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North Warning System

North Warning System

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The North Warning System (NWS) is a joint United States and Canadian radar system for the atmospheric air defense of North America. It provides surveillance of airspace from potential incursions or attacks from across North America's polar region. It replaced the Distant Early Warning Line
Distant Early Warning Line
The Distant Early Warning Line, also known as the DEW Line or Early Warning Line, was a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada, with additional stations along the North Coast and Aleutian Islands of Alaska, in addition to the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Iceland...

 system in the late 1980s.

Overview


The NWS consists of both long AN/FPS-117
AN/FPS-117
The AN/FPS-117 is a phased array, 3-dimensional air search radar. It is produced by the Lockheed Martin corporation from the United States.The system is a low power, long range , L-band pencil beam, solid-state transmitter and beacon interrogator search radar...

 and short range AN/FPS-124
AN/FPS-124
The AN/FPS-124 is an unattended Radar providing short range, doppler radar surveillance of airborne targets. It provides target information to the Regional Operations Control Center , and employs built-in-test, performance monitoring/fault isolation and system redundancy enabling it to reconfigure...

 surveillance radars, operated and maintained by the North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command is a joint organization of Canada and the United States that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and defense for the two countries. Headquarters NORAD is located at Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado...

 (NORAD). The Alaska Regional Operations Control Center (ROCC) at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska controls the stations in Alaska; the Canada East and Canada West Regional Operations Control Centers (ROCCs) at CFB North Bay
CFB North Bay
Canadian Forces Base North Bay, also CFB North Bay, is an air force base located at the City of North Bay, Ontario about north of Toronto. The base is subordinate to 1 Canadian Air Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba, and is the centre for North American Aerospace Defense Command operations in Canada,...

, Ontario control the stations in Canada. ROCC information is then passed to the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) Combat Operations Centre (COC) at Colorado Springs, Colorado.

History


The Distant Early Warning Line, constructed in the late 1950s, was reaching obsolescence in the 1980s. With the signing of North American Air Defence Modernization agreement at the "Shamrock Summit" between Prime Minister Mulroney and President Reagan in Quebec City on 18 March 1985, the DEW Line began its eventual upgrading and transition becoming the North Warning System (NWS) of today.

The NWS began limited operation in 1988 with the commissioning and acceptance of the three newly constructed east coast sites BAF-3 Brevoort Island NUNAVUT, LAB-2 Saglek, and LAB-6 Cartwright both in Labrador. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, new NWS LRR radars replaced former DEW Line sites. DEW sites that weren't transitioned to North Warning operation were eventually closed down. The official activation of the NWS and inactivation of the DEW Line took place on 15 July 1993.

The bi-national North Warning System Office (NWSO) is located in Ottawa, Ontario and staffed with both Canadian and American military and civilian personnel. Manned sites are operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
The history of the Royal Canadian Air Force begins in 1920, when the air force was created as the Canadian Air Force . In 1924 the CAF was renamed the Royal Canadian Air Force and granted royal sanction by King George V. The RCAF existed as an independent service until 1968...

. Logistical and maintenance support for the NWS is supplied by the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 Air Force Materiel Command
Air Force Materiel Command
Air Force Materiel Command is a major command of the United States Air Force. AFMC was created July 1, 1992 through the reorganization of Air Force Logistics Command and Air Force Systems Command....

, Ogden Air Logistics Center (OO-ALC), Hill Air Force Base
Hill Air Force Base
Hill Air Force Base is a major U.S. Air Force Base located in northern Utah, just south of the city of Ogden, and near the towns of Clearfield, Riverdale, Roy, Sunset, and Layton. It is about north of Salt Lake City. The base was named in honor of Major Ployer Peter Hill of the U.S. Army Air...

, Utah.

Site Remediation


The former DEW Line sites were operated using practices and materials accepted by the environmental standards of the time. With their closure and many of them rebuilt as NWS sites, a clean-up project was undertaken to remove surplus infrastructure, treat chemically contaminated soils, and stabilize landfill sites. The clean-up was designed to keep chemical contamination from the DEW Line sites out of the Arctic food chain, and ensure that the sites are restored to an environmentally safe condition. In 1989, the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) started investigating the environmental conditions of the DEW Line sites and commenced clean-up work at two sites in 1996. The clean-up of 21 sites is scheduled to be completed in 2013. Currently, 14 sites have been cleaned up and the remaining seven are on-going in Nunavut.

Stations


The NWS consists of 15 long-range radar
Radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

s (11 in Canada of which 8 were DEW Line sites) and 39 short-range radars (36 in Canada). The system forms a 4,800-kilometer-long and 320-kilometer-wide "tripwire
Tripwire
A tripwire is a passive triggering mechanism. Typically, a wire or cord is attached to some device for detecting or reacting to physical movement...

" stretching from Alaska, via Canada, to Southern Labrador. Minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar AN/FPS-117 radar sites shaded in blue.
Site ID Geographic Place Name Location Radar Coordinates Activated Inactivated Notes
LIZ-2 Point Lay AK FPS-124 69°01′27"N 163°51′26"W 1955 1994 Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1955. Also was part of Alaska Radar System, site A-15. DEW operations ended 1989; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps; Site Inactivated 1994 and remediation work was completed by 2005. Gravel runway and building pads remain. See also: Point Lay LRRS Airport
Point Lay LRRS Airport
Point Lay LRRS Airport is a public and military use airport owned by the United States Government and located in Point Lay, in the North Slope Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is also known as Point Lay Airport...

 (PPIZ)
LIZ-3 Wainwright AK FPS-124 70°36′37"N 159°52′12"W 1955 2007 Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1955. Also was part of Alaska Radar System, site A-16. DEW operations ended 1995; minimally-attended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1994; Former DEW station remediation work was completed by 2005. Site Inactivated 2007 due to soil erosion & budget concerns. See also: Wainwright Airport
Wainwright Airport (Alaska)
Wainwright Airport is a public use airport located in Wainwright, a city in the North Slope Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. The airport is owned by the North Slope Borough....

 (PAWI)
POW-M Point Barrow AK FPS-117 71°19′38"N 156°38′10"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Main site, 1957. Also is part of Alaska Radar System, site A-17, Maintained by USAF 611th Air Support Group. DEW operations ended 1998; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1999 Station buildings remain in use and in good repair. See also: Point Barrow Long Range Radar Site
Point Barrow Long Range Radar Site
Point Barrow Long Range Radar Site is a United States Air Force radar site and military airstrip located northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska...

POW-1 Point Lonely AK FPS-124 70°54′37"N 153°14′23"W 1957 2007 Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Also was part of Alaska Radar System, site A-18. DEW operations ended 1990; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1994 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Site Inactivated 2007 due to soil erosion & budget concerns. Station buildings remain in good repair. See also: Lonely Air Station
Lonely Air Station
Point Lonely Short Range Radar Site is a United States Air Force Short Range Radar Site located in the North Slope Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska, east-southeast of Point Barrow, Alaska. It is not open for public access.- Facilities and aircraft :...

 (PALN)
POW-2 Oliktok AK FPS-117 70°29′54"N 149°53′22"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Also is part of Alaska Radar System, site A-19, Maintained by USAF 611th Air Support Group. DEW operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1990. Station buildings remain in use and in good repair. See: Oliktok Long Range Radar Site
Oliktok Long Range Radar Site
Oliktok Long Range Radar Site is a United States Air Force radar site and military airstrip located east-southeast of Point Barrow, Alaska. It is not open for public use.-History:...

POW-3 Flaxman Island AK FPS-124 70°10′34"N 146°51′19"W 1957 2007 Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957. Also was part of Alaska Radar System as Bullen Point Short Range Radar Site
Bullen Point Short Range Radar Site
Bullen Point Short Range Radar Site was a United States Air Force radar site and military airstrip located east-southeast of Point Barrow, Alaska. It is not open for public use.-History:...

 site A-20. DEW operations ended 1995; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1994 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Site Inactivated 2007 due to soil erosion & budget concerns. Station buildings remain in good repair.
BAR-M Barter Island AK FPS-117 70°07′49"N 143°38′21"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Main site, 1957. Also is part of Alaska Radar System, site A-21, Maintained by USAF 611th Air Support Group. DEW operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1990. Station buildings remain in use and in good repair. See also: Barter Island LRRS Airport (PABA)
BAR-1 Komakuk Beach YT FPS-124 69°35′41"N 140°10′41"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, operations ended 1989; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Now located in the Yukon's Ivvavik National Park of Canada, station site remediation work was completed by 2005. Komakuk Beach SRRS Airport (ICAO: CYAJ) remains in use for access to site.
BAR-B Stokes Point YT FPS-124 69°19′49"N 138°44′13"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Intermediate site, closed and site abandoned in 1963. Reopened as unattended NWS Short Range Radar site in 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Now located in the Yukon's Ivvavik National Park of Canada, no station site remediation is planned. Stokes Point SRRS Airport remains in use for access to site.
BAR-2 Shingle Point YT FPS-117 68°55′22"N 137°15′38"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. Now located in the Yukon's Ivvavik National Park of Canada; station site remediation status is undetermined. Shingle Point LRRS Airport (ICAO: CYUA) remains in use for access to site.
BAR-BA3 Storm Hills NT FPS-124 68°53′39"N 133°56′31"W 1990 Active Established in November 1990 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
BAR-3 Tuktoyaktuk NT FPS-124 69°26′35"N 132°59′55"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, operations ended 13 September 1993; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed in September 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Station site remediation work was completed by 2005. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building, along with gravel remains of previous DEW site roads and building footings. Tuktoyaktuk/James Gruben Airport (ICAO: CYUB) is used for access to site.
BAR-DA1 Liverpool Bay NT FPS-124 69°36′15"N 130°53′37"W 1990 Active Established in November 1990 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
BAR-4 Nicholson Peninsula NT FPS-124 69°55′27"N 128°58′24"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957 on long peninsula in Beaufort Sea
Beaufort Sea
The Beaufort Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, west of Canada's Arctic islands. The sea is named after hydrographer Sir Francis Beaufort...

. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in 1993; unattended NWS Short Range Radar installed in 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Station site remediation work was completed by 2005. New site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site, DEW station airstrip is abandoned as it has been partially deteriorated by erosion into the ocean.
BAR-E Horton River NT FPS-124 70°00′59"N 126°56′35"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Intermediate site "Malloch Hills", closed and site abandoned in 1963. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. Reopened as unattended NWS Short Range Radar site in June 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Abandoned DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
PIN-M Cape Parry NT FPS-117 70°10′17"N 124°43′30"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Main site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. Cape Parry LRRS Airport (ICAO: CZUE) remains in use for access to site.
PIN-1BD Keats Point NT FPS-124 69°40′22"N 121°40′19"W 1991 Active Established in July 1991 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
PIN-1BG Croker River NU FPS-124 69°16′00"N 119°13′00"W 1991 Active Established in August 1991 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of site does not provide information regarding facility.
PIN-2A Harding River NU FPS-124 68°50′10"N 116°58′05"W 1991 Active Established in September 1991 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of site does not provide information regarding facility.
PIN-CB Bernard Harbor NU FPS-124 68°45′19"N 114°56′21"W 1991 Active Established as DEW Intermediate site in 1957, designated "PIN-C" (N 68 46' 55" W 114 50' 6"). Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. Closed and site abandoned in 1963. Reopened as unattended NWS Short Range Radar site 3.1 miles southwest of former DEW site in September 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Abandoned DEW facility torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads and old building pads. Airstrip still used for support of NWS site, new several buildings seen at airport site and gravel road connects the airport to the new NWS site. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
PIN-3 Lady Franklin Point NU FPS-117 68°28′45"N 113°13′32"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. Appears that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Lady Franklin Point LRRS Airport (ICAO: CYUJ) remains in use for access to site.
PIN-DA Edinburgh Island NU FPS-124 68°29′09"N 110°51′50"W 1991 Active Replacement for PIN-D "Ross Point" DEW Intermediate site (N 68 32' 31" W 111 12' 7") opened in 1957, closed and site abandoned in 1963. New site opened in October 1991 9.4 miles east-southeast as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Small gravel airstrip used for access to site.
PIN-EB Cape Peel West NU FPS-124 69°02′11"N 107°49′18"W 1991 Active Replacement for PIN-E "Cape Peel" DEW Intermediate site (N 69 3' 25" W 107 18' 18") opened in 1957, closed and site abandoned in 1963. New site opened in October 1991 12.9 miles west as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of area does not provide information regarding either facility.
CAM-M Cambridge Bay NU FPS-117 69°06′58"N 105°07′08"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Main site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. Cambridge Bay Airport
Cambridge Bay Airport
Cambridge Bay Airport is located at Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada, and is operated by the government of Nunavut.In December 2005 the Government of Nunavut announced that they would spend $18 million to pave the runway....

 (ICAO: CYCB) remains in use for access to site and is a major transportation hub to support other CAM NWS sites.
CAM-A3A Sturt Point NU FPS-124 68°57′47"N 103°45′34"W 1991 Active Replacement for CAM-A "Sturt Point" DEW Intermediate site (N 68 47' 45" W 103 20' 42") opened in 1957, closed and site abandoned in 1963. New site opened in October 1991 15.5 miles northwest as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of CAM-A site does not provide information regarding facility, new NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Gravel airstrip used for access to site.
CAM-1A Jenny Lind Island NU FPS-124 68°44′31"N 101°51′17"W 1991 Active Replacement for CAM-1 DEW Auxiliary site opened in 1957, closed in 1992. Dew site was located on coast, with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. New NWS Short Range Radar site opened in October 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps, located on mountain peak approximately 6.5 miles north-northwest of former DEW site. Low resolution imagery of area does not provide information regarding either facility.
CAM-B Hat Island NU FPS-124 68°19′02"N 100°04′09"W 1991 Active Established as DEW Intermediate site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. closed and site abandoned in 1963. Unattended NWS Short Range Radar site opened in September 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Closed DEW facilty torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad construted on former airstip for access.
CAM-2 Gladman NU FPS-124 68°40′48"N 097°48′38"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Auxiliary site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended 1992; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed October 1990. Closed DEW facilty torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
CAM-CB Gjoa Haven NU FPS-124 68°38′39"N 095°52′10"W 1990 Active Replacement for PIN-E "Matheson Point" DEW Intermediate site (N 68 38' 39" W 95 52' 10") opened in 1957, closed and site abandoned in 1963. New site opened in October 1990, 1 mile southeast as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Located near small village of Gjoa Haven, connected by gravel road to village 1.2 miles south of site. Gjoa Haven Airport
Gjoa Haven Airport
Gjoa Haven Airport is located southwest of Gjoa Haven, Nunavut, Canada, and is operated by the government of Nunavut.The airport is a single storey building and located next to several trailers. The runway and taxiways are gravel or dirt. The runway is not marked and other than a NDB lacks...

 (ICAO: CYHK) originally built for DEW site, now small regional airport is used for access to site
CAM-3 Shepherd Bay NU FPS-117 68°47′34"N 093°26′25"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in July 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed July 1989. Appears that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Shepherd Bay SRRS Airport (ICAO: CYUS) remains in use for access to site.
CAM-D Simpson Lake NU FPS-124 68°35′41"N 091°57′24"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Intermediate site in 1957. Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. closed and site abandoned in 1963. Unattended NWS Short Range Radar site opened in September 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Closed DEW facilty partially remains in a deteriorted state gravel roads, old building pads. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad construted on former airstip for access.
CAM-4 Pelly Bay NU FPS-124 68°26′13"N 089°43′34"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in 1992; NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Closed DEW facilty torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads. Former airstrip remains, however a helicopter pad at NWS site used for access.
CAM-5A Cape McLoughlin NU FPS-124 69°39′13"N 085°31′04"W 1992 Active Established in July 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of site does not provide information regarding facility,
CAM-FA Lailor River NU FPS-124 69°06′38"N 083°32′23"W 1992 Active Established in August 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
FOX-M Hall Beach NU FPS-117 68°45′39"N 081°13′35"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Main site in 1957. Also known as "Site 30" Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended September 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar September 1989. Appears that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Hall Beach Airport
Hall Beach Airport
Hall Beach Airport is located at Hall Beach, Nunavut, Canada, and is operated by the government of Nunavut.-Airlines and destinations:...

 (ICAO: CYUX) remains in use for access to site.
FOX-1 Rowley Island NU FPS-124 69°04′01"N 079°03′55"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in 1991; unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Abandoned DEW facilty torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
FOX-A Bray Island NU FPS-124 69°13′26"N 077°13′48"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Intermediate site in 1957. AKA "Site 32". Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. closed and site abandoned in 1963. New unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps on former DEW site. Abandoned DEW facilty torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads, old building pads and abandoned and unusable airstrip. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
FOX-2 Longstaff Bluff NU FPS-124 68°53′56"N 075°08′20"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, AKA "Site 33". Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended in August 1991; unattended NWS Short Range Radar site opened November 1990 approximately 4 miles east-southeast of former DEW Airstrip to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Unused DEW site remains, buildings appear in good repair, along with former radars and communications antennas. Airstrip remains in use for access to site, accessed by gravel road.
FOX-B Nudluardjk Lake NU FPS-124 68°37′10"N 073°12′45"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Intermediate site in 1957. AKA "West Baffin", located on Baffin Island
Baffin Island
Baffin Island in the Canadian territory of Nunavut is the largest island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world. Its area is and its population is about 11,000...

. Site was closed and abandoned in 1963. New unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps on former DEW site. Low resolution imagery of site does not provide information regarding either facility,
FOX-3 Dewar Lakes NU FPS-117 68°39′02"N 071°13′58"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. Located on Baffin Island
Baffin Island
Baffin Island in the Canadian territory of Nunavut is the largest island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world. Its area is and its population is about 11,000...

. DEW operations ended in 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed July 1989. Appears that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Dewar Lakes LRRS Airport (ICAO: CYUW) remains in use for access to site.
FOX-CA Kangok Fjord NU FPS-124 68°38′51"N 069°07′47"W 1992 Active Established in September 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Located on Baffin Island
Baffin Island
Baffin Island in the Canadian territory of Nunavut is the largest island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world. Its area is and its population is about 11,000...

  Low resolution imagery of site does not provide information regarding facility,
FOX-4 Cape Hooper NU FPS-124 68°28′21"N 066°48′01"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, AKA "Site 37". DEW operations ended in 1991; Located on Baffin Island
Baffin Island
Baffin Island in the Canadian territory of Nunavut is the largest island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world. Its area is and its population is about 11,000...

. NWS Short Range Radar site activated in December 1990 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of both sites does not provide information regarding facilities.
FOX-5 Broughton Island NU FPS-124 67°32′05"N 063°47′10"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Line Auxiliary site, 1957, AKA "Qikiqtarjuaq" or "Site 39". Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. Unattended NWS Short Range Radar site opened 1991 approximately 6.4 miles east of former DEW Airstrip to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. NWS site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Former DEW airstrip now known as Qikiqtarjuaq Airport
Qikiqtarjuaq Airport
Qikiqtarjuaq Airport is located at Qikiqtarjuaq, Nunavut, Canada, and is operated by the government of Nunavut.This airport is a popular stop for pilots ferring turboprop aircraft between Canada and Europe. It is considerably closer to Greenland than Iqaluit . Jet fuel is available from the...

 (CYVM) used to support NWS also used by small village.
DYE-M Cape Dyer NU FPS-117 66°39′52"N 061°21′21"W 1957 Active Established as DEW Main site in 1957. Also known as "Site 41" Was expansive facility with airstrip and dock facility for resupplying. DEW operations ended August 1989; minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar August1989. Appears that much of the former DEW site facilities remain in use, buildings appear in good repair. Cape Dyer Airport (ICAO: CYVN) remains in use for access to site.
BAF-2 Cape Mercy NU FPS-124 64°57′17"N 063°33′38"W 1992 Active Established in July 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Low resolution imagery of area does not provide information regarding facility.
BAF-3 Breevport Island NU FPS-117 63°20′24"N 064°09′29"W 1988 Active Established in October 1988 as a minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Appears to have been built on a former DEW site, which station site remediation work has left gravel roads, old building pads and a gravel airstrip. Airstrip appears to be in use, with new building erected at end of runway.
BAF-4A Loks Land NU FPS-124 62°30′22"N 064°31′06"W 1992 Active Established in August 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. The site consists of a radar tower, communications facility, and small storage building. Helicopter pad used for access to site.
BAF-5 Resolution Island NU FPS-124 61°35′47"N 064°38′20"W 1943 Active Former Pinetree Line
Pinetree Line
The Pinetree Line was a series of radar stations located across the northern United States and southern Canada at about the 50th parallel north, along with a number of other stations located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Run by NORAD , over half were manned by United States Air Force...

 radar station N-30, closed 1961; Reopened as unattended NWS Short Range Radar site in September 1991 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Former Pintree Line radar station remains, building conditions undetermined. Many former radars and communication antennas still standing. Access to site appears to be by helicoper pad
LAB-1 Cape Kakiviak NL FPS-124 59°59′15"N 064°09′55"W 1992 Active Established in July 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of area does not provide information regarding facility.
LAB-2 Saglek NL FPS-117 58°29′19"N 062°35′08"W 1953 Active Former Pinetree Line
Pinetree Line
The Pinetree Line was a series of radar stations located across the northern United States and southern Canada at about the 50th parallel north, along with a number of other stations located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Run by NORAD , over half were manned by United States Air Force...

 radar station RCAF Station Saglek
RCAF Station Saglek
Canadian Forces Station Saglek is a Canadian Forces Air Command radar base in the Mid-Canada Line, located near Saglek Bay in Newfoundland and Labrador. located north-northwest of CFB Goose Bay. -History:...

 N-29, closed 1971; Minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed 1989. New NWS site consists of a radar towers, communications facility, and storage and tunnel connected buildings for personnel. Abandoned Pinetree Line facilty torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads and old building pads. Pinetree Line airstip in good repair, Saglek Airport
Saglek Airport
Saglek Airport is located in the Torngat Mountains in northern Labrador and was originally built by the United States Air Force in 1954, as part of the Mid-Canada Line and formed part of RCAF Station Saglek....

 (CYSV) used for accessing the site.
LAB-3 Cape Kiglapait NL FPS-124 57°08′07"N 061°28′32"W 1992 Active Established in August 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of area does not provide information regarding facility.
LAB-4 Big Bay NL FPS-124 55°44′30"N 060°25′42"W 1992 Active Established in September 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of area does not provide information regarding facility.
LAB-5 Tukialik NL FPS-124 54°42′53"N 058°21′30"W 1992 Active Established in October 1992 as a unattended NWS Short Range Radar site to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. Low resolution imagery of area does not provide information regarding facility.
LAB-6 Cartwright
Cartwright Air Station
Cartwright Air Station is a closed General Surveillance Radar station. It is located east-northeast of CFB Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador. It was closed in 1968.-History:...

NL FPS-117 53°33′04"N 056°49′48"W 1953 Active Former Pinetree Line
Pinetree Line
The Pinetree Line was a series of radar stations located across the northern United States and southern Canada at about the 50th parallel north, along with a number of other stations located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Run by NORAD , over half were manned by United States Air Force...

 radar station N-27, closed 1968; New minimally-attended NWS Long Range Radar installed in November 1998 to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps. New NWS site consists of a radar towers, communications facility, and storage and tunnel connected buildings for personnel. Abandoned Pinetree Line facilty torn down, station site remediation work was completed by 2005, leaving gravel roads and old building pads. Helicopter pad used for access to site, although site is connected by a 10 mile gravel road to the settlement of Muddy Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador
Muddy Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador
Muddy Bay is a settlement in Newfoundland and Labrador....

. which is connected into the Canadian highway system.

Distant Early Warning Line sites not included


The following table lists the DEW Line sites not included in the NWS. Most of these sites not included were Intermediate sites closed in 1963 when declared obsolete. The stations consisted of a module train, a warehouse, a vehicle garage, an Inuit house, POL (Petroleum, Oil, Lubricant) tanks and a continuous wave radar tower. Others were some Auxiliary sites that were replaced with new NWS stations. DEW Line stations in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska were inactivated due to budget reductions in 1969. Stations in Greenland
Greenland
Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for...

 and Iceland
Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

 were transferred to the USAF Air Forces Iceland in 1980.

The primary DEW line radars were the Raytheon AN/FPS-19
AN/FPS-19
The Raytheon AN/FPS-19 was developed for the Distant Early Warning Line as its primary long-range search radar.-References:*...

  long lange L-Band search radar in in Canada and Alaska at main and auxiliary sites; Bendix AN/FPS-30
AN/FPS-30
The Bendix AN/FPS-30 was a long-range search radar deployed at Distant Early Warning Line sites in Greenland. It was an advancement over the AN/FPS-19 radars deployed in Alaska and Canada, being optimized for use in severe Arctic conditions...

 at the four Greenland "DYE" radar stations. Motorola AN/FPS-23
AN/FPS-23
The Motorola AN/FPS-23 was a short-range search radar deployed to the Distant Early Warning Line "Intermediate" sites as gap fillers between the long-range AN/FPS-19 Main and Auxiliary stations. It was declared obsolete in 1963, and the Intermediate stations were closed.-References:*...

 short range search radar was installed at the Intermediate sites, used as fillers to cover any Long Range Radar surveillance gaps.
Site ID Geographic Place Name Location Radar Coordinates Activated Inactivated Notes
COB-Main Cold Bay AFS AK FPS-19 55°15′49"N 162°53′08"W 1959 1969 Part of DEW Aleutians Segment, manned by USAF Alaskan Air Command
Alaskan Air Command
Alaskan Air Command is an inactive United States Air Force Major Command. Established in 1945 under the United States Army Air Forces, its mission was to organize and administer the air defense system of Alaska, exercise direct control of all active measures, and coordinate all passive means of...

 714th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron. Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated, site appears to be remidiated.
COB-1 Nikolski AK FPS-19 52°57′35"N 168°52′03"W 1959 1969 Manned by USAF AAC Det 1 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated; site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF.
COB-2 Dirftwood Bay AK FPS-19 53°58′28"N 166°54′18"W 1959 1969 Manned by USAF AAC Det 2 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated; site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF; building foundation remains
COB-3 Cape Sarichef AK FPS-19 54°35′32"N 164°52′34"W ** 1959 1969 Manned by USAF AAC Det 3 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated; site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF
COB-4 Port Moller AK FPS-19 55°58′41"N 160°30′01"W ** 1959 1969 Manned by USAF AAC Det 4 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated' site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF
COB-5 Port Heiden AK FPS-19 56°58′38"N 158°39′09"W ** 1959 1969 Manned by USAF AAC Det 5 714th AC&W Squadron; Closed 30 June 1969 when Aleutians DEW segment was inactivated; site remediated and obliterated 1998 by 11th AF
LIZ-1 Cape Lisburne AFS AK Numerous 68°52′12"N 166°09′00"W 1953 1983 DEW Main Site, also Alaskan Air Command
Alaskan Air Command
Alaskan Air Command is an inactive United States Air Force Major Command. Established in 1945 under the United States Army Air Forces, its mission was to organize and administer the air defense system of Alaska, exercise direct control of all active measures, and coordinate all passive means of...

 AC&W Surveillance Station. Operated by the 711th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron. Closed in 1983, now Cape Lisburne Long Range Radar Site, part of the 11th Air Force Alaska Radar System, equipped with a minimally-manned AN/FPS-117
AN/FPS-117
The AN/FPS-117 is a phased array, 3-dimensional air search radar. It is produced by the Lockheed Martin corporation from the United States.The system is a low power, long range , L-band pencil beam, solid-state transmitter and beacon interrogator search radar...

 radar. Maintained by contractors under the 611th Air Support Group.
LIZ-A Cape Sabine AK FPS-23 69°01′27"N 163°51′25"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early 2000s by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
LIZ-B Icy Cape AK FPS-23 70°17′23"N 161°54′40"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early 2000s by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
LIZ-C Peard Bay AK FPS-23 70°48′29"N 158°15′32"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early 2000s by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
POW-A Cape Simpson AK FPS-23 71°03′26"N 154°43′39"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963 now in-use as civilian storage/supply facility
POW-B Kogru AK FPS-23 70°34′36"N 152°15′56"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early 2000s by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
POW-C McIntyre AK FPS-23 70°24′10"N 148°40′46"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Abandoned buildings remain. Runway may or may not be usable.
POW-D Brownlow Point AK FPS-23 69°58′29"N 144°50′09"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed early 2000s by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
BAR-A Demarcation Bay AK FPS-23 69°53′11"N 142°18′43"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963Clean-up and remediation completed early 2000s by USAF. Gravel runway and building footers remain.
BAR-C Tununuk Camp NT FPS-23 69°00′21"N 134°40′05"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963; site conditioned is undetermined
BAR-D Atkinson Point NT FPS-23 69°55′59"N 131°25′54"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963; site conditioned is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Liverpool Bay SRR (BAR-DA1)
PIN-A Pierce Point NT FPS-23 69°48′55"N 122°43′02"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963; site conditioned is undetermined
PIN-1 Clinton Point NT FPS-19 69°35′00"N 120°44′46"W 1957 1963 DEW Axillary Site; closed 3 September 1993. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Sites Keats Point SRR (PIN-1BD) and Croker River SRR (PIN-1BG).
PIN-B Clifton Point NT FPS-23 69°12′56"N 118°38′11"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined.
PIN-2 Cape Young NU FPS-19 68°56′08"N 116°56′10"W ** 1957 1993 DEW Axillary Site; closed 31 August 1993. Remains of site deteriorating, Clean-up and remediation scheduled 2012. Replaced by NWS Site Harding River SRR (PIN-2A)
PIN-C Bernard Harbour NU FPS-23 68°46′55"N 114°50′01"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed, gravel runway appears to be in-use, new structures constructed on site, use undetermined but appears to be civilian not military radar site. Replaced by NWS Site Bernard Harbor SRR (PIN-CB)
PIN-D Ross Point NU FPS-23 68°32′10"N 111°11′55"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Edinburgh Island SRR (PIN-DA)
PIN-E Cape Peel NU FPS-23 69°02′41"N 107°19′33"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Cape Peel West SRR (PIN-EB)
CAM-A Sturt Point NU FPS-23 68°47′45"N 103°20′40"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Sturt Point SRR (CAM-A3A)
CAM-1 Jenny Lind Island NU FPS-19 68°39′25"N 101°44′19"W ** 1957 1990 DEW Axillary Site; replaced by NWS site CAM-1A, closed 1992; Clean-up and remediation completed 2010. Replaced by NWS Site Jenny Lind Islant SRR (CAM-1A)
CAM-C Matheson Point NU FPS-23 68°52′09"N 095°09′27"W 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Clean-up and remediation completed, site has been completely obliterated. Replaced by NWS Site Gjoa Haven SRR (CAM-CB)
CAM-E Keith Bay NU FPS-23 68°15′22"N 088°10′25"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined.
CAM-5 Mackar Inlet NU FPS-19 68°18′03"N 085°40′29"W ** 1957 1990 DEW Axillary Site closed 1992; Clean-up and remediation completed 2010. Replaced by NWS Site Cape McLoughlin SRR (CAM-5A)
CAM-F Scarpa Lake NU FPS-23 68°34′04"N 083°28′53"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Replaced by NWS Site Lailor River SRR (CAM-FA)
FOX-D Kivitoo NU FPS-23 67°57′58"N 064°54′28"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined.
FOX-E Durban Island NU FPS-23 67°05′00"N 062°12′59"W ** 1957 1963 DEW Intermediate Site; closed and abandoned, 1963. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined.
DYE-1 Qaqqatoqaq GL FPS-30 66°38′03"N 052°52′12"W ** 1961 1988 Parent station was Cape Dyer, NWT, Canada (DYE-Main). Near Sisimiut, Closed 1988. Low resolution imagery of site, condition is undetermined. Site is now used as a VHF-site for aviation purposes.
DYE-2 Ice Cap 1 GL FPS-30 66°29′30"N 046°18′19"W ++ 1961 1988 Parent station was Cape Dyer, NWT, Canada (DYE-Main). In 1982, Ice Cap 1 (DYE-2) was moved sideways 210 feet, for life extension. Closed 1 October 1988. The 109th Airlift Wing (NY-ANG) regularly uses the landing area at DYE-2 for pilot training for practicing Antarctic takeoffs & landings (called Ice Station Ruby); a.k.a. the Raven Ski-way Training Facility. .
DYE-3 Ice Cap 2 GL FPS-30 65°10′57"N 043°49′10"W ++ 1961 1988 Parent station was Cape Dyer, NWT, Canada (DYE-Main). In 1977, Ice Cap 2 (DYE-3) was moved sideways 210 feet, for life extension. Closed 1988.
DYE-4 Kulusuk Island GL FPS-30 65°31′39"N 037°09′34"W 1961 1988 Parent station was Cape Dyer, NWT, Canada (DYE-Main). Closed 1988. Abandoned. Site badly deteriorated, buildings half covered in snow
DYE-5 Rockville IS Numerous 64°02′07"N 022°39′08"W 1951 1992 Also known as "H-1". Originally Air Forces Iceland, then Air Defense Command AC&W GCI site. Designated as part of DEW Line, 1957. Manned by USAF 932d Aircraft Control and Warning (later Air Defense, Later Air Control) Squadron
932d Air Control Squadron
The 932d Air Control Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the 85th Group, Third Air Force, stationed at Keflavik Air Station, Iceland...

. Closed as part of end of Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 draw down.

.** Location approximate due to low-resolution aerial imagery of area.  ++Site location obliterated by snow cover.

See also

  • List of Canadian Forces Bases
  • Operation Hurricane (Canada)
    Operation Hurricane (Canada)
    Operation Hurricane is an annual month-long technical maintenance mission conducted by Canadian Forces personnel in the Canadian Arctic.Each summer, since 1982, Canadian military technicians and support personnel have been deployed by helicopters to repair and resupply the otherwise unattended High...

  • Joint Surveillance System
    Joint Surveillance System
    The Joint Surveillance System is a joint United States Air Force and Federal Aviation Administration system for the atmospheric air defense of North America...

  • NORAD Tracks Santa
    NORAD Tracks Santa
    NORAD Tracks Santa is an annual Christmas-themed entertainment program, which has existed since 1955, produced under the auspices of the North American Aerospace Defense Command...

    Program

External links