Olympic Stadium (Munich)

Olympic Stadium (Munich)

Overview
Olympiastadion is a stadium located in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Situated at the heart of the Olympiapark München in northern Munich, the stadium was built as the main venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics
1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972....

.

With an original capacity of 80,000, the stadium also hosted many major football matches including the 1974 World Cup Final
1974 FIFA World Cup
The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany from 13 June to 7 July. The tournament marked the first time that the current trophy, the FIFA World Cup Trophy, created by the Italian sculptor Silvio Gazzaniga, was awarded...

 and the Euro '88 Final. It hosted the European Cup Final
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League, known simply the Champions League and originally known as the European Champion Clubs' Cup or European Cup, is an annual international club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations since 1955 for the top football clubs in Europe. It...

s of 1979, 1993 and 1997.

Until the construction of the Allianz Arena
Allianz Arena
The Allianz Arena is a football stadium in the north of Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The two professional Munich football clubs FC Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 München have played their home games at Allianz Arena since the start of the 2005–06 season...

 for the 2006 World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

, the stadium was home to Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 Munich.
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Encyclopedia
Olympiastadion is a stadium located in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Situated at the heart of the Olympiapark München in northern Munich, the stadium was built as the main venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics
1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972....

.

With an original capacity of 80,000, the stadium also hosted many major football matches including the 1974 World Cup Final
1974 FIFA World Cup
The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany from 13 June to 7 July. The tournament marked the first time that the current trophy, the FIFA World Cup Trophy, created by the Italian sculptor Silvio Gazzaniga, was awarded...

 and the Euro '88 Final. It hosted the European Cup Final
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League, known simply the Champions League and originally known as the European Champion Clubs' Cup or European Cup, is an annual international club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations since 1955 for the top football clubs in Europe. It...

s of 1979, 1993 and 1997.

Until the construction of the Allianz Arena
Allianz Arena
The Allianz Arena is a football stadium in the north of Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The two professional Munich football clubs FC Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 München have played their home games at Allianz Arena since the start of the 2005–06 season...

 for the 2006 World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

, the stadium was home to Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 Munich. Today, the Olympiastadion holds 69,250.

Design


Designed by the German architect Günther Behnisch and the engineer Frei Otto
Frei Otto
Frei Paul Otto is a German architect and structural engineer.- Life :Otto was born in Siegmar . He studied architecture in Berlin before being drafted into the Luftwaffe as a fighter pilot in the last years of World War II...

, the Olympiastadion
Stadium
A modern stadium is a place or venue for outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.)Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event...

 was considered revolutionary for its time. This included large sweeping canopies of acrylic glass
Acrylic glass
Poly is a transparent thermoplastic, often used as a light or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is sometimes called acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate...

 stabilized by steel
Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

 cable
Rope
A rope is a length of fibres, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. It has tensile strength but is too flexible to provide compressive strength...

s that were used for the first time in a large scale. The idea was to imitate the Alps and to set a counterpart to the 1936 Summer Olympics
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona...

 in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, held during the Nazi-Regime. The sweeping and transparent canopy was to symbolize the new, democratic and optimistic Germany. This is reflected in the official motto
Motto
A motto is a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. A motto may be in any language, but Latin is the most used. The local language is usual in the mottoes of governments...

: "The Happy Games" ("Die Heiteren Spiele").

Construction


The stadium was built by Bilfinger Berger
Bilfinger Berger
Bilfinger Berger is a large, internationally active construction and services company based in Mannheim, Germany.-History:Bilfinger Berger dates back to 1880 when August Bernatz founded an engineering business which became known, from 1886 as Bernatz & Grün and, from 1892, as Grün & Bilfinger.In...

 between 1968 to 1972 in a pit made by bombings Munich suffered during World War II that made construction easy.

Post Olympic legacy



Following the Olympics, the stadium became the home of FC Bayern Munich, with their rival TSV 1860 Munich moving in during the 1990s. These two teams coexisted in the Olympiastadion until 2005, when both clubs moved to the purpose built Allianz Arena
Allianz Arena
The Allianz Arena is a football stadium in the north of Munich, Bavaria, Germany. The two professional Munich football clubs FC Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 München have played their home games at Allianz Arena since the start of the 2005–06 season...

.

Since 2005, it is the host of the yearly air and style snowboard event.

On December 31, 2006, the stadium made history as being the first venue to host the Tour de Ski
Tour de Ski
Tour de Ski is a cross-country skiing event held annually since 2007 in Central Europe, modeled on the Tour de France of cycling. Races have been held in the Czech Republic, Germany and Italy over eight days. The prize money for the event amounted to 1,055,000 Swiss francs , shared out on both men...

 cross country skiing competition. The individual sprint events, held at 1100 m, were won by Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

's Marit Bjørgen
Marit Bjørgen
Marit Bjørgen is a Norwegian cross country skier and triple olympic champion from Midtre Gauldal, Norway. Bjørgen is the most successful sprinter in Cross-Country World Cup history, with twenty-four victories. She is ranked first in the all-time Cross-Country World Cup rankings with forty-eight...

 (women) and Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

's Christoph Eigenmann
Christoph Eigenmann
Christoph Eigenmann is a Swiss cross country skier who has competed since 1998. His best World Cup finish was second in a sprint event in China in 2006....

 (men). The snow was made in the stadium by combining the hot air with the cold refrigerated water that causes the snow to act like the icy type you would see in the Alps.

It went unused in the 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

 due to the Allianz Arena being the host stadium in Munich.

On June 23 to June 24, 2007, the stadium played host to the Spar European Cup 2007
European Cup in Athletics 2007
The 2007 Spar European Cup took place on 23 and 24 June 2007 at the Olympic Stadium in Munich, Germany. This was the 27th time the European Cup has been held and the second time the event has been hosted in Munich...

, a yearly athletics event featuring the top 8 countries from around Europe.

In 2010, it was announced that a round of the DTM
Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters
The Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters is a touring car racing series based in Germany, but also with rounds elsewhere in Europe....

 touring car series will hold a stadium event in 2011
2011 Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters season
The 2011 Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters season is a multi-event motor racing series largely based in Germany for highly-modified touring car racing cars and is one of the most popular sedan car based motor racing series in the world. The series features professional motor racing teams and drivers is...

. The Race of Champions
Race of Champions
The Race of Champions is an international motorsport event held at the end of each year, featuring some of the world's best racing and rally drivers...

-style event will be a non-championship scoring round, but the entire 2011 grid will take part over a two-day period.

1974 FIFA World Cup


The stadium was one of the venues for the 1974 FIFA World Cup
1974 FIFA World Cup
The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany from 13 June to 7 July. The tournament marked the first time that the current trophy, the FIFA World Cup Trophy, created by the Italian sculptor Silvio Gazzaniga, was awarded...

.

The following games were played at the stadium during the World Cup of 1974:

Date Time (CEST) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Spectators
1974-06-15 18.00   Italy
Italy national football team
The Italy National Football Team , represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation , the governing body for football in Italy. Italy is the second most successful national team in the history of the World Cup having won four titles , just one fewer than...

3–1 Group 4 51,100
1974-06-19 19.30 0–7 Group 4 23,400
1974-06-23 16.00   Argentina
Argentina national football team
The Argentina national football team represents Argentina in association football and is controlled by the Argentine Football Association , the governing body for football in Argentina. Argentina's home stadium is Estadio Monumental Antonio Vespucio Liberti and their head coach is Alejandro...

4–1 Group 4 24,000
1974-07-06 16.00   Brazil
Brazil national football team
The Brazil national football team represents Brazil in international men's football and is controlled by the Brazilian Football Confederation , the governing body for football in Brazil. They are a member of the International Federation of Association Football since 1923 and also a member of the...

0–1 Third place match 74,100
1974-07-07 16.00   Netherlands
Netherlands national football team
The Netherlands National Football Team represents the Netherlands in association football and is controlled by the Royal Dutch Football Association , the governing body for football in the Netherlands...

1–2 Final
1974 FIFA World Cup Final
-References:...

74,100

UEFA Euro 1988


The stadium was one of the venues for the UEFA Euro 1988.

The following games were played at the stadium during the Euro 1988:

Date Time (CEST) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Spectators
1988-06-17 20.15 2–0 Group A 72,308
1988-06-25 15.30 0–2 Final
UEFA Euro 1988 Final
The UEFA Euro 1988 Final was a football match played on 25 June 1988 to determine the winner of UEFA Euro 1988. The match was contested by the Soviet Union, playing in what would turn out to be the nation's last European Championship, and the Netherlands at the Olympiastadion in Munich...

72,308

German and West German national football team matches held at the stadium

  • 26 May 1972 West Germany – USSR 4–1 (Friendly, stadium opener)
  • 9 May 1973 West Germany – Yugoslavia
    Yugoslavia national football team
    The Yugoslavia national football team represented the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in association football. It enjoyed a modicum of success in international competition. In 1992, during the Yugoslav wars, the team was suspended from international...

     0–1 (Friendly)
  • 7 July 1974 West Germany – Netherlands
    Netherlands national football team
    The Netherlands National Football Team represents the Netherlands in association football and is controlled by the Royal Dutch Football Association , the governing body for football in the Netherlands...

     2–1 (1974 World Cup Final
    1974 FIFA World Cup Final
    -References:...

    )
  • 22 May 1976 West Germany Spain
    Spain national football team
    The Spain national football team represents Spain in international association football and is controlled by the Royal Spanish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Spain. The current head coach is Vicente del Bosque...

     2–0 (Euro 1976 Qualifier)
  • 22 February 1978 West Germany – England
    England national football team
    The England national football team represents England in association football and is controlled by the Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first...

     2–1 (Friendly)
  • 2 April 1980 West Germany – Austria
    Austria national football team
    The Austria national football team is the association football team that represents the country of Austria in international competition and is controlled by the Austrian Football Association ....

     1–0 Friendly)
  • 22 September 1982 West Germany – Belgium 0–0 (Friendly)
  • 17 November 1985 West Germany – Czechoslovakia
    Czechoslovakia national football team
    The Czechoslovakia national football team was the national association football team of Czechoslovakia from 1922 to 1993. At the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the team was participating in UEFA qualifying Group 4 for the 1994 World Cup; it completed this campaign under the name...

     2–2 (1986 World Cup qualifier
    1986 FIFA World Cup qualification (UEFA)
    Listed below are the dates and results for the 1986 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds for the European zone . For an overview of the qualification rounds, see the article 1986 FIFA World Cup qualification....

    )
  • 17 June 1988 West Germany – Spain 2–0 (Euro 1988 Group match)
  • 19 October 1988 West Germany – Netherlands 0–0 (1990 World Cup qualifier
    1990 FIFA World Cup qualification (UEFA)
    The European zone of qualification for the 1990 FIFA World Cup saw 32 teams competing for 13 places at the finals. UEFA members Italy qualified automatically as hosts of the finals. The qualification process started on 21 May 1988 and ended on 18 November 1989.-Format:Teams were drawn into seven...

    )
  • 26 March 1996 Germany
    Germany national football team
    The Germany national football team is the football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908. It is governed by the German Football Association , which was founded in 1900....

     – Denmark
    Denmark national football team
    The Denmark national football team represents Denmark in association football and is controlled by the Danish Football Association , the governing body for the football clubs which are organized under DBU...

     2–0 (Friendly)
  • 9 October 1999 Germany – Turkey
    Turkey national football team
    The Turkey national football team represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey. They are affiliated with UEFA...

     0–0 (Euro 2000 qualifier)
  • 1 September 2001 Germany – England 1–5 (2002 World Cup qualifier
    2002 FIFA World Cup qualification (UEFA)
    Listed below are the dates and results for the 2002 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds for the European zone . For an overview of the qualification rounds, see the article 2002 FIFA World Cup qualification....

    )

Other uses


In addition to being a sports venue, the stadium have played host to many open-air concerts.

The American megasuperstar Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American recording artist, entertainer, and businessman. Referred to as the King of Pop, or by his initials MJ, Jackson is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time by Guinness World Records...

 performed at the stadium in five times, all sold out and with a maximum capacity of the stadium for musical concerts. The first was on July 8, 1988, during his Bad World Tour
Bad World Tour
The Bad World Tour was the first solo concert tour by American megasuperstar Michael Jackson that visited Japan, Australia, the United States and Europe. Sponsored by Pepsi and spanning 16 months, the tour included 123 concerts to 4.4 million fans across 15 countries...

, more than 72,000 fans. The second sell out concert, on June 27, 1992, started his Dangerous World Tour
Dangerous World Tour
The Dangerous World Tour was the second worldwide concert tour by American megasuperstar Michael Jackson. The tour, sponsored by Pepsi-Cola, included 69 performances to an audience of 3.5 million. All profits were donated to various charities including Jackson's own "Heal the World Foundation". The...

, Jackson's subsequent tour, to other 72,000 fans. The next two were on July 4 & 6, 1996, during his HIStory World Tour
HIStory World Tour
The HIStory World Tour was the third and final worldwide solo concert tour by American megasuperstar Michael Jackson, covering Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania and North America. The tour included a total of 82 concerts and was attended by approximately 4.5 million fans, beating his previous Bad Tour...

for a total audience of 145,000 people (the first of which was filmed and marketed worldwide). The fifth and last, on June 27, 1999, to others 72,000 fans, was during the special "Michael Jackson and His Friends
Michael Jackson
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American recording artist, entertainer, and businessman. Referred to as the King of Pop, or by his initials MJ, Jackson is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time by Guinness World Records...

"
, in which the star joined several other artists to raise funds to help needy and underprivileged children around the world.

Guns N' Roses
Guns N' Roses
Guns N' Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, in 1985. The band has released six studio albums, three EPs, and one live album...

 filmed parts of their Estranged video there when they visited Munich in June 1993. Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode are an English electronic music band formed in 1980 in Basildon, Essex. The group's original line-up consisted of Dave Gahan , Martin Gore , Andy Fletcher and Vince Clarke...

 recorded their show at the stadium on June 13, 2009 for their live albums project Recording the Universe
Recording the Universe
Recording the Universe is the name of a project by the band Depeche Mode to record some of the concerts on their 2009-10 concert tour, Tour of the Universe...

.

Parts of the 1975 film Rollerball
Rollerball (1975 film)
Rollerball is a 1975 American dystopian fiction film directed by Norman Jewison from a screenplay by William Harrison, who adapted his own short story "Roller Ball Murder", which first appeared in 1973 in Esquire magazine.-The Game:...

were shot on the (then) futuristic site surrounding the stadium.

The Olympic Stadium also hosted Motorcycle speedway
Motorcycle speedway
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually...

 when it held the 1989 World Final
1989 Individual Speedway World Championship
The 1989 Individual Speedway World Championship.-World final:*September 2, 1989 Munich, Olympic Stadium*Referee: Henry van den Boomen* Troy Butler replaced the injured Jan O. Pedersen-Classification:...

 on September 2, 1989. Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

's Hans Nielsen
Hans Nielsen (speedway rider)
Hans Hollen Nielsen - a prominent speedway rider active from the 1970s to the late 1990s; a former World Champion....

 won his second World Championship
Speedway World Championship
The World Championship of Speedway is an international competition between the highest ranked motorcycle speedway riders of the world. Today, it is organised as a series of Speedway Grand Prix events, where points are awarded according to performance in the event and tallied up at the end of each...

 with a 15 point maximum from his five rides. The late Simon Wigg
Simon Wigg
Simon Wigg was a speedway, grasstrack and Longtrack rider who finished runner-up in the Speedway World Championship in 1989....

 of England finished in second place after defeating countryman Jeremy Doncaster
Jeremy Doncaster
Jeremy Doncaster is a former international motorcycle speedway rider who won the World Team Cup in 1989, top scoring for Great Britain with 13 points. He also finished in third place in the 1989 World Final...

 in a run-off to decide the final podium places after both had finished with 12 points from their five rides. Three time champion Erik Gundersen
Erik Gundersen
Erik Gundersen was a speedway rider in the late 1970s and 1980s. Gundersen was the Speedway World Championship on three occasions, a two time Long Track World Champion and a seven time World Team Cup winner with Denmark.-Career:Gundersen rode for the Cradley Heath Heathens from 1979 until 1989...

of Denmark finished in fourth place with 11 points.

External links