the Diet of Poland-Lithuania, or recognized by Denmark).
- 20 April 1585: Sold by Denmark to Poland-Lithuania.
- 17 June 1585: Informal subdivisions established: Pilten (administered by pledges to 1660), Dondangen (Polish "throne fief" to 1795) and Amboten (Polish "throne fief" to 16..).
- 28 October 1611: Incorporation into Poland-Lithuania as the District of Pilten (German: Kreis Pilten, Polish: Powiat Piltynski) as part of Polish Livonia declared (not effected).
- 9 May 1617: Bishopric of Pilten (Stift Pilten) in personal (actually subordinated) union with Poland-Lithuania.
- 1656: The rights of pledge bought by the Duke of Courland.
- 3 May 1660: Fief of Poland-Lithuanian to the Duke of Courland.
- 25 February 1661: Formal personal union with Courland.
- 1701 - 1709: Occupied by Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....
(1705 - 1706 interrupted by Russian occupation).
- 1717: Personal union with the Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a dualistic state of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch. It was the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th- and 17th‑century Europe with some and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century...
- 28 March 1795: Pilten Landtag approves annexation to Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...
, suzerainty of Poland-Lithuania declared void.
- 26 April 1795: Annexed by Russia, autonomy guaranteed.
- 28 January 1796: Autonomy abolished, fully incorporated into Courland.
- 1 February 1797: Local autonomy restored, within the province of Courland.
- July 1812 - November 1812: Occupied by France and made part of the Duchy of Courland, Semigallia and Pilten.
- 2 March 1818: Fully incorporated into Courland.