Peshawar

Peshawar

Overview
Peshawar is the capital of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative center and central economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas are a semi-autonomous tribal region in the northwest of Pakistan, lying between the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and the neighboring country of Afghanistan. The FATA comprise seven Agencies and six FRs...

 of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

.

Peshawar is situated in a large valley near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
The Khyber Pass, is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan.The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road. It is mentioned in the Bible as the "Pesh Habor," and it is one of the oldest known passes in the world....

, between the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

 and the Indus Valley. Known as "City on the Frontier" in Persian, Peshawar's strategic location on the crossroads of Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

 and South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 has made it one of the most culturally vibrant and lively cities in the greater region.

Peshawar has evolved into one of Pakistan's most ethnically, linguistically, and religiously diverse cities.
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Encyclopedia
Peshawar is the capital of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative center and central economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas are a semi-autonomous tribal region in the northwest of Pakistan, lying between the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and the neighboring country of Afghanistan. The FATA comprise seven Agencies and six FRs...

 of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

.

Peshawar is situated in a large valley near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
The Khyber Pass, is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan.The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road. It is mentioned in the Bible as the "Pesh Habor," and it is one of the oldest known passes in the world....

, between the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

 and the Indus Valley. Known as "City on the Frontier" in Persian, Peshawar's strategic location on the crossroads of Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

 and South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 has made it one of the most culturally vibrant and lively cities in the greater region.

Peshawar has evolved into one of Pakistan's most ethnically, linguistically, and religiously diverse cities. In the last three decades, there has been a significant increase in urban population, in part due to internal migration of people in search of better employment opportunities, education, and services, and in part because of the influx of Afghan refugees and other people displaced by military operations and civil unrest in neighboring regions. Peshawar is the major educational, political, and business center of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

History of Peshawar



Peshawar is now officially recognized as being one of the Oldest Living Cities in Asia. Its history and culture has continued uninterrupted since several centuries. This fact was confirmed by the discovery of silver punch-marked coins from the Government House in 1906–07 and the ongoing excavation at Gor Khatri which is the deepest and widest in the world. Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central, South, and West Asia, Peshawar has for centuries been a centre of trade between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. As an ancient centre of learning, the 2nd century BCE. Bakhshali Manuscript
Bakhshali Manuscript
The Bakhshali Manuscript is an Ancient Indian mathematical manuscript written on birch bark which was found near the village of Bakhshali in 1881 in what was then the North-West Frontier Province of British India...

 used in the Bakhshali approximation was found nearby.

Peshawar was a major centre of Buddhist learning until the 10th century. As an indication of its importance, Peshawar was also the site of Kanishka's Great Stupa which housed relics of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

, and was widely considered to be the tallest building in the world at the time of its construction. Ancient Chinese manuscripts tell of Buddhist pilgrims such as Faxian
Faxian
Faxian was a Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India, Sri Lanka and Kapilavastu in today's Nepal between 399 and 412 to acquire Buddhist scriptures...

, Sung Yun, and Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Xuanzang was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period...

 reporting that the 7th century stupa, which was rediscovered in the south east of the city at a site called Shahji-ki-Dheri in 1907–08, had a height of 591–689 feet.

The Kushan king Kanishka
Kanishka
Kanishka ) was an emperor of the Kushan Empire, ruling an empire extending from Bactria to large parts of northern India in the 2nd century of the common era, and famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements...

, moved the capital from Pushkalavati (now called Charsadda
Charsadda
Charsadda is a town and headquarters of Charsadda District, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located at 34°8'43N 71°43'51E with an altitude of 276 metres and lies 29 kilometres from the provincial capital - Peshawar....

 in the Peshawar valley) to Purushapura in the 2nd century CE, and in the eighteenth century, the Durrani
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 king Timur Shah Durrani
Timur Shah Durrani
Timur Shah Durrani , was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire from October 16, 1772, until his death in 1793. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the second and eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani.- Early life :...

 made Peshawar the winter capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, and it remained as the winter capital until the Sikhs rose to power in the early nineteenth century. The current name "Peshawar" may derive from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 Purushapura (meaning "city of men") and is known as Pekhawar or Peshawar in Pashto
Pashto language
Pashto , known as Afghani in Persian and Pathani in Punjabi , is the native language of the indigenous Pashtun people or Afghan people who are found primarily between an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and...

 and Pishor in Hindko
Hindko language
Hindko , also Hindku, or Hinko, is the sixth main regional language of Pakistan. It forms a subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages spoken by Hindkowans in Pakistan and northern India, some Pashtun tribes in Pakistan, as well as by the Hindki people of Afghanistan...

. The area originally belonged to Gandhara
Gandhara
Gandhāra , is the name of an ancient kingdom , located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the Kabul River...

 and the eastern Iranian tribes of Scythian origin and later became part of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
The Kushan Empire originally formed in the early 1st century AD under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria on either side of the middle course of the Oxus in what is now northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.During the 1st and early 2nd centuries...

.

Peshawar emerged as a centre of both Hindko and Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 intellectuals. Its dominant culture for much of British rule was that of the Hindko speakers, also referred to as "Khaarian" ('city dwellers' in Pashto). Its unique culture, distinct from the surrounding Pashtun areas, led to the city being romanticised by Pashto singers, with songs like larsha Pekhwar tha (go to Peshawar) and more recently Pekhawar kho pekhawar dhay kana (Peshawar is Peshawar after all). This unique culture has gradually disappeared with the massive influx of Afghan refugees and the increasing migration of Pashtuns into the city. The demographics has changed quite dramatically and Pashto is now the dominant language of the city.
Peshawar is located in an area that was dominated by various tribes of Indo-Iranian
Indo-Iranians
Indo-Iranian peoples are a linguistic group consisting of the Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Dardic and Nuristani peoples; that is, speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family....

 origin. The region was affiliated with the ancient kingdom of Gandhara
Gandhara
Gandhāra , is the name of an ancient kingdom , located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the Kabul River...

 and had links to the Harappan
Harappan
Harappan can refer to:* Aspects related to Harappa an archaeological site and city in northeast Pakistan* The Indus Valley Civilization that thrived along Indus River...

 civilization of the Indus River Valley
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

 and to Bactria
Bactria
Bactria and also appears in the Zend Avesta as Bukhdi. It is the ancient name of a historical region located between south of the Amu Darya and west of the Indus River...

 and other ancient kingdoms based in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

. According to the historian Tertius Chandler, Peshawar had a population of 120,000 in the year 100 BCE, making it the seventh most populous city in the world.

Vedic mythology
Vedic mythology
Vedic mythology refers to the mythological aspects of the historical Vedic religion and Vedic literature, most notably alluded to in the hymns of the Rigveda...

 refers to an ancient settlement called Pushkalavati
Pushkalavati
Pushkalavati is an ancient site situated in Peshawar valley in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located on the banks of Swat River, near its junction with Kabul River, now it is known as Charsadda...

 in the area, after Pushkal, the son of King Bharata
Bharata (Ramayana)
In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Bharata was the second brother of the main protagonist Rama, and the son of Dasaratha and Kaikeyi. Dasaratha was the Emperor of Ayodhya and belonged to the Suryavansha or Solar Dynasty...

 in the epic Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

. but this settlement's existence remains speculative and unverifiable. In recorded history, the earliest major city established in the general area of Peshawar was called Purushapura (Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 for City of Men) and was founded by the Kushans, a Central Asian tribe of Tocharian
Tocharian
Tocharian may refer to:* Tocharians, an ancient people who inhabited the Tarim Basin in Central Asia* Tocharian languages, two Indo-European languages spoken by those people...

 origin, over 2,000 years ago. Prior to this period the region was affiliated with Gandhara, an ancient Indo-Iranian kingdom, and was annexed first by the Persian Achaemenid empire and then by the Hellenic empire of Alexander the Great. The city passed into the rule of Alexander's successor, Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

 who ceded it to Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya , was the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in conquering most of the Indian subcontinent. Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and its first genuine emperor...

, the founder of the Maurya Empire in 305 BCE. Buddhism was introduced into the region at this time and may have claimed the majority of Peshawar's inhabitants before the coming of Islam.

Greco-Bactrian Peshawar



The area that Peshawar occupies was then seized by the Greco-Bactrian king, Eucratides (170 – 159 BCE), and was controlled by a series of Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek Kingdom
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom covered various parts of the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent during the last two centuries BC, and was ruled by more than 30 Hellenistic kings, often in conflict with each other...

 kings who ruled an empire that spanned from present day Pakistan to North India. Later, the city came under the rule of several Parthia
Parthia
Parthia is a region of north-eastern Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire....

n and Indo-Parthian kings, another group of Iranic
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

 peoples germane to the region, the most famous of whom, Gondophares
Gondophares
Gondophares I a Seistani representative of the house of Suren as well as founder and first king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. He seems to have ruled c...

 (Gandapur
Gandapur
The Gandapurs are a Pashtun tribe inhabiting the environs of Dera Ismail Khan, a major commercial center on the west bank of the Indus River, in the southern region of the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa of Pakistan, near the frontier with South Waziristan. The Gandapurs reside principally in the small town of...

 in Pashto), ruled the city and its environs starting in circa 46 CE, and was briefly followed by two or three of his descendants before they were displaced by the first of the "Great Kushans", Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises, reigned was a Kushan prince who united the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century CE, and became the first Kushan emperor...

, around the middle of the 1st century CE.

Gandharan Peshawar


Peshawar formed the eastern capital of the empire of Gandhara under the Kushan king Kanishka
Kanishka
Kanishka ) was an emperor of the Kushan Empire, ruling an empire extending from Bactria to large parts of northern India in the 2nd century of the common era, and famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements...

, who reigned from at least 127 CE. After the 2 or 3 BC, Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 missionaries arrived to Zoroastrian and animist Peshawar seeking counsel with the Zoroastrian Kushan rulers. Surprisingly, rather than being repelled, their teachings were embraced by the Zoroastrian Kushans who converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 and gave the religion official status in the city. Following this move by the Kushans, Peshawar became a great center of Buddhist learning even though Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil...

 and animism
Animism
Animism refers to the belief that non-human entities are spiritual beings, or at least embody some kind of life-principle....

 seem to have survived in the majority population (particularly the rural areas). Kanishka however, who was now an ardent follower of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 built what may have been the tallest building in the world at the time, a giant stupa
Stupa
A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship....

, to house the Buddha's relics, just outside the Ganj Gate of the old city of Peshawar.
The Kanishka stupa
Kanishka stupa
The Kanishka stupa was a monumental stupa established by the Kushan king Kanishka during the 2nd century CE in today's Shah-ji-Dheri on the outskirts of Peshawar, Pakistan....

 was said to be an imposing structure as one travelled down from the mountains of Afghanistan onto the Gandharan plains. The earliest account of the famous building is by the Chinese
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 Buddhist pilgrim
Pilgrim
A pilgrim is a traveler who is on a journey to a holy place. Typically, this is a physical journeying to some place of special significance to the adherent of a particular religious belief system...

 monk
Monk
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of monks, while always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose...

, Faxian
Faxian
Faxian was a Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India, Sri Lanka and Kapilavastu in today's Nepal between 399 and 412 to acquire Buddhist scriptures...

, who visited it in 400 and described it as being over 40 chang in height (probably about 120 m or 394 ft) and adorned "with all precious substances". "Of all the stûpas and temples seen by the travellers, none can compare with this for beauty of form and strength." It was destroyed by lightning and repaired several times. It was still in existence at the time of Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Xuanzang was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period...

's visit in 634. From the ruined base of this giant stupa
Stupa
A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship....

 there existed a jewelled casket containing relics of the Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

, and an inscription identifying Kanishka as the donor, and was excavated from a chamber under the very centre of the stupa's base, by a team under Dr. D.B. Spooner in 1909. The stupa was roughly cruciform in shape with a diameter of 286 feet (87 m) and heavily decorated around the sides with stucco scenes.

Sometime in the 1st millennium BCE, modern Pashto began to take shape from old Bactria
Bactria
Bactria and also appears in the Zend Avesta as Bukhdi. It is the ancient name of a historical region located between south of the Amu Darya and west of the Indus River...

n and become the dominant language not just in Peshawar, but throughout the area west of the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

. It's main centers asides from Peshawar are Kandahar
Kandahar
Kandahar is the second largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 512,200 as of 2011. It is the capital of Kandahar Province, located in the south of the country at about 1,005 m above sea level...

, Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

 (where it shares space with Dari/Persian language
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 ) as well as Quetta
Quetta
is the largest city and the provincial capital of the Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan" due to the diversity of its plant and animal wildlife, Quetta is home to the Hazarganji Chiltan National Park, which contains some of the rarest species of wildlife in the...

. Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 and Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 arrived and annexed the region before the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

Arab Invasions



The Pashtuns began to convert to Islam following early annexation by the Arab Empire from Khurasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

 (in what is today Afghanistan and northeastern Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

).

Afghan and Mughal Rule


The Pashtun conqueror Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri , birth name Farid Khan, also known as Sher Khan , was the founder of the short-lived Sur Empire in northern India, with its capital at Delhi, before its demise in the hands of the resurgent Mughal Empire...

, turned Peshawar's renaissance into a boom when he ran his Delhi-to-Kabul Shahi Road through the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
The Khyber Pass, is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan.The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road. It is mentioned in the Bible as the "Pesh Habor," and it is one of the oldest known passes in the world....

 and Peshawar in the 16th century. Peshawar was later incorporated into the larger Mughal domains by the 16th century. The founder of the Mughul dynasty that would conquer South Asia, Babur
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

, who hailed from current Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

, came to Peshawar and founded a city called Bagram
Bagram
Bagram , founded as Alexandria on the Caucasus and known in medieval times as Kapisa, is a small town and seat in Bagram District in Parwan Province of Afghanistan, about 60 kilometers north of the capital Kabul. It is the site of an ancient city located at the junction of the Ghorband and Panjshir...

 where he rebuilt the fort in 1530. His grandson, Akbar
Akbar the Great
Akbar , also known as Shahanshah Akbar-e-Azam or Akbar the Great , was the third Mughal Emperor. He was of Timurid descent; the son of Emperor Humayun, and the grandson of the Mughal Emperor Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur, the ruler who founded the Mughal dynasty in India...

, formally named the city Peshawar, meaning "The Place at the Frontier" in Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 and expanded the bazaars and fortifications. The Muslim technocrat, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

 in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 and many settled in the Peshawar region. Thus the Mughals turned Peshawar into a "City of Flowers" by planting trees and laying out gardens similar to those found to the west in Iran. Khushal Khan Khattak
Khushal Khan Khattak
Khushal Khan Khattak was a prominent Pashtun malik, poet, warrior,A charismatic personality and tribal chief of the Khattak tribe. He wrote a huge collection of Pashto poems during the Mughal Empire in the 17th century, and admonished Pashtuns to forsake their divisive tendencies and unite...

, the Pashtun/Afghan warrior poet, was born near Peshawar and his life was intimately tied to the city. Khattak was an early Pashtun nationalist, who agitated for an independent Afghanistan including Peshawar. As such, he was an implacable foe of the Mughal rulers, especially Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, by the 18th century the city came under Persian control during the reign of Nadir Shah. In 1747, following a loya jirga
Loya jirga
A loya jirga is a type of jirga regarded as "grand assembly," a phrase in the Pashto language meaning "grand council." A loya jirga is a mass meeting usually prepared for major events such as choosing a new king, adopting a constitution, or discussing important national political or emergency...

, Peshawar would join the Afghan/Pashtun empire of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

 as a Pashtun region. Pashtuns from Peshawar took part in the incursions of South Asia during the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani , also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān, was the founder of the Durrani Empire in 1747 and is regarded by many to be the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.Ahmad Khan enlisted as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose...

 and his successors.

Peshawar under Sikh and British Occupation


In 1812, Peshawar was a suzerainty
Suzerainty
Suzerainty occurs where a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which controls its foreign affairs while allowing the tributary vassal state some limited domestic autonomy. The dominant entity in the suzerainty relationship, or the more powerful entity itself, is called a...

 of Afghanistan, but contested by the Sikh Empire. The arrival of a party led by British explorer and former agent of the East India Company
East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

, William Moorcroft
William Moorcroft (explorer)
William Moorcroft , English explorer, was born in Ormskirk, Lancashire, the illegitimate son of Ann Moorcroft, daughter of a local farmer...

 was seen as an advantage, both in dealings with Kabul and in protection against the Sikhs of Lahore. He was even offered the governorship of Peshawar and invited to offer the area's allegiance to the East India Company, which he declined. Moorcroft continued to Kabul in the company of Peshwari forces and thence to the Hindu Kush.

In 1818 Peshawar was captured by Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab)
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

 and paid a nominal tribute
Tribute
A tribute is wealth, often in kind, that one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. Various ancient states, which could be called suzerains, exacted tribute from areas they had conquered or threatened to conquer...

 until it was finally annex
Annex
Annex or Annexe may refer to:* Annex , a Marvel Comics character* Annex, an early name for the Bangkok Adventist Hospital* Annex, addendum or appendix at the end of a book or report* Annex, an addition or extension...

ed in 1834 by the Sikh Empire, after which the city fell into steep decline. Many of Peshawar's famous Mughal gardens were destroyed by the Sikhs at this time. The Italian administrator acting on behalf og the Sikhs, Paolo Avitabile, ruled Peshawar under a reign of fear - his time is Peshawar is known as a time of "gallows and gibbets." An 1835 attempt to retake the city by Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan was the Emir of Afghanistan between 1826 and 1863. He first ruled from 1826 to 1839 and then from 1843 to 1863. He was the 11th son of Sardar Pāyendah Khan who was killed by Zaman Shah Durrani in 1799...

 failed when his army declined battle with the Dal Khalsa
Dal Khalsa
Dal Khalsa is a socio-religio-political organization of the Sikh nation, based in the city of Amritsar . The primary aim of Dal Khalsa is to achieve the independence of the Punjabi-speaking Sikh majority region of North West India through peaceful and democratic means in order to establish a...

. His son, Mohammad Akbar Khan
Akbar Khan
Amir Akbar Khan Amir Akbar Khan Amir Akbar Khan (1816 – 1846;, born as Mohammad Akbar Khan and famously known as Wazir Akbar Khan, was an Afghan Prince, a general, a tribal leader and Emir. He was active in the First Anglo-Afghan War, which lasted from 1839 to 1842...

, almost retook the city in the Battle of Jamrud in 1837, but was unsuccessful. Peshawar remained under the yoke of the Sikh Maharajahs until they were vanquished by the British empire following the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab)
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

 in the Second Anglo-Sikh War
Second Anglo-Sikh War
The Second Anglo-Sikh War took place in 1848 and 1849, between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company. It resulted in the subjugation of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab and what subsequently became the North-West Frontier Province by the East India Company.-Background...

 in 1849.

The mountainous areas outside of the city were mapped out in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand
Mortimer Durand
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India.-Background:Born at Sehore, Bhopal, India, he was the son of Sir Henry Marion Durand, the Resident of Baroda and he was educated at Blackheath Proprietary School, and Tonbridge School.-Career:Durand...

, then foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who demarcated the boundary of British controlled area with the Afghan
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 ruler at the time, Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.The third son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan, Abdur Rahman Khan was considered a strong ruler who re-established the writ of the Afghan government in Kabul after the disarray that followed the second...

. It is now known as the Durand Line
Durand Line
The Durand Line refers to the porous international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan, which has divided the ethnic Pashtuns . This poorly marked line is approximately long...

. The Kabul government
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 has argued that the pact expired when British colonialists left the region – although claims to the region have not been a part of official Afghan policy.
In 1893, Mortimer Durand
Mortimer Durand
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India.-Background:Born at Sehore, Bhopal, India, he was the son of Sir Henry Marion Durand, the Resident of Baroda and he was educated at Blackheath Proprietary School, and Tonbridge School.-Career:Durand...

 negotiated with Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.The third son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan, Abdur Rahman Khan was considered a strong ruler who re-established the writ of the Afghan government in Kabul after the disarray that followed the second...

 the Amir of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 the frontier between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and British India.
This line, named the Durand Line
Durand Line
The Durand Line refers to the porous international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan, which has divided the ethnic Pashtuns . This poorly marked line is approximately long...

 after its negotiator, remains the international boundary between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and modern-day Pakistan, officially recognized by most nations but an ongoing point of contention between the two countries.

In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand
Mortimer Durand
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India.-Background:Born at Sehore, Bhopal, India, he was the son of Sir Henry Marion Durand, the Resident of Baroda and he was educated at Blackheath Proprietary School, and Tonbridge School.-Career:Durand...

 was deputed to Kabul by the government of British India for this purpose of settling an exchange of territory required by the demarcation of the boundary between northeastern Afghanistan and the Russian possessions, and in order to discuss with the Amir Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.The third son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, and grandson of Dost Mohammad Khan, Abdur Rahman Khan was considered a strong ruler who re-established the writ of the Afghan government in Kabul after the disarray that followed the second...

 other pending questions. The Amir showed his ability in diplomatic argument, in tenacity where his own views or claims were in debate, with a sure underlying insight into the real situation.

The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the British Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 on the east, towards India.

In 1893 during rule of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan a "Royal Commission for setting up of Boundary" the Durand Line between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and the British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

-governed India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 was set up, to negotiate terms with the British, for the Agreeing to the Durand line
Durand Line
The Durand Line refers to the porous international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan, which has divided the ethnic Pashtuns . This poorly marked line is approximately long...

 , and the two parties camped at Parachinar
Parachinar
Parachinar is the capital of Kurram Agency, FATA of Pakistan. It is about 290 km west of the capital, Islamabad...

, now part of FATA
Fata
The FATA or FC-ATA is a type of computer hard disk drive. FATA is simply the low cost ATA or SATA disk drive equipped with a small external converter, that changes the interface to Fibre Channel...

 Pakistan, which is near Khost
Khost
Khost or Khowst is a city in eastern Afghanistan. It is the capital of Khost province, which is a mountainous region near Afghanistan's border with Pakistan...

 Afghanistan.

From the British side the camp was attended by Sir Mortimer Durand and Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum, Political Agent Khyber
Khyber
The term Khyber may refer to:*The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a province of Pakistan*The Khyber Pass, a mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan.*The Khyber Agency, part of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan....

.

The Afghanistan side was represented by Sahibzada Abdul Latif
Sahibzada Abdul Latif
Sahibzada Abdul Latif was an Afghan of Khost. He was born in Sayed Ga of Tani District in Khost Province, Afghanistan in 1853, to Sahibzada Mohmmad Shareef. He had two brothers, Sahibzada Abdul Aziz and Sahibzada Abdul Haleef...

 and the Governor Khost
Khost
Khost or Khowst is a city in eastern Afghanistan. It is the capital of Khost province, which is a mountainous region near Afghanistan's border with Pakistan...

Sardar Shireendil Khan
Sardar Shireendil Khan
In the year 1893 during rule of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan a Royal Commission for setting up of Boundary the Durand line between Afghanistan and the British governed India was set up to negotiate terms with the British, for the agreeing to the Durand line, and the two parties camped at...

 representing the Amir.

Peshawar post-Independence



In 1947, Peshawar became part of the newly independent state of Pakistan after politicians from the Frontier approved merger into the state that had just gained independence from Britain. While a large majority of people approved of this action, a small minority believed that South Asians needed to be united against the British and could form a confederation, such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan. However, the call for a united India was deeply unpopular with the locals, who did not identify at all as Indians. Still others believed that the province should have ascended to Afghanistan – a position which later evolved into a call for the creation of Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
Pakhtunistan or Pashtunistan, meaning the "land of Pakhtuns" or "land of Pashtuns", is a modern term used for the historical region inhabited by the native Afghans or Pashtun since at least the 1st millennium BC...

, a state independent of both Pakistan and Afghanistan.

A segment of the region's populace believed that the province should have been given the option to be fully incorporated into Afghanistan in 1947 - a stance which various Afghan governments actively supported. In attempt to take advantage of Pakistan's post-independence instability, Afghanistan crafted a two-fold strategy to destabilize the NWFP. Firstly, it strongly aligned itself with Pakistan's rival, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, and also the USSR, which later invaded Afghanistan. Secondly, it politically and financially back secessionist leaders in the NWFP in the 1960's. Afghanistan's policies severely strained Pakistan-Afghanistan relations in the 1960's up until the 1970's, when the movement largely subsided as the population came to thoroughly identify with Pakistan, although resentment against the Punjabi
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 elite continued to foster. Pashtun assimilation into the Pakistani state followed years of rising Pashtun influence in Pakistani politics and bureaucracy, and culminated with the Ayub Khan
Ayub Khan
Muhammad Ayub Khan , N.Pk., H.Pk., HJ, psc, was a 5-star General and self-appointed Field Marshal in the Pakistan Army and the first military dictator, and Chief Martial Law Administrator of Pakistan...

, a Pashtun, being installed as President of Pakistan. The largest nationalist part of the time, the ANP
ANP
ANP is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below:*Adult Nurse Practitioner*Afghan National Police*Acadia National Park*American Nazi Party, an American Neo-Nazi political party....

, dropped a secessionist agenda, and openly embraced the Pakistani state, leaving only the small and relatively insignificant Pakhtunkhwa Millat Party to champion to cause of independence from both Pakistan and Afghanistan. Despite the weaknesses of the early secessionist movement, it still negatively influences Pakistan-Afghanistan relations until the present day, and casts a shadow on the province's politics.

Until the mid-1950s, Peshawar was enclosed within a city wall and sixteen gates. Of the old city gates, the most famous was the Kabuli Gate but only the name remains to this date. Peshawar has not grown as much in size or capacity as the population has. As a result it has become a polluted and overcrowded city.

During the 1980s Soviet war in Afghanistan
Soviet war in Afghanistan
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers...

, Peshawar served as a political centre for the CIA and Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence , is Pakistan's premier intelligence agency, responsible for providing critical national security intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan...

-trained mujahideen groups based in Afghan refugees, such as at the Jalozai
Jalozai
Jalozai refugee camp, 35 kilometres southeast of Peshawar, Pakistan, was one of the largest of 150 refugee or transit camps in Pakistan, holding Afghan refugees from the 1980s Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. It had an estimated 70,000 refugees at its peak. New Jalozai adjoined the original Jalozai...

 refugee camp
Refugee camp
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees. Hundreds of thousands of people may live in any one single camp. Usually they are built and run by a government, the United Nations, or international organizations, or NGOs.Refugee camps are generally set up in an impromptu...

. Soviet agents often infiltrated these organizations, and violence often erupted on Peshawar's streets as it was the scene of a proxy war between Soviet agents and US-backed insurgents.

There were a total of about 100,000 Afghan refugees registered in Peshawar during the 1988 election when Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

 was running for Prime Minister of Pakistan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

, although hundreds of thousands more were in the city illegally. Peshawar managed to assimilate many of the ethnic Pashtun Afghans with relative ease and many of them still remain in Pakistan illegally.

Peshawar continues to be a city that links Pakistan with Afghanistan as well as Central Asia, and has emerged as an important regional city in Pakistan. It remains a focal point for Pashtun culture
Pashtun culture
Pashtun culture is based on Pashtunwali, which is an ancient way of life, as well as speaking of the Pashto language and wearing Pashtun dress. The culture of the Pashtun people is highlighted since at least the time of Herodotus or Alexander the Great, when he explored the Afghanistan and...

. Today, like the surrounding region, it is at the crossroads of the struggle between the extremist Taliban and moderates, liberals and Pashtun nationalists. As a demonstration of their determination to destroy Pashtun icons, the Taliban bombed the shrine of the Pashtun poet Rahman Baba
Rahman Baba
Abdul Rahman Baba is popularly known as Rahman Baba , was a Pashtun Muslim poet from Peshawar in modern-day Pakistan who remains the most popular poet among the Pashtuns...

 in 2009.

Geography


Peshawar is situated near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
The Khyber Pass, is a mountain pass linking Pakistan and Afghanistan.The Pass was an integral part of the ancient Silk Road. It is mentioned in the Bible as the "Pesh Habor," and it is one of the oldest known passes in the world....

 and sits mainly on the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
The Iranian plateau, or Iranic plateau, is a geological formation in Southwest Asia. It is the part of the Eurasian Plate wedged between the Arabian and Indian plates, situated between the Zagros mountains to the west, the Caspian Sea and the Kopet Dag to the north, the Hormuz Strait and Persian...

 along with the rest of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

The Vale of Peshawar is covered with consolidated deposits of silt, sands and gravel of recent geological times. The flood Plains/Zones are the areas between Kabul River
Kabul River
Kabul River , the classical Cophes , is a 700 km long river that starts in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush Mountains in Afghanistan and ends in the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan. It is the main river in eastern Afghanistan and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass...

 and Budni Nala. The meander flood plain extends from Warsak in the Northwest towards Southeast in the upper Northern half of the district. The Kabul river enters the district in the Northwest. On entering the Peshawar Plain, the Kabul River is divided into several channels. Its two main channels are the Adizai River Eastward flows along the boundary with Charsadda District. Another channel branching from the right bank of the Naguman River is the Shah Alam, which again merges with Naguman River further in the East. In general the sub-soil strata is composed of gravels, boulders, and sands overlain by silts and clays. Sand, gravel and boulders are important aquifer extends to a depth of about 200 feet (61 m). As further confined water bearing aquifer occurs at depths greater than 400 feet (121.9 m).

Climate


Peshawar under Koppen's climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 features a semi-arid climate with very hot summers and mild winters. "Winter" in Peshawar, starts in mid November and ends in late March. Summer months are May to September. The mean maximum temperature in summer is surpasses 40 °C (104 °F) during the hottest month and the mean minimum temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). The mean minimum temperature during winter is 4 °C (39.2 °F) and maximum is 18.35 °C (65 °F).

Peshawar is not a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 region, unlike other parts of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. But still rainfall is received both in winter and in the summer. The winter rainfall due to western disturbances shows a higher record during the months of February and April. The highest winter rainfall of 236 millimetres (9.3 in) has been recorded in February 2007, while the highest summer rainfall of 402 millimetres (15.8 in) has been recorded in the month of July 2010. In which a record breaking rain of 274 millimetres (10.8 in) fell during 24 hours on July 29, 2010. previously 187 mm (7.36 inches) of rain was recorded in April 2009. The average winter rainfall is higher than that of the summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average 30-year annual precipitation has been recorded as 400 millimetres (15.7 in).The highest annual rainfall of 904.5 millimetres (35.6 in) has been recorded in 2003. Wind speeds vary during the year from 5 kn (6.1 mph; 9.8 km/h) in December to 24 kn (29.2 mph; 47 km/h) in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August.The highest temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) has been recorded on June 18, 1995. While the lowest -3.9 C occurred on January 7, 1970.

Peshawar's environment has suffered tremendously due to an ever increasing population, unplanned growth and a poor regulatory framework. Air and noise pollution is a significant issue in several parts of the city, and the water quality, once considered to be exceptionally good, is also fast deteriorating.

In addition the city has lost 2700 acres (1,092.7 ha) of agriculture land during the two decades (1965–85). This in the addition to 400 acres (161.9 ha) of vacant land that has been also eaten up by expending urban functions. In the same period, the land under parks and green space has shrunk from 163 –.

Demographics



Peshawar is a rapidly growing city with a population of 2,982,816 in 1998. The current population growth rate is 3.29% per year, which is higher than the average of many other Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

i cities.

Peshawar's inhabitants consist mainly of Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 and Hindkowans
Hindkowans
Hindkowans or known locally as "Chachi's" are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab provinces of Pakistan...

. In addition, tens thousands of Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks
Uzbeks
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, and large populations can also be found in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Pakistan, Mongolia and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China...

, Persians
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, Punjabi
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

s, Chitral
Chitral
Chitral or Chetrar , translated as field in the native language Khowar, is the capital of the Chitral District, situated on the western bank of the Kunar River , in Pakistan. The town is at the foot of Tirich Mir, the highest peak of the Hindu Kush, high...

is and Gypsies can be found in the city. Languages such as Pashto, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, Khowar, Dari
Dari (Eastern Persian)
Dari or Fārsī-ye Darī in historical terms refers to the Persian court language of the Sassanids. In contemporary usage, the term refers to the dialects of modern Persian language spoken in Afghanistan, and hence known as Afghan Persian in some Western sources. It is the term officially recognized...

, Hindko, Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

 and Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 are spoken in Peshawar, although only Urdu, Persian, and Pashto to a much smaller extent, are found as written languages in the city.
  • Urban Population: 51.32% (1,536,000 persons)
  • Rural Population: 48.68% (1,600,000 persons)
  • Male/Female ratio: 1.1:1
  • Average annual growth rate 3.56%


In 2002, on the growth rate of 3.56% population doubled in 20 years from 1.1 million in 1981 to 2.242 million in 2002. Peshawar District
Peshawar District
Peshawar is a district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Until divisions were abolished as part of local government reforms in 2000 it was part of Peshawar Division. The city of Peshawar, as well as being the provincial capital, is the capital of the district...

 covers a large area extending over 50 kilometres (31.1 mi) from north to south and over 30 kilometres (18.6 mi) from east to west. It is situated at an altitude of 359 m (1,138 ft) above sea level. The Peshawar valley is nearly circular, extending from the Indus to the Khyber Hills. It is bounded on the North and North East by hills, which separate it from the Swat Valley. In the Northwest are the rugged mountains of Khyber
Khyber
The term Khyber may refer to:*The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a province of Pakistan*The Khyber Pass, a mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan.*The Khyber Agency, part of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan....

 and to the South is the continuation of spur which branches off from Safed Koh
Safed Koh
Spin Ghar or Safed Kuh or the Indian Caucasus, also known as the Safīd Mountain Range or Morga Range, is a mountain range on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, up to above sea-level at Mount Sikaram, straight and rigid, towering above all surrounding hills...

 (the famous white mountain on the Afghan border) and runs to Indus. The lower portion of this branch separates the district of Peshawar and Kohat
Kohat
Kohat is a medium sized town in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located at 33°35'13N 71°26'29E with an altitude of 489 metres and is the capital of Kohat District. The town centres around a British-era fort, various bazaars, and a military cantonment. A British-built narrow gauge...

.

Over 99% of the city's population is Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

, mostly Sunnis
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

 with Twelver Shias as the minority. Despite the overwhelmingly Islamic nature of modern Peshawar, the city was previously home to other smaller communities such as Bukharan Jews
Bukharan Jews
Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews or Bukhari Jews, or яҳудиёни Бухоро Yahūdieni Bukhoro , Bukhori Hebrew Script: יהודיאני בוכאראי and יהודיאני בוכארי), also called the Binai Israel, are Jews from Central Asia who speak Bukhori, a dialect of the Tajik-Persian language...

, Zoroastrians, and Bahá'í
Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

s. There is still a significant number of Sikhs, and smaller communities of Hindus and Christians.

Culture



Peshawar is the centre of culture of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Its culture has evolved over the years and has been principally influenced by Ghandhara culture, Pakhtun culture and Hindko culture. Although the province in which Peshawar is located has predominantly Pakhtun population however Peshawar itself till 1980s had predominantly Hindko speaking population. These Hindko speaking people are anicient inhabitants of the land. Although Pakhtun and Hindko culture have many things in common but since the Hindko speaking people are mostly urbanites whereas majority of Pakhtuns until recently came from rural background therefore the customs of these two differ in some respects like marriage ceremonies, living style, etc.

With the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s and the influx of Afghan refugees into Pakistan, Peshawar became home for many Afghan musicians and artists. The city has become the centre for Pashto music and cinema as well Persian
Dari (Eastern Persian)
Dari or Fārsī-ye Darī in historical terms refers to the Persian court language of the Sassanids. In contemporary usage, the term refers to the dialects of modern Persian language spoken in Afghanistan, and hence known as Afghan Persian in some Western sources. It is the term officially recognized...

 music for the Tajiks. There is also a thriving book publishing activity in the Persian language in Peshawar, concentrated primarily on Islamic Shia literature and located in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar
Qissa Khawani Bazaar
The Kissa Khwani Bazaar is a bazaar of Peshawar, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan...

 .

However, the election of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal is a coalition of Islamist parties that was formed in 2002 to electorally challenge the Pakistan Parliament's incumbent parties...

 (MMA) Islamic coalition in 2002 resulted in restrictions on public musical performances, as well as a ban on playing recorded music on public transports. Peshawar has become host to a thriving underground scene. In 2008, the secular Awami National Party
Awami National Party
The Awami National Party is an Pashtun nationalist, socialist, centre-left political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International...

 (ANP) swept elections and won power from the Islamic coalition. Since then, some restrictions have been lifted, but there has not been a full restoration of the liberties guaranteed before the MMA victory in 2002.

The historic old city of Peshawar was once a heavily guarded citadel with high walls. Today, not much remains of the walls, but the houses and havelis have an essence of days gone by. Most of the houses are made of unbaked bricks with wooden structures for protection against earthquakes. Many of them have beautifully carved wooden doors and latticed wooden balconies. Areas such as Sethi Mohallah
Sethi Mohallah
Sethi Mohallah is an area in the heart of the walled city of Peshawar. The Mohallah contains seven houses built by the Sethis...

 still contain many fine examples of the old architecture of Peshawar. There are many historic monuments and bazaars in the Old city, including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque
Mohabbat Khan Mosque
The Mohabbat Khan Mosque is a 17th century Mosque in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. It is named after the Mughal governor of Peshawar Nawab Mohabbat Khan who served under Emperors Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb and who was the grandson of Nawab Dadan Khan .The Mosque was built in 1670s, and is...

 and Kotla Mohsin Khan
Kotla Mohsin Khan
Kotla Mohsin Khan was constructed in the mid 16th century in the old city of Peshawar, and today consists of two domed tombs and the famous majestic gateway, it was also the residence of Mazullah Khan, seventeenth century Pashto poet....

, Chowk Yadgar
Chowk Yadgar
Chowk Yadgar or “The Square of Remembrance” is a famous landmark of Peshawar. Its location at the heart of the old walled city of Peshawar makes it a must see for every traveler. It is located at the convergence point of different major roads and bazaars of the old city.-History:The first “Dome...

 and the Qissa Khawani Bazaar
Qissa Khawani Bazaar
The Kissa Khwani Bazaar is a bazaar of Peshawar, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan...

. This part of inner Peshawar has been damaged by rapid growth and development and is in need of urgent protection.

The walled city was surrounded by several main gates which served as the main entry points into the city, some of which still survive today. They include: Lahori Gate, Sarasia Gate, Ganj Gate, Sirki Gate, Sard Chah Gate, Kohati Gate Former Gates which were demolished during wars were Kabuli Gate, Berikian Gate, Bajori Gate, Yakatut Gate, Dabgari Gate, Kachahri Gate, and Hasht Nagri Gate.

Educational institutions


With the level of higher education on the rise, there has been a surge of prestigious educational institutions in Peshawar. The prestigious University of Peshawar
University of Peshawar
The University of Peshawar is a public sector university in the city of Peshawar, Pakistan. The university was established in October 1950 by Mr...

 (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 in Peshawar. Edwardes College which was founded in 1900 by Herbert Edwardes is the oldest and one of the finest colleges in the province. The Islamia College
Islamia College (Peshawar)
Islamia College is a renowned educational institution located in the city of Peshawar in the Khyber-Pukhtoonkhwa province of Pakistan. It was founded in October 1913 by regional leader Nawab Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum and then Chief Commissioner of the province Sir George Roos-Keppel in an effort...

 was founded in 1913 and is also a well known institution that is now part of the University of Peshawar
University of Peshawar
The University of Peshawar is a public sector university in the city of Peshawar, Pakistan. The university was established in October 1950 by Mr...

.

Landmarks



Peshawar is one of the oldest cities of the world. It is a conservative Islamic city with a rich history. It offers everything from goldsmith
Goldsmith
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Since ancient times the techniques of a goldsmith have evolved very little in order to produce items of jewelry of quality standards. In modern times actual goldsmiths are rare...

s and silversmith
Silversmith
A silversmith is a craftsperson who makes objects from silver or gold. The terms 'silversmith' and 'goldsmith' are not synonyms as the techniques, training, history, and guilds are or were largely the same but the end product varies greatly as does the scale of objects created.Silversmithing is the...

s, traditional carpets (one of the big exports of Pakistan today), pottery, and clothing to artwork in wood, brass or semi-precious stones. The old walled city was known for its 16 gates: Hashtnagri, Lahori, Ganj, Yakka Thoot, Kohati, Sirki, Sard Chah, Beriskian, Ramdas, Dabgari, Bajouri, Kabuli, Asamai, Kachehri, Reti and Rampura Gate. The names given to these gates are significant. It was Sikh General Avitabile who built a mud wall surrounding the city. Under the British nearly the whole of the enclosure wall had been built of pucca brick.  There are many bazaars with different goods and souvenirs for travellers. The main ones include the historic Qissa Khawani Bazaar
Qissa Khawani Bazaar
The Kissa Khwani Bazaar is a bazaar of Peshawar, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan...

, the Copper market, Chowk Yadgar and Andarsheher Bazaar. In addition because of its access to the Khyber pass, the Khyber train safari
Khyber train safari
The Khyber train safari is a railway route in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The colonial era railway route has been described as "a journey into time and history". It consists of a train pulled by two vintage steam locomotives built in 1920s that takes passengers through breathtaking and...

 starts from here.
  • General
    • Governor's House
      Governor's House (Peshawar)
      The Governor's House in Peshawar, Pakistan is a historic building, amidst what is now a park. It is close to the Peshawar Museum....

    • Mattani
      Mattani
      Mattani is located near Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.Mattani is a village and Union councils of Peshawar Town-IV situated on the Kohat road in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan....

    • Peshawar Garrison Club
      Peshawar Garrison Club
      The Peshawar Garrison Services Club in Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan is situated on Sir Syed Road near the Mall. It is the former cantonment club house....

    • Aviator's Station – The site where freedom fighters of the 1857 independence movement were blown from guns.
    • Kotla Mohsin Khan
      Kotla Mohsin Khan
      Kotla Mohsin Khan was constructed in the mid 16th century in the old city of Peshawar, and today consists of two domed tombs and the famous majestic gateway, it was also the residence of Mazullah Khan, seventeenth century Pashto poet....

       – The residence of Mazullah Khan, seventeenth century Pashtu poet.
    • Durrani Graveyard
    • Kochi Bazar
    • Qissa Khwani Bazaar
    • Sethi Mohallah
      Sethi Mohallah
      Sethi Mohallah is an area in the heart of the walled city of Peshawar. The Mohallah contains seven houses built by the Sethis...

    • Garhi Qamardin
    • Michni check Post-Last Border Post of Pakistan
      Pakistan
      Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

       with Afghanistan
      Afghanistan
      Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

       Border.
    • Residence of Prithviraj Kapoor
      Prithviraj Kapoor
      Prithviraj Kapoor , 3 November 1906 – 29 May 1972) was a pioneer of Indian theatre and of the Hindi film industry, who started his career as an actor, in the silent era of Hindi cinema, associated with IPTA and who founded Prithvi Theatres, a travelling theatre company based in Mumbai, in...

      ,Famous Bollywood
      Bollywood
      Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

       actor.

  • Forts
    • Bala Hisar Fort
      Bala Hisar Fort
      Bala Hisar Fort is one of the most historic places of Peshawar. The word Bala Hisar is from Persian, meaning, “elevated or high fort”. According to Dr. Hussain Khan, the name was given by the Afghan King Timur Shah Durrani...

    • Burj Hari Singh – Sikh fort founded by Sikh General Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa
      Hari Singh Nalwa
      Hari Singh Nalwa was Commander-in-chief of the Khalsa, the army of the Sikh Empire. He is known for his role in the conquests of Kasur, Sialkot, Multan, Kashmir, Attock, and Peshawar. He led the Sikh Army in freeing Shah Shuja from Kashmir and secured the Koh-i-Nor diamond for Maharaja Ranjit Singh...

       (no longer exists)

  • Hospitals
    • Lady Reading Hospital
      Lady Reading Hospital
      The Lady Reading Hospital is located at Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan. It is one of the most important Post Graduate Medical Institute in Pakistan. It is also called loye huspatal and Gernali Huspatal...

    • Khyber Teaching Hospital
      Khyber Teaching Hospital
      Khyber Teaching Hospital is a university hospital of Khyber Medical College in the city of Peshawar, Pakistan. KTH is one of the largest hospitals in the country. It is a tertiary health care facility serving a large population of the NWFP province...

    • Hayatabad Medical Complex
      Hayatabad Medical Complex
      The Hayatabad Medical Complex is a large medical complex and a newly built state-of-the-art hospital located in the Hayatabad suburb of Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is the second largest hospital in the city and is also a medical postgraduate training centre equipped with modern...

    • Rehman Medical Complex
    • North-West Hospital
    • Govt.Children Hospital,HajiCamp,Peshawar

  • Colonial monuments

    • Bara Bridge built by Mughal
      Mughal Empire
      The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

       rulers in 1629.
    • Chowk Yadgar
      Chowk Yadgar
      Chowk Yadgar or “The Square of Remembrance” is a famous landmark of Peshawar. Its location at the heart of the old walled city of Peshawar makes it a must see for every traveler. It is located at the convergence point of different major roads and bazaars of the old city.-History:The first “Dome...

       – Formerly Hastings memorial
    • Cunningham clock tower
      Cunningham clock tower
      The Cunningham Clock Tower in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, was built in 1900 "in Commemoration of the Diamond jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Empress". The tower was is named after Sir George Cunningham, former British governor and political agent in the province....

       built in 1900. Called Ghanta Ghar
      Ghanta Ghar
      Ghanta Ghar literally means Hour House as Clock House or Clock Tower. There are several Ghanta Ghars in Pakistan and Nepal.* Ghanta Ghar in Karachi, Sindh* Ghanta Ghar in Multan, Punjab* Ghanta Ghar in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa...

    • Avitabile's Pavilion
    • Edwardes School – The residence of Yar Mohammad Khan, the last Durrani Governor of Peshawar

  • Buddhist
    • Gor Khuttree
      Gor Khuttree
      Gor Khuttree is a neighbourhood of Peshawar city, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.- History :Gor Khuttree in the ancient city of Peshawar was identified by Sir Alexander Cunningham with Kanishka Vihara while Professor Dr Ahmad Hasan Dani identified it with the place where the famous tower...

       – An ancient site of Buddha's alms or begging bowl. Headquarter of Syed Ahmad Shaheed, Governor Avitabile
    • Pashto Academy – The site of an ancient Buddhist University
    • Shah Ji Ki Dheri – The site of Kanishka's famous Buddhist monastery.

  • Hindu
    • Panch Tirath – An ancient Hindu site now converted into a park

  • Sikh
    • Sikh Gurudwara
      Gurdwara
      A Gurdwara , meaning the Gateway to the Guru, is the place of worship for Sikhs, the followers of Sikhism. A Gurdwara can be identified from a distance by tall flagpoles bearing the Nishan Sahib ....

       at Jogan Shah

  • Mausoleums
    • Tomb of Hazrat Syed Talib Mohayyudin Chishti(R.A) Almaroof Chishti Baba G Lajpal,Shrine is situated in Hazar Khwani graveyard (died 1928).
    • Tomb of Sheikh Imamuddin (died 1650) at Palosi Piran.
    • Tomp of Syed Abdul Wahab Akhun Panju Baba Akbarpura
    • Tomb of Rahman Baba
      Rahman Baba
      Abdul Rahman Baba is popularly known as Rahman Baba , was a Pashtun Muslim poet from Peshawar in modern-day Pakistan who remains the most popular poet among the Pashtuns...

       (died 1706)
    • Tomb of Akhund Darweza (died 1638)
    • Tomb of Sheikh Sultan Baba
    • Mausoleum of Nawab Sayed Khan
    • Ziarat of Ashab Baba
    • Ziarat of [Hazrat Syed Shah Qabool Auliya]
    • Ziarat of [Syed Hassan Badshah]
    • Ziarat of [Agha Mir Jani]
    • Burj-e-Roshnai
      Burj-e-Roshnai
      Burj-e-Roshnai is located in Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. There are two historical tombs located in Kotla Mohsin Khan, Peshawar, they are called Burj-e-Roshnai. They are one of the great architectural signs of the Mughal dynasty....


  • Educational Institutes
    • University of Peshawar
      University of Peshawar
      The University of Peshawar is a public sector university in the city of Peshawar, Pakistan. The university was established in October 1950 by Mr...

    • Khyber Medical University
      Khyber Medical University
      Khyber Medical University, in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, is first public sector medical university. It was established in January 2007 with jurisdiction on the entire province including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas....

    • University of Engineering and Technology
      University of Engineering and Technology (Peshawar)
      The University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar is a public, coeducational, university located in Peshawar, Pakistan. The Earthquake Engineering Center of the Civil Engineering department played a key role after the October 8, 2005 earthquake...

    • Agricultural University (Peshawar)
      Agricultural University (Peshawar)
      Agricultural University, Peshawer is a research-based Agricultural University in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The university is ranked as second best in agriculture after Agricultural University, Faisalabad.-History:...

    • Gandhara University
      Gandhara University
      Founded initially in 1995 as Gandhara Institute of Medical Sciences in Peshawar, Pakistan, as the first private Medical college in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.Gandhara University became the first private University in the Province in November 2002....

    • Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology
      Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology
      Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology is an institute of higher education in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Established in 2001, the university offers a wide range of programs from bachelor to doctoral level...

    • Cecos University
    • City University of Science & Technology
    • Preston University of Science and Technology.
    • National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (FAST-NU), (Peshawar Campus)
    • Qurtabah University of Science and Technology.
    • Iqra National University,Peshawar.
    • Edwardes College
      Edwardes College
      Edwardes College is an undergraduate and graduate institution in the city of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province along Pakistan’s northwest border with Afghanistan...

    • Islamia College
      Islamia College
      Islamia College may refer to:*Islamia College , Lahore, Pakistan*Amiruddaula Islamia Degree College, Lucknow, India*Islamia College , Peshawar, Pakistan*Islamia Science College , Karachi, Pakistan...

    • Razi Institute of Medical Sciences
    • Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar
  • Parks
    • Army Stadium
      Army Stadium
      Army Stadium may refer to* Army Stadium * Army Stadium...

       – Amusement Park for children and families with restaurants, banks, play pens and shopping arcade.
    • Bagh-e-Naraan - Situated in Hayatabad; the largest and most beautiful in Peshawar.
    • Cunningham Park/Jinnah Park- Situated opposite Historic Bala Hisar Fort, close to Asamai Gate and Lady Reading Hospital.
    • Wazir Bagh – Laid in 1802, by Fatteh Khan, Prime Minister of Shah Mahmud Khan.
    • Ali Mardan Khan
      Ali Mardan Khan
      Ali Mardan Khan was a Kurdish noble at the court of Safavid King Shah Tahmasp but after surrendering the Afghan city of Qandahar to Emperor Shah Jahan in 1638, he was a well recognised figure at the Mughal court.-Life:...

       Gardens – Formerly Company Bagh now Khalid bin Waleed Park.
    • Shahi Bagh – A small portion of which constitutes the current site of Arbab Niaz Stadium
      Arbab Niaz Stadium
      Arbab Niaz Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It replaced the Peshawar Club Ground as the home ground for the Peshawar cricket team in 1985. The ground has hosted 17 ODIs since 1984 , and seven Test matches since 1995, most recently in 2003...

      .
    • Garrison Park – Located at Prime Location of Shami Road under Army Control.
    • Tatara Park – Located in Hayatabad for children and families.

  • Mosques


    • Mohabbat Khan Mosque
      Mohabbat Khan Mosque
      The Mohabbat Khan Mosque is a 17th century Mosque in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. It is named after the Mughal governor of Peshawar Nawab Mohabbat Khan who served under Emperors Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb and who was the grandson of Nawab Dadan Khan .The Mosque was built in 1670s, and is...

    • Speen Jumat
    • Ganj Ali Khan Mosque
    • Qasim Ali Khan Mosque
    • Sonehri Masjid
    • Zarghooni Mosque,
    • Bilal Masjid,Shami Road

  • Museums
    • Peshawar Museum
      Peshawar Museum
      The Peshawar Museum is a Museum situated in the historic city of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.-Introduction:Situated between the old Deans Hotel and the Old city, about five minutes walk from Jail Bridge and the Railway station....

       (Victoria Memorial Hall)
    • Agha Khan Museum, Peshawar University

  • Shopping
    • Saddar Bazar-The main Shopping Center of Peshawar
    • Qissa Khawani Bazaar
      Qissa Khawani Bazaar
      The Kissa Khwani Bazaar is a bazaar of Peshawar, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan...

      -Historical Bazar of Peshawar
    • Karkhano Market
      Karkhano Market
      The Karkhano market, located in Peshawar, Pakistan, established in 1985 has more than 4,500 shops, owned by both Pakistani and Afghan Pashtun traders. This market gets a huge amount of contraband from smugglers and us army. The Market sells anything from electronics to clothing including weapons,...

      ,World biggest smuggled good Market

Transport



The main transport infrastructure in Peshawar is provided by an international airport
Peshawar International Airport
Peshawar International Airport is an airport located in the city of Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Located about a 10-minute drive from the centre of Peshawar, it is the fourth busiest airport in Pakistan...

 (served by all Pakistani airlines and several major foreign airlines), a major railway station
Peshawar Railway Station
Peshawar Railway Station is located in middle of the Peshawar City, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Peshawar Railway Station is staffed and has a booking office.-Train routes:...

 (operated by Pakistan Railways
Pakistan Railways
This article is about the rail company in Pakistan. For technical details and operations see: Transport in Pakistan.Pakistan Railways is a national state-owned rail transport service of Pakistan, head-quartered in Lahore. It is administered by the federal government under the Ministry of Railways....

), and links to several highways including the Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road
The Grand Trunk Road also formerly known as Uttarapatha, Shah Rah-e-Azam or Sadak-e-Azam or Badshahi Sadak is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads...

 and the Karakoram Highway
Karakoram Highway
The Karakoram Highway is the highest paved international road in the world, but at its peak at the China-Pakistan border it is only paved on the Chinese side. It connects China and Pakistan across the Karakoram mountain range, through the Khunjerab Pass, at an altitude of as confirmed by both...

, enabling road, rail and air connections to all Pakistani cities as well as neighbouring countries like Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

. Within the city, there are several methods of travel available including coaches, buses, auto rickshaw
Auto rickshaw
An auto rickshaw or three-wheeler is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw...

s, and taxis.

Sport


Arbab Niaz Stadium
Arbab Niaz Stadium
Arbab Niaz Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It replaced the Peshawar Club Ground as the home ground for the Peshawar cricket team in 1985. The ground has hosted 17 ODIs since 1984 , and seven Test matches since 1995, most recently in 2003...

 is the Test Cricket
Test cricket
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council , with four innings played between two teams of 11 players over a period of up to a maximum five days...

 ground of Peshawar.Other stadiums are Army Stadium, Peshawar Club Ground
Peshawar Club Ground
The Peshawar Club Ground is a cricket ground in Peshawar, Pakistan, used for one Test match between India and Pakistan. It staged first class cricket matches from 1938 to 1987.-History of matches:...

 and Qayyum Stadium
Qayyum Stadium
Qayyum Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Peshawar, Pakistan. It is mostly used for cricket and football matches. The stadium holds 15,000 people....

. Cricket is the most popular sport in Peshawar. Peshawar is home to the Peshawar Panthers
Peshawar Panthers
The Peshawar Panthers are a Twenty-20 Cup team based in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The team was established in 2004 and its home ground is Arbab Niaz Stadium. The team is one of several proposed franchises for the Pakistan Super League...

. Hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

 and Squash
Squash (sport)
Squash is a high-speed racquet sport played by two players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball...

 are the other popular sports here.

NeighbourHoods of Peshawar

  • Hashtnagri
  • Swati Gate
  • Badaber
  • Hayatabad
    Hayatabad
    Hayatabad is a posh, modern suburb on the south-western fringe of Peshawar, the capital of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It was named after Hayat Sherpao late Governor of NWFP & notable leader of Pakistan Peoples Party...

  • Gulbhar
  • Pahari Pura
  • Sethi Town (Haji Camp)
    Sethi Town (Haji Camp)
    Sethi Town is a neighborhood in Haji Camp, Peshawar, Pakistan located in east of Historic Peshawar city near famous "HajiCamp Bus Terminal" of Peshawar ....

  • Momin Town (Dalazak Road)
  • Latifabad
  • Nishterabad
  • Sikander Town
  • University Town
  • Danish Abad
    Danish Abad
    Danish Abad , literally "town of intellect", is a suburb town of Peshawar the capital city of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. It was named after the first settlers in the locality.-History:Previously the area consisted of cultivated fields...

  • Regi Lalma Model town
  • Tahkal
  • Faqirabad
  • Karimpura
  • Garhikhana
  • Gulberg
  • Nothia

Sister Cities of Peshawar

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Ürümqi , formerly Tihwa , is the capital of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, in the northwest of the country....

, China Makassar
Makassar
Makassar, is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island. From 1971 to 1999, the city was named Ujung Pandang, after a precolonial fort in the city, and the two names are often used interchangeably...

, Indonesia Sana'a
Sana'a
-Districts:*Al Wahdah District*As Sabain District*Assafi'yah District*At Tahrir District*Ath'thaorah District*Az'zal District*Bani Al Harith District*Ma'ain District*Old City District*Shu'aub District-Old City:...

, Yemen (since 24 August 2011)

External links