1972 Summer Olympics

1972 Summer Olympics

Overview
The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an international
International
----International mostly means something that involves more than one country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries...

 multi-sport event
Multi-sport event
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the modern Olympic Games.Many...

 held in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.

The 1972 Summer Olympics were the second Summer Olympics to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona...

 in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, which had taken place under the Nazi regime. Mindful of the connection, the West German Government were anxious to take the opportunity of the Munich Olympics to present a new, democratic and optimistic Germany to the world, as shown by the Games' official motto, "the Happy Games." The emblem of the Games was a blue solar logo (the "Bright Sun") by Hungarian artist Viktor Vasarely.
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Encyclopedia
The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an international
International
----International mostly means something that involves more than one country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries...

 multi-sport event
Multi-sport event
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the modern Olympic Games.Many...

 held in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.

The 1972 Summer Olympics were the second Summer Olympics to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona...

 in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, which had taken place under the Nazi regime. Mindful of the connection, the West German Government were anxious to take the opportunity of the Munich Olympics to present a new, democratic and optimistic Germany to the world, as shown by the Games' official motto, "the Happy Games." The emblem of the Games was a blue solar logo (the "Bright Sun") by Hungarian artist Viktor Vasarely. The Olympic mascot, the dachshund
Dachshund
The dachshund is a short-legged, long-bodied dog breed belonging to the hound family. The standard size dachshund was bred to scent, chase, and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature dachshund was developed to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits...

 "Waldi
Waldi
Waldi was the first official Olympic mascot. Created for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, he was a dachshund, a popular breed of dog from Germany. Waldi was designed by Otl Aicher and modeled on a real dog, a long-haired Dachshund named Cherie von Birkenhof...

", was the first officially named Olympic mascot. The Games also saw the introduction of the now-universal sports pictograms designed by Otl Aicher. Soon, however, the killings of 11 Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

i athletes by Palestinian gunmen
Palestinian political violence
Palestinian political violence refers to acts of violence undertaken to further the Palestinian cause. These political objectives include self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine, the liberation of Palestine and establishment of a Palestinian state, either in place of both Israel and...

 in an event known as the Munich massacre
Munich massacre
The Munich massacre is an informal name for events that occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Bavaria in southern West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and eventually killed by the Palestinian group Black September. Members of Black September...

 took center stage.

The Olympic Park (Olympiapark) is based on Frei Otto
Frei Otto
Frei Paul Otto is a German architect and structural engineer.- Life :Otto was born in Siegmar . He studied architecture in Berlin before being drafted into the Luftwaffe as a fighter pilot in the last years of World War II...

's plans and after the Games became a Munich landmark. The competition sites, designed by architect Günther Behnisch, included the Olympic swimming hall, the Olympics Hall (Olympiahalle, a multipurpose facility) and the Olympic Stadium (Olympiastadion), and an Olympic village very close to the park. The design of the stadium was considered revolutionary, with sweeping canopies of acrylic glass
Acrylic glass
Poly is a transparent thermoplastic, often used as a light or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is sometimes called acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate...

 stabilized by metal ropes, used on such a large scale for the first time.

Host city selection



Munich won its Olympic bid on April 26, 1966, at the 64th IOC Session at Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, over bids presented by Detroit, Madrid, and Montreal.
1972 Summer Olympics bidding results
City Country Round 1 Round 2
Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 
 West Germany 29 31
Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 
 Spain 16 16
Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 
 Canada 6 13
Detroit   United States 6

Munich massacre



The Games were largely overshadowed by what has come to be known as the Munich massacre. On September 5 a group of eight Palestinian guerrillas belonging to the Black September
Black September (group)
The Black September Organization was a Palestinian paramilitary group, founded in 1970. It was responsible for the kidnapping and murder of eleven Israeli athletes and officials, and fatal shooting of a West German policeman, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, their most publicized event...

 organization broke into the Olympic Village
Olympic Village
An Olympic Village is an accommodation centre built for an Olympic Games, usually within an Olympic Park or elsewhere in a host city. Olympic Villages are built to house all participating athletes, as well as officials, athletic trainers, and other staff. Since the Munich Massacre at the 1972...

 and took eleven Israeli athletes, coaches and officials hostage in their apartments. Two of the hostages who resisted were killed in the first moments of the break-in; the subsequent standoff in the Olympic Village lasted for almost 18 hours.

Late in the evening of September 5, the terrorists and their hostages were transferred by helicopter to the military airport of Fürstenfeldbruck
Fürstenfeldbruck
Fürstenfeldbruck is a town in Bavaria, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Fürstenfeldbruck. it has a population of 35,494. Since the 1930s, Fürstenfeldbruck has had an air force base....

, ostensibly to board a plane bound for an undetermined Arab country. The German authorities planned to ambush them there, but under-estimated the number of terrorists and were thus undermanned. During a botched rescue attempt, all of the Israeli hostages were killed. Four of them were shot, then incinerated when a Palestinian detonated a grenade inside the helicopter in which the hostages were sitting. The five remaining hostages were then machine-gunned by another terrorist.

All but three of the Palestinians were killed as well. Although arrested and imprisoned pending trial, the three PLO survivors were released by the West German government on October 29, 1972 in exchange for a hijacked Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

 jet. Two of those three were supposedly hunted down and assassinated later by the Mossad
Mossad
The Mossad , short for HaMossad leModi'in uleTafkidim Meyuchadim , is the national intelligence agency of Israel....

. Jamal Al-Gashey
Jamal Al-Gashey
Jamal Al-Gashey was a member of the Black September offshoot of the Palestine Liberation Organization and is believed to be the last surviving member of the group of eight terrorists who carried out the massacre of eleven Israeli athletes during the 1972 Munich Olympics. He is visible several...

, who is believed to be the sole survivor, and is still living today in hiding in an unspecified African country with his wife and two children. The Olympic events were suspended several hours after the initial attack, but once the incident was concluded Avery Brundage
Avery Brundage
Avery Brundage was an American amateur athlete, sports official, art collector, and philanthropist. Brundage competed in the 1912 Olympics and was the US national all-around athlete in 1914, 1916 and 1918...

, the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

 president, declared that "the Games must go on". A memorial ceremony was then held in the Olympic stadium, and the competitions resumed after a stoppage of 24 hours. The attack prompted heightened security at subsequent Olympics beginning with the 1976 Winter Olympics
1976 Winter Olympics
The 1976 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XII Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated February 4–15, 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria...

.

The massacre led the German federal government to re-examine its anti-terrorism policies, which at the time were dominated by a pacifist approach adopted post-World War II. This led to the creation of the elite counter-terrorist unit GSG 9
GSG 9
The GSG 9 der Bundespolizei , is the elite counter-terrorism and special operations unit of the German Federal Police.-History and name:...

, similar to the British SAS. It also led Israel to launch an aggressive counterterrorism campaign known as Operation Wrath of God
Operation Wrath of God
Operation Wrath of God ,This title was an invention of later writers, and was most likely not used by the Mossad itself. also called Operation Bayonet, was a covert operation directed by Israel and the Mossad to assassinate individuals alleged to have been directly or indirectly involved in the...

. The events of the Munich massacre were chronicled in the Oscar-winning documentary, One Day in September
One Day in September
One Day in September is a 1999 documentary film directed by Kevin Macdonald examining the 5 September 1972 murder of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany...

. An account of the aftermath is dramatized in Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
Steven Allan Spielberg KBE is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, video game designer, and studio entrepreneur. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg's films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg's early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as an...

's 2005 film Munich
Munich (film)
Munich is a 2005 historical fiction film about the Israeli government's secret retaliation attacks after the massacre of Israeli athletes by the Black September terrorist group during the 1972 Summer Olympics. The film stars Eric Bana and was produced and directed by Steven Spielberg...

.

Highlights

  • Mark Spitz
    Mark Spitz
    Mark Andrew Spitz is a retired American swimmer. He won seven gold medals at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, an achievement only surpassed by Michael Phelps who won eight golds at the 2008 Olympics....

    , a swimmer from the United States, set a world record
    World record
    A world record is usually the best global performance ever recorded and verified in a specific skill or sport. The book Guinness World Records collates and publishes notable records of all types, from first and best to worst human achievements, to extremes in the natural world and beyond...

     when he won seven gold medals (while on the way to setting a new world record for each of his seven gold medals) in a single Olympics, bringing his lifetime total to nine (he had won two golds in Mexico City's Games
    1968 Summer Olympics
    The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico in October 1968. The 1968 Games were the first Olympic Games hosted by a developing country, and the first Games hosted by a Spanish-speaking country...

     four years earlier). Being Jewish, Spitz was forced to leave Munich before the closing ceremonies for his own protection, after fears arose that he would be an additional target of those responsible for the Munich massacre
    Munich massacre
    The Munich massacre is an informal name for events that occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Bavaria in southern West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and eventually killed by the Palestinian group Black September. Members of Black September...

    . Spitz's record stood until 2008
    2008 Summer Olympics
    The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from August 8 to August 24, 2008. A total of 11,028 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events...

    , when it was beaten by Michael Phelps
    Michael Phelps
    Michael Fred Phelps is an American swimmer who has, overall, won 16 Olympic medals—six gold and two bronze at Athens in 2004, and eight gold at Beijing in 2008, becoming the most successful athlete at both of these Olympic Games editions...

     who won 8 gold medals in the pool.
  • Olga Korbut
    Olga Korbut
    Olga Valentinovna Korbut , also known as the Sparrow from Minsk, is a Belarusian, Soviet-born gymnast who won four gold medals and two silver medals at the Summer Olympics, in which she competed in 1972 and 1976 for the USSR team....

    , a Soviet
    USSR at the Summer Olympics
    The Soviet Union first participated at the Olympic Games in 1952, and competed at the Games on 18 occasions since then. At seven of its nine appearances at the Summer Olympic Games, the team ranked first in the total number of medals won, it was second by this count on the other two...

     gymnast
    Gymnastics
    Gymnastics is a sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique with each country having its own national governing body...

    , became a media star after winning a gold medal in the team competition event, failing to win in the individual all-around after a fall (she was beaten by Lyudmilla Turischeva), and finally winning two gold medals in the Balance Beam and the floor exercise events.
  • In the final of the men's basketball, the United States lost to the USSR
    USSR at the Summer Olympics
    The Soviet Union first participated at the Olympic Games in 1952, and competed at the Games on 18 occasions since then. At seven of its nine appearances at the Summer Olympic Games, the team ranked first in the total number of medals won, it was second by this count on the other two...

    , in what USA Basketball
    USA Basketball
    USA Basketball is a non-profit organization and the governing body for basketball in the United States. The organization represents the United States in FIBA and the men's and women's national basketball teams in the United States Olympic Committee...

     calls "the most controversial game in international basketball history". In a close-fought match the U.S. team initially believed it had won with a score of 50-49, but confusion over a late time-out gave the Soviet team a few seconds to score two more points and claim victory. Ultimately the U.S team refused to accept their silver medal, which remains held in a vault in Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • Lasse Virén
    Lasse Virén
    Lasse Artturi Virén is a former Finnish long-distance runner, winner of four gold medals at the 1972 and 1976 Summer Olympics...

     of Finland won the 5,000 and 10,000 m (the latter after a fall), a feat he repeated in the 1976 Summer Olympics
    1976 Summer Olympics
    The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in 1976. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12, 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and...

    .
  • Valeriy Borzov of the USSR won both the 100 m and 200 m in track and field
    Track and field
    Track and field is a sport comprising various competitive athletic contests based around the activities of running, jumping and throwing. The name of the sport derives from the venue for the competitions: a stadium which features an oval running track surrounding a grassy area...

    . The top two US sprinters and medal favorites in the 100 m, Rey Robinson and Eddie Hart, missed their quarter final heats after being given the wrong starting time.
  • Two black American
    African American
    African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

     400 m runners, Vincent Matthews and Wayne Collett
    Wayne Collett
    Wayne Collett was an African American Olympic athlete who competed mainly in the 400 metres....

    , acted casually on the medal stand, twirled their medals (gold and silver, respectively), joked with one another and did not face the American flag as "The Star-Spangled Banner
    The Star-Spangled Banner
    "The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States of America. The lyrics come from "Defence of Fort McHenry", a poem written in 1814 by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet, Francis Scott Key, after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy ships...

    " was being played during the award ceremony. They were banned from the Olympics for life, as Tommie Smith
    Tommie Smith
    Tommie Smith is an African American former track & field athlete and wide receiver in the American Football League. At the 1968 Summer Olympics, Smith won the 200-meter dash finals in 19.83 seconds – the first time the 20 second barrier was broken...

     and John Carlos
    John Carlos
    John Wesley Carlos is a Cuban American former track and field athlete and professional football player. He was the bronze-medal winner in the 200 meters at the 1968 Summer Olympics and his black power salute on the podium with Tommie Smith caused much political controversy...

     had been in the 1968 Summer Olympics
    1968 Summer Olympics
    The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico in October 1968. The 1968 Games were the first Olympic Games hosted by a developing country, and the first Games hosted by a Spanish-speaking country...

    . Since John Smith had pulled a hamstring in the final and had been ruled unfit to run, the United States were forced to scratch from the 4x400m relay.
  • Dave Wottle
    Dave Wottle
    David James Wottle is a former American athlete. He is the winner of the 800 meter run at the 1972 Summer Olympics. He is perhaps, however, best known for wearing a golf cap while running....

     won the men's 800 m
    Athletics at the 1972 Summer Olympics - Men's 800 metres
    The men's 800 metres at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany took place on September 2, 1972.-Summary:The race went out very quickly for the first 200 m, with the two Kenyans, Boit and Ouko, pushing the pace...

    , after being last for the first 600 m, at which point he started to pass runner after runner up the final straightaway, finally grabbing the lead in the final 18 metres to win by 0.03 seconds ahead of the favorite, the Soviet Yevgeny Arzhanov. At the victory ceremony, Wottle forgot to remove his golf cap. This was interpreted by some as a form of protest against the Vietnam War, but Wottle later apologized.
  • Australian swimmer Shane Gould
    Shane Gould
    Shane Elizabeth Gould, MBE is an Australian former swimmer who won three gold medals, a silver and bronze in 1972 Summer Olympics. It was the greatest performance by an Australian at a single Olympics.-Biography:...

     won three gold medals, a silver, and a bronze medal at the age of 15.
  • Handball
    Team handball
    Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

     (last held in 1936) and Archery
    Archery
    Archery is the art, practice, or skill of propelling arrows with the use of a bow, from Latin arcus. Archery has historically been used for hunting and combat; in modern times, however, its main use is that of a recreational activity...

     (last held in 1920) returned as Olympic sports after a long absence.
  • Slalom canoeing
    Slalom canoeing
    Whitewater Slalom is a competitive sport where the aim is to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of hanging gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. It is one of the two kayak and canoeing disciplines at the Summer Olympics, and is referred to by the International Olympic...

     was held for the first time at the Olympics.
  • Dan Gable
    Dan Gable
    Dan Gable is an American amateur wrestler. He is famous for having only lost one match in his entire Iowa State University collegiate career—his last, and winning gold at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, Germany while not giving up a single point...

     won the gold medal in wrestling without having a single point scored against him.
  • Wim Ruska
    Wim Ruska
    Willem Ruska is a retired judoka from the Netherlands.During his career in the 1960s and 1970s he won seven European titles, five in the +93kg category and two in the open category . He furthermore won two world titles and two Olympic titles...

     became the first judoka to win two gold medals.
  • For the first time, the Olympic Oath
    Olympic Oath
    The Olympic Oath is a solemn promise made by one athlete -- as a representative of each of the participating Olympic competitors; and by one judge -- as a representative of each officiating Olympic referee or other official, at the opening ceremonies of each Olympic Games...

     was taken by a representative of the referees.
  • American Frank Shorter
    Frank Shorter
    Frank Charles Shorter is a former American long-distance runner who won the gold medal in the marathon at the 1972 Summer Olympics. His victory is credited with igniting the running boom in the United States of the 1970s....

    , who was born in Munich, became the first from his country in 64 years to win the Olympic marathon. As Shorter was nearing the stadium, German student Norbert Sudhaus entered the stadium wearing a track uniform, joined the race and ran the last kilometre; thinking he was the winner, the crowd began cheering him before officials realized the hoax and security escorted Sudhaus off the track. Arriving seconds later, Shorter was understandably perplexed to see someone ahead of him and to hear the boos and catcalls meant for Sudhaus. This was the third time in Olympic history that an American had won the marathon (after Thomas Hicks 1904 and Johnny Hayes
    Johnny Hayes
    John "Johnny" Joseph Hayes was an American athlete, a member of the Irish American Athletic Club, and winner of the marathon race at the 1908 Summer Olympics...

     1908) — and in none of those three instances did the winner enter the stadium first.

  • Badminton
    Badminton
    Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players or two opposing pairs , who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their...

     and water skiing
    Water skiing
    thumb|right|A slalom skier making a turn on a slalom waterski.Waterskiing is a sport where an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation on a body of water, skimming the surface.-History:...

     were demonstration sports.

Venues



  • Munich Olympic Park (Olympiapark
    Olympiapark, Munich
    The Olympiapark in Munich, Germany, is an Olympic Park which was constructed for the 1972 Summer Olympics. Found in the area of Munich known as the "Oberwiesenfeld" , the Park continues to serve as a venue for cultural, social, and religious events such as events of worship...

    )
    • Olympic Stadium
      Olympic Stadium (Munich)
      Olympiastadion is a stadium located in Munich, Germany. Situated at the heart of the Olympiapark München in northern Munich, the stadium was built as the main venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics....

       (Olympiastadion) – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics, equestrian (jumping team), football (final), modern pentathlon (running), memorial service for Israeli athletes
    • Boxing Hall (Boxhalle
      Boxhalle
      Boxhalle is an indoor arena located in Olympiapark in Munich, Germany. For the 1972 Summer Olympics, it hosted the boxing events and the judo finals....

      ) – boxing, judo (final)
    • Cycling Stadium (Radstadion
      Radstadion
      Radstadion is a velodrome located in Olympiapark in Munich, Germany. They hosted the track portion of the cycling competitions for the 1972 Summer Olympics....

      ) – cycling (track)
    • Olympic Sports Hall
      Olympiahalle
      Olympiahalle is a multi-purpose arena in Munich, Germany, part of the Olympic Park and close to the Olympic Stadium.The arena is used for concerts, sporting events, exhibitions or trade fairs. In the past, it served as a part-time home for the defunct ice hockey team EC Hedos München...

       (Sporthalle) – gymnastics, handball (final)
    • Hockey Facility (Hockeyanlage) – field hockey
    • Swimming Hall
      Olympia Schwimmhalle
      The Olympia Schwimmhalle is an aquatics centre located in the Olympiapark in Munich, Germany. It hosted the swimming, diving, water olo, and the swimming part of the modern pentathlon events at the 1972 Summer Olympics. At the 1972 Olympics, the stadium had a 9000-seat capacity which was reduced to...

       (Schwimmhalle) – swimming, diving, water polo (final), modern pentathlon (swimming)
    • Volleyball Hall (Volleyballhalle
      Volleyballhalle
      Volleyballhalle is an indoor arena located in Munich, Germany. It hosted the volleyball competitions for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.The hall has an area of 5132 square meters and included a restaurant, restrooms, and changing area.-Reference:...

      ) – volleyball
    • Olympic Village
      Olympic Village, Munich
      The Olympic Village was constructed for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany and was used to house the athletes during the games...

       (Olympisches Dorf)
  • Venues in Greater Munich
    • Regatta Course (Regattastrecke), Oberschleißheim
      Oberschleißheim
      Oberschleißheim is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located 13 km north of Munich . As of 2005 it had a population of 11,467....

       – canoe sprint, rowing
    • Basketball Hall
      Rudi-Sedlmayer-Halle
      Audi Dome is an arena in Sendling-Westpark, Munich, Germany. It is also known as Rudi-Sedlmayer-Halle, named after the president of the Bavarian State Sport Association from 1955 to 1973...

       (Basketballhalle), Siegenburger Straße – basketball, judo
    • Fairgrounds, Fencing Hall 1 (Messegelände, Fechthalle 1
      Messegelände
      The Messegelände is a series of twenty buildings located in the greater Munich, Germany area. During the 1972 Summer Olympics, five of these venues served as host to the fencing, the fencing part of modern pentathlon, judo, weightlifting, and wrestling events....

      ) – fencing (final)
    • Fairgrounds, Fencing Hall 2 (Messegelände, Fechthalle 2
      Messegelände
      The Messegelände is a series of twenty buildings located in the greater Munich, Germany area. During the 1972 Summer Olympics, five of these venues served as host to the fencing, the fencing part of modern pentathlon, judo, weightlifting, and wrestling events....

      ) – fencing, modern pentathlon (fencing)
    • Fairgrounds, Weightlifting Hall (Messegelände, Gewichtheberhalle
      Messegelände
      The Messegelände is a series of twenty buildings located in the greater Munich, Germany area. During the 1972 Summer Olympics, five of these venues served as host to the fencing, the fencing part of modern pentathlon, judo, weightlifting, and wrestling events....

      ) – weightlifting
    • Fairgrounds, Judo and Wrestling Hall (Messegelände, Judo- und Ringerhalle
      Messegelände
      The Messegelände is a series of twenty buildings located in the greater Munich, Germany area. During the 1972 Summer Olympics, five of these venues served as host to the fencing, the fencing part of modern pentathlon, judo, weightlifting, and wrestling events....

      ) – judo, wrestling
    • Dante Swimming Pool (Dantebad
      Dantebad
      Dantebad is an aquatics venue located in the greater Munich, Germany area. During the 1972 Summer Olympics, it hosted preliminaries for the water polo competition....

      ) – water polo
    • Shooting Facility (Schießanlage
      Schießanlage
      Schießanlage is a firing range located in the Hochbrück area of Munich, Germany. For the 1972 Summer Olympics, it hosted the shooting and the shooting part of the modern pentathlon competition.The total acreage used for the events was 240,000 square meters....

      ), Hochbrück – shooting, modern pentathlon (shooting)
    • Archery Facility (Bogenschießanlage), Englischer Garten – archery
    • Riding Facility, Riem
      Riding Facility, Riem
      The Riding Facility, Riem was temporary facility constructed in the Riem section of Munich, Germany. For the 1972 Summer Olympics. they hosted the equestrian individual jumping, cross-country eventing, and the riding portion of the modern pentathlon competition....

       – equestrian (jumping individual, eventing cross-country), modern pentathlon (riding)
    • Dressage Facility Nymphenburg
      Nymphenburg Palace
      The Nymphenburg Palace , i.e. "Nymph's Castle", is a Baroque palace in Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany. The palace was the main summer residence of the rulers of Bavaria.-History:...

       – equestrian (dressage)
    • Grünwald
      Grünwald, Bavaria
      Grünwald is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located on the right bank of the Isar, 12 km southwest of Munich...

       - cycling (individual road race)
  • Other venues
    • Olympic Yachting Center, Kiel-Schilksee
      Bay of Kiel
      The Bay of Kiel is a bay in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany and the islands of Denmark. It is connected with the Bay of Mecklenburg in the east, the Little Belt in the northwest, and the Great Belt in the North....

       – water skiing, sailing
    • Urban Stadium
      Frankenstadion
      The Frankenstadion is a stadium in Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany, which was opened in 1928. It is located next to the Zeppelinfeld. It also neighbors the new Nuremberg Arena....

       (Nuremberg
      Nuremberg
      Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

      ) – football/soccer preliminaries
    • Jahnstadion (Regensburg) – football/soccer preliminaries
    • Drei Flüsse Stadion
      Drei Flüsse Stadion
      Drei Flüsse Stadion is a multi-use stadium in Passau, Germany. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of 1. FC Passau. The stadium has a capacity of 20,000 people and was built in 1972. For the 1972 Summer Olympics in neighboring Munich, it hosted six football...

       (Passau
      Passau
      Passau is a town in Lower Bavaria, Germany. It is also known as the Dreiflüssestadt or "City of Three Rivers," because the Danube is joined at Passau by the Inn from the south and the Ilz from the north....

      ) – football/soccer preliminaries
    • ESV-Stadion (Ingolstadt
      Ingolstadt
      Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...

      ) – football/soccer preliminaries
    • Augsburg
      Augsburg
      Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a...

       – canoe slalom (Eiskanal
      Eiskanal
      The Eiskanal is an artificial canal feature in the city of Augsburg, Germany that was constructed as the canoe slalom venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Munich....

      ), football/soccer preliminaries (Rosenaustadion
      Rosenaustadion
      Rosenaustadion is a multi-purpose stadium in Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany. It is the largest stadium in the city.Until 2009, the stadium was used mostly for football matches by the football club...

      ), handball preliminaries (Sporthalle Augsburg
      Sporthalle Augsburg
      Sporthalle Augsburg is an indoor arena located in Augsburg, Germany. Completed in 1965, it hosted six team handball matches for the 1972 Summer Olympics in neighboring Munich.-References:* Volume 1. Part 1. p. 121.* Volume 3. p. 375.*...

      )
    • Donauhalle Ulm
      Donauhalle Ulm
      Donauhalle Ulm is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in Ulm, Germany. The venue hosted four team handball matches for the 1972 Summer Olympics that were held in neighboring Munich.Donauhalle also plays hosts to music concerts and conventions.-References:...

       – handball preliminaries
    • Hohenstaufenhalle Göppingen
      EWS Arena
      EWS Arena is an indoor sporting arena located in Göppingen, Germany. The capacity of the arena is 5,600 people. It hosts the home matches of women's and men's Handball Bundesliga handball teams of Frisch Auf Göppingen. In its previous building, it hosted six team handball matches for the 1972...

       (Göppingen
      Göppingen
      Göppingen is a town in southern Germany, part of the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg. It is the capital of the district Göppingen. It is situated at the bottom of the Hohenstaufen mountain, in the valley of the river Fils....

      ) – handball preliminaries
    • Böblingen Sportshalle
      Sporthalle (Böblingen)
      Sporthalle was an indoor arena in Böblingen, Germany. It opened in 1966 and was torn down in 2008. Sporthalle had a capacity to hold 6,500 people.The venue played host to six team handball competitions for the 1972 Summer Olympics in neighboring Munich....

       – handball preliminaries
    • Bundesautobahn 96
      Bundesautobahn 96
      is a motorway in southern Germany, leading from the Austrian border near Lindau through Memmingen, Landsberg am Lech to Munich. Two European routes lead through the autobahn: E 43 and E 54....

       - cycling (road team time trial)

Medals awarded


See the medal winners, ordered by sport:
  • Archery
    Archery at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    Archery at the 1972 Summer Olympics consisted of two medal events, one for men and one for women.Each event was composed of two FITA rounds. Each of those FITA rounds consisted of the archers shooting 36 arrows at targets at 4 different distances, for a total of 144 arrows...

  • Athletics
    Athletics at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    At the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, 38 events in athletics were contested, 24 for men and 14 for women. There were a total number of 1324 participating athletes from 104 countries.-Men's events:-Women's events:-Medal table:-References:*...

  • Basketball
    Basketball at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    -Group B:-Medal bracket:-Classification brackets:5th–8th Place9th–12th Place13th–16th Place Forfeited match.-Gold Medal Match controversy:...

  • Boxing
    Boxing at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    Final results for the Boxing competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics:It was held August 27 to September 10, with the participation of 357 fighters from 81 countries.-Medal table:-Light Flyweight :-First Round:...

  • Canoeing
    Canoeing at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    At the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, seven events in sprint canoe racing were contested, and for the first time at the Olympic Games, four events in slalom canoeing were also contested.-Slalom:-Men's events:-Women's events:-Medal table:...

  • Cycling
    Cycling at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    The cycling competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich consisted of two road cycling events and five track cycling events, all for men only.-Medal table:-Medal summary:-References:*...

  • Diving
    Diving at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    At the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, four diving events were contested during a competition that took place at the Olympiapark Swimming Hall, from August 27 to September 4 , comprising 90 divers from 25 nations.-Medal summary:...

  • Equestrian
    Equestrian at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    The Equestrian Events at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich included Show Jumping, Dressage and Eventing. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions.-Medal summary:-Participating nations:...

  • Fencing
    Fencing at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    At the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, eight events in fencing were contested. Men competed in both individual and team events for each of the three weapon types , but women competed only in foil events.-Men's events:...

  • Football
    Football at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    Final results for the Football competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics held in Munich, Augsburg, Ingolstadt, Nürnberg, Passau, and Regensburg.-Medalists:-Group A: ---- -----------------Group B: ---- ----------------...

  • Gymnastics
    Gymnastics at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    At the 1972 Summer Olympics, fourteen different artistic gymnastics events were contested, eight for men and six for women. All events were held at the Sports Hall in Munich from August 27 through September 1.-Format of competition:...

  • Handball
    Handball at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    Handball at the 1972 Summer Olympics was the second appearance of the sport at the Olympics, returning to the Olympic program after a 36 year absence. It was contested by sixteen teams.The teams were split into four groups of four teams each...

  • Hockey
  • Judo
    Judo at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    The Judo competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics was the return of the sport following its absence at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. Medals were awarded in six weight classes, and competition was restricted to men only...

  • Modern pentathlon
    Modern pentathlon at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    The modern pentathlon at the 1972 Summer Olympics was represented by two events : Individual competition and Team competition...

  • Rowing
    Rowing at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    Rowing at the 1972 Summer Olympics featured 7 events, all for men. It was the last time that rowing did not included women's disciplines at the Olympics.-Medal summary:-Medal table:-References:*...

  • Sailing
    Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    Sailing/Yachting is a Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad . With the exception of 1904 and possible 1916 sailing was always a part of the Olympic program....

  • Shooting
    Shooting at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    This is a list of results of the Shooting competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics....

  • Swimming
    Swimming at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    The 1972 Summer Olympics were held in Munich, West Germany, 29 events in swimming were contested. There was a total of 532 participants from 52 countries competing....

  • Volleyball
    Volleyball at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    Volleyball at the 1972 Summer Olympics was represented by two events: men's team and women's team.-Medal table:-Medal summary:-External links:*...

  • Water polo
    Water polo at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    Final results for the water polo competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics held in Munich.-Medalists:- Pool A :-Pool B:-Pool C:- Group II :Results taken from Preliminary Round...

  • Weightlifting
    Weightlifting at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    The weightlifting competition at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich consisted of nine weight classes, all for men only. Two new weight classes were introduced at these Games , marking the first changes to the Olympic program since 1952...

  • Wrestling
    Wrestling at the 1972 Summer Olympics
    At the 1972 Summer Olympics, 20 wrestling events were contested, for all men. There were 10 weight classes in Greco-Roman wrestling and 10 classes in freestyle wrestling.- Freestyle:-Greco-Roman:-Medal table:-Participating nations:...


  • Demonstration sports

    • Badminton
      Badminton at the 1972 Summer Olympics
      Badminton was one of two demonstration sports at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. It was the first time that the sport was part of the Olympic program, and it would become an official Olympic sport 20 years later at the 1992 Summer Olympics....

    • Water skiing
      Water skiing at the 1972 Summer Olympics
      Water skiing was one of two demonstration sports at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. It was the only time that the sport was demonstrated at any Olympic Games. 35 participants from 20 countries took part in six events: slalom, figure skiing, and ski jump for each of men and women skiers...


    Medal count



    This is the medal table, these are the top ten nations that won medals at these Games (The host country is highlighted).
    1 50 27 22 99
    2 33 31 30 94
    3 20 23 23 66
    4 13 11 16 40
    5 13 8 8 29
    6 8 7 2 17
    7 7 5 9 21
    8 6 13 16 35
    9 6 10 5 21
    10 5 3 10 18

    Participating nations




    Eleven nations made their first Olympic appearance in Munich: Albania
    Albania
    Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

    , Burkina Faso
    Burkina Faso
    Burkina Faso – also known by its short-form name Burkina – is a landlocked country in west Africa. It is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north, Niger to the east, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and Côte d'Ivoire to the southwest.Its size is with an estimated...

     (as Upper Volta), Benin
    Benin
    Benin , officially the Republic of Benin, is a country in West Africa. It borders Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. Its small southern coastline on the Bight of Benin is where a majority of the population is located...

     (as Dahomey), Gabon
    Gabon
    Gabon , officially the Gabonese Republic is a state in west central Africa sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, and with the Republic of the Congo curving around the east and south. The Gulf of Guinea, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean is to the west...

    , North Korea
    North Korea
    The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

    , Lesotho
    Lesotho
    Lesotho , officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a landlocked country and enclave, surrounded by the Republic of South Africa. It is just over in size with a population of approximately 2,067,000. Its capital and largest city is Maseru. Lesotho is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The name...

    , Malawi
    Malawi
    The Republic of Malawi is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west. The country is separated from Tanzania and Mozambique by Lake Malawi. Its size...

    , Saudi Arabia
    Saudi Arabia
    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

    , Somalia
    Somalia
    Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

    , Swaziland
    Swaziland
    Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Swaziland , and sometimes called Ngwane or Swatini, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, bordered to the north, south and west by South Africa, and to the east by Mozambique...

    , Togo
    Togo
    Togo, officially the Togolese Republic , is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, on which the capital Lomé is located. Togo covers an area of approximately with a population of approximately...

    .

    Rhodesia
    Rhodesia at the Olympics
    Rhodesia first participated in the Olympic Games in 1928. It was then absent until 1960, and competed for the third and last time in 1964. The country thus always competed as a British territory. It was unable to take part in the 1968 Games in Mexico, due to the Mexican government's interpretation...

    's invitation to take part in the 1972 Summer Games was withdrawn by the International Olympic Committee
    International Olympic Committee
    The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

     four days before the opening ceremony, in response to African countries' protests against the Rhodesian regime. (Rhodesia did, however, compete
    Rhodesia at the 1972 Summer Paralympics
    Rhodesia competed at the 1972 Summer Paralympics in Heidelberg, West Germany. It was the last time the nation competed at the Paralympic Games before returning as Zimbabwe at the 1980 Summer Paralympics. The delegation consisted of 13 competitors in the sports of track and field athletics and...

     in the 1972 Summer Paralympics
    1972 Summer Paralympics
    The 1972 Summer Paralympics, the fourth edition of the Paralympic Games, were held in Heidelberg, West Germany, from August 2 to 11, 1972.- Sports :As with previous Paralympics, the 1972 games were intended for wheelchair athletes only...

    , held a little earlier in Heidelberg
    Heidelberg
    -Early history:Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer. His jaw bone was discovered in 1907; with scientific dating, his remains were determined to be the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of...

    .)
    (Host nation)

    See also


    • 1972 Summer OlympicsMunich
      Munich
      Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

      , Bavaria
      Bavaria
      Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

      , West Germany
      West Germany
      West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

       — Munich massacre
      Munich massacre
      The Munich massacre is an informal name for events that occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Bavaria in southern West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and eventually killed by the Palestinian group Black September. Members of Black September...

    • 1972 Summer Olympics medal table

    External links