Nanga Parbat

Nanga Parbat

Overview
Nanga Parbat is the ninth highest mountain
Mountain
Image:Himalaya_annotated.jpg|thumb|right|The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everestrect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzorect 200 28 335 52 Makalurect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everestrect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateaurect 250 406 340 427 Rong River...

 on Earth
Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

, the second highest mountain in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and among the eight-thousander
Eight-thousander
The eight-thousanders are the fourteen independent mountains on Earth that are more than high above sea level. They are all located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia....

s with a summit elevation of 8,126 meters (26,660 ft). Nanga Parbat translates to "Naked Mountain" in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

; parbat deriving from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 word parvata meaning "mountain, rock", and nanga from the Sanskrit nagna meaning "naked".
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Encyclopedia
Nanga Parbat is the ninth highest mountain
Mountain
Image:Himalaya_annotated.jpg|thumb|right|The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everestrect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzorect 200 28 335 52 Makalurect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everestrect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateaurect 250 406 340 427 Rong River...

 on Earth
Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

, the second highest mountain in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and among the eight-thousander
Eight-thousander
The eight-thousanders are the fourteen independent mountains on Earth that are more than high above sea level. They are all located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia....

s with a summit elevation of 8,126 meters (26,660 ft). Nanga Parbat translates to "Naked Mountain" in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

; parbat deriving from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 word parvata meaning "mountain, rock", and nanga from the Sanskrit nagna meaning "naked". Known as the "Killer Mountain", Nanga Parbat was one of the deadliest of the eight-thousander
Eight-thousander
The eight-thousanders are the fourteen independent mountains on Earth that are more than high above sea level. They are all located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia....

s for climbers in the first half of the twentieth century; since that time it has been less so, though still an extremely serious climb. It is also an immense, dramatic peak that rises far above its surrounding terrain.

Location


Nanga Parbat forms the western anchor of the Himalayan Range and is the westernmost eight-thousander
Eight-thousander
The eight-thousanders are the fourteen independent mountains on Earth that are more than high above sea level. They are all located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia....

. It lies just south of the Indus River
Indus River
The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India.Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and...

 in the Astore District
Astore District
Astore is one of the six districts of the Gilgit Baltistan. The district contains the Astore Valley and is bounded to the west by Diamer District , to the north by Gilgit District, to the east by Skardu District and to the south by Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Neelum District of Azad Kashmir...

 of Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. Not far to the north is the western end of the Karakoram
Karakoram
The Karakoram, or Karakorum , is a large mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, India and China, located in the regions of Gilgit-Baltistan , Ladakh , and Xinjiang region,...

 range.

Notable features


Nanga Parbat has tremendous vertical relief over local terrain in all directions.

To the south, Nanga Parbat boasts what is often referred to as the highest mountain face in the world: the Rupal Face rises 4,600 m (15,000 ft) above its base. To the north, the complex, somewhat more gently sloped Rakhiot Flank rises 7,000 m (23,000 ft) from the Indus River valley to the summit in just 25 km (15.5 mi), one of the 10 greatest elevation gains in so short a distance on Earth.

Nanga Parbat is one of only two peaks on Earth that rank in the top twenty of both the highest mountains in the world, and the most prominent peaks in the world, ranking ninth and fourteenth respectively. The other being Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain, with a peak at above sea level. It is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. The international boundary runs across the precise summit point...

, which is first on both lists.

Layout of the mountain



The core of Nanga Parbat is a long ridge trending southwest–northeast. The ridge is an enormous bulk of ice and rock. It has three faces, Diamir face, Rakhiot and Rupal. The southwestern portion of this main ridge is known as the Mazeno Wall, and has a number of subsidiary peaks. In the other direction, the main ridge arcs northeast at Rakhiot Peak (7,070 m / 23,196 ft). The south/southeast side of the mountain is dominated by the massive Rupal Face, noted above. The north/northwest side of the mountain, leading to the Indus, is more complex. It is split into the Diamir (west) face and the Rakhiot (north) face by a long ridge. There are a number of subsidiary summits, including North Peak (7,816 m / 25,643 ft) some 3 km north of the main summit. Near the base of the Rupal Face is a beautiful glacial lake called Latbo, above a seasonal shepherds' village of the same name.

Early attempts


Climbing attempts started very early on Nanga Parbat. In 1895 Albert F. Mummery
Albert F. Mummery
Albert Frederick Mummery , was an English mountaineer and author. Although most notable for his many and varied first ascents put up in the Alps, Mummery, along with J...

 led an expedition to the peak, and reached almost 7,000 m (23,000 ft) on the Diamir (West) Face, but Mummery and two Gurkha
Gurkha
Gurkha are people from Nepal who take their name from the Gorkha District. Gurkhas are best known for their history in the Indian Army's Gorkha regiments, the British Army's Brigade of Gurkhas and the Nepalese Army. Gurkha units are closely associated with the kukri, a forward-curving Nepalese knife...

 companions later died reconnoitering the Rakhiot Face.

In the 1930s, Nanga Parbat became the focus of German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 interest in the Himalaya. The German mountaineers were unable to attempt Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain, with a peak at above sea level. It is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. The international boundary runs across the precise summit point...

, as only the British had access to Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

. Initially German efforts focussed on Kanchenjunga, to which Paul Bauer led two expeditions in 1930 and 1931, but with its long ridges and steep faces Kanchenjunga was more difficult than Everest and neither expedition made much progress. K2
K2
K2 is the second-highest mountain on Earth, after Mount Everest...

 was known to be harder still, and its remoteness meant that even reaching its base would be a major undertaking. Nanga Parbat was therefore the highest mountain accessible to Germans which they seemed to have a chance of climbing.


The first German expedition to Nanga Parbat was led by Willy Merkl in 1932. It is sometimes referred to as a German-American expedition, as the eight climbers included Rand Herron, an American, and Fritz Wiessner
Fritz Wiessner
Fritz Wiessner was a pioneer of free climbing. Born in Dresden, Germany, he emigrated to New York City in 1929. He became a U.S. citizen in 1935.-Early days:...

, who would become an American citizen the following year. While the team were all strong climbers, none had Himalayan experience, and poor planning (particularly an inadequate number of porters
Porter (carrier)
A porter, also called a bearer, is a person who shifts objects for others.-Historical meaning:Human adaptability and flexibility early led to the use of humans for shifting gear...

), coupled with bad weather, prevented the team progressing far beyond the Rakhiot Peak
Rakhiot Peak
Rakhiot Peak is a peak in the Himalaya range of the Northern Areas of Pakistan.It is one of the many subsidiary summits of the core of Nanga Parbat.-Location:It lies just south of the Indus River, in the Diamir District of the Northern Areas of Pakistan...

, reached by Peter Aschenbrenner and Herbert Kunigk, but they did establish the feasibility of a route via Rakhiot Peak and the main ridge.

Merkl led another expedition in 1934, which was better prepared and financed with the full backing of the new Nazi government. Early in the expedition Alfred Drexel died, probably of high altitude pulmonary edema
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema
High altitude pulmonary edema is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema that occurs in otherwise healthy mountaineers at altitudes typically above ....

,. The Tyrolean climbers Peter Aschenbrenner and Erwin Schneider reached an estimated height of (7,895 m / 25,900 ft) on July 6, but were forced to return because of worsening weather. On July 7 they and 14 others were trapped by a ferocious storm at 7,480 m (24,540 ft). During the desperate retreat that followed, three famous German mountaineers, Uli Wieland, Willo Welzenbach and Merkl himself, and six Sherpas
Sherpa people
The Sherpa are an ethnic group from the most mountainous region of Nepal, high in the Himalayas. Sherpas migrated from the Kham region in eastern Tibet to Nepal within the last 300–400 years.The initial mountainous migration from Tibet was a search for beyul...

 died of exhaustion, exposure and altitude sickness, and several more suffered severe frostbite
Frostbite
Frostbite is the medical condition where localized damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold. Frostbite is most likely to happen in body parts farthest from the heart and those with large exposed areas...

. The last survivor to reach safety, Ang Tsering, did so having spent seven days battling through the storm. It has been said that the disaster, "for sheer protracted agony, has no parallel in climbing annals."

In 1937, Karl Wien
Karl Wien
Karl Wien was a German mountaineer.Born in Würzburg, Wien was the son of university professor Wilhelm Wien, and became a lecturer himself in the geography department of Munich University. His mountaineering career began in the Alps, where with Willi Welzenbach he made the first ascent of the...

 led another expedition to the mountain, following the same route as Merkl's expeditions had done. Progress was made, but more slowly than before due to heavy snowfall. Some time around the 14th of June seven Germans and nine Sherpas, almost the entire team, were at Camp IV below Raikot Peak when it was overwhelmed by an avalanche
Avalanche
An avalanche is a sudden rapid flow of snow down a slope, occurring when either natural triggers or human activity causes a critical escalating transition from the slow equilibrium evolution of the snow pack. Typically occurring in mountainous terrain, an avalanche can mix air and water with the...

. All sixteen men died instantly in what remains the worst single disaster to occur on an 8000 m peak
Eight-thousander
The eight-thousanders are the fourteen independent mountains on Earth that are more than high above sea level. They are all located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia....

.

The Germans returned in 1938 led by Paul Bauer, but the expedition was plagued by bad weather, and Bauer, mindful of the previous disasters, ordered the party down before the Silver Saddle was reached. The following year a small four man expedition, including Heinrich Harrer
Heinrich Harrer
Heinrich Harrer was an Austrian mountaineer, sportsman, geographer, and author.He is best known for his books Seven Years in Tibet and The White Spider .-Athletics:...

, explored the Diamir Face with the aim of finding an easier route. They concluded that the face was a viable route, but the Second World War intervened and the four men were interned
Internment
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The Oxford English Dictionary gives the meaning as: "The action of 'interning'; confinement within the limits of a country or place." Most modern usage is about individuals, and there is a distinction...

 in India. Harrer's escape and subsequent travels became the subject of his book Seven Years in Tibet
Seven Years in Tibet
Seven Years in Tibet is an autobiographical travel book written by Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer based on his real life experiences in Tibet between 1944 and 1951 during the Second World War and the interim period before the Communist Chinese People's Liberation Army invaded Tibet in...

.

First ascent




Nanga Parbat was first climbed, via the Rakhiot Flank (East Ridge), on July 3, 1953 by Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n climber Hermann Buhl
Hermann Buhl
Hermann Buhl is considered one of the best climbers of all time. He was particularly innovative in applying alpine style to Himalayan climbing...

, a member of a German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

-Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n team. The expedition was organized by the half-brother of Willy Merkl, Karl Herrligkoffer from Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, while the expedition leader was Peter Aschenbrenner from Innsbruck
Innsbruck
- Main sights :- Buildings :*Golden Roof*Kaiserliche Hofburg *Hofkirche with the cenotaph of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor*Altes Landhaus...

, who had participated in the 1932 and 1934 attempts. By the time of this expedition, 31 people had already died on the mountain. The final push for the summit was dramatic: Buhl continued alone, after his companions had turned back, and arrived at 7 p.m.; the climbing being harder and more time consuming than he had anticipated. His descent was slowed when he lost a crampon. Caught by darkness, he was forced to bivouac
Bivouac shelter
A bivouac traditionally refers to a military encampment made with tents or improvised shelters, usually without shelter or protection from enemy fire or such a site where a camp may be built. It is also commonly used to describe a variety of improvised camp sites such as those used in scouting and...

 standing upright on a narrow ledge, holding a small handhold with one hand. Exhausted, he dozed occasionally, but managed to maintain his balance. He was also very fortunate to have a calm night, so he was not subjected to wind chill
Wind chill
Wind chill is the felt air temperature on exposed skin due to wind. The wind chill temperature is always lower than the air temperature, and the windchill is undefined at the higher temps...

. He finally reached his high camp at 7 p.m. the next day, 40 hours after setting out. The ascent was made without oxygen, and Buhl is the only man to have made the first ascent
First ascent
In climbing, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route...

 of an 8000 m peak alone.

Subsequent attempts and ascents


The second ascent of Nanga Parbat was via the Diamir Face, in 1962, by Germans Toni Kinshofer
Toni Kinshofer
Toni Kinshofer was a German mountain climber.In 1961, on an expedition led by Toni Hiebeler, he undertook the first winter ascent of the Eiger North Face with Walter Almberger and Anderl Mannhardt. At 27, Kinshofer was the senior climber of the team...

, S. Löw, and A. Mannhardt. The route is now the "standard route" on the mountain. The Kinshofer route does not ascend the middle of the Diamir Face, which is threatened by avalanches from massive hanging glaciers. Instead it climbs a buttress on the left side of the face.

In 1970 the brothers Günther and Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner is an Italian mountaineer and explorer from Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol "whose astonishing feats on Everest and on peaks throughout the world have earned him the status of the greatest climber in history." He is renowned for making the first solo ascent of Mount Everest without...

 reached the summit via a direct route on the huge, difficult Rupal Face; this was the third ascent of the mountain.
Their descent was epic: they were unable to descend their ascent route, and instead
made the first traverse of the mountain, going down the Diamir Face. Unfortunately Günther was killed in an avalanche on the Diamir. (Messner's account of this incident has been disputed. In 2005 Günther's remains were found on the Diamir Face.)

In 1971 Ivan Fiala and Michael Orolin summited Nanga Parbat via Buhl's 1953 route while other expedition members climbed the SE peak (7,600 m / 24,925 ft) above the Silbersattel and the foresummit (7,850 m / 25,760 ft) above the Bazhin Gap.

In 1978 Reinhold Messner returned to the Diamir Face and achieved the first completely solo ascent (i.e. always solo above Base Camp) of an 8,000 m peak.

In 1984 the French climber Lilliane Barrard became the first woman to climb Nanga Parbat, along with her husband Maurice Barrard.

In 1985, Jerzy Kukuczka
Jerzy Kukuczka
Jerzy Kukuczka , born in Katowice, Poland, was a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber. On 18 September 1987, he became the second man, after Reinhold Messner, to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders in the world....

, Zygmunt Heinrich, Slawomir Lobodzinski (all Polish) and Carlos Carsolio
Carlos Carsolio
Carlos Carsolio Larrea is a Mexican mountain climber. Carsolio is known for being the fourth man and the second youngest to climb the world's 14 eight-thousander mountain peaks, all of them without supplementary oxygen .- Early years :Carsolio, the eldest of...

 (Mexico) climbed a bold line up the Southeast Pillar (or Polish Spur) on the right-hand side of the Rupal Face, reaching the summit July 13.. It was Kukuczka's 9th 8000m summit.

Also in 1985, a Polish women's team climbed the peak via the 1962 German Diamir Face route. Wanda Rutkiewicz
Wanda Rutkiewicz
Wanda Rutkiewicz was a Polish mountain climber. She was the first woman to successfully summit K2.-Early life:Rutkiewicz was born in Plungė, Lithuania...

, Krystyna Palmowska and Anna Czerwinska reached the summit on July 15.

"Modern" superalpinism was brought to Nanga Parbat in 1988 with an unsuccessful attempt or two on the Rupal Face by Barry Blanchard
Barry Blanchard
Barry Blanchard is one of North America's top alpinists, noted for pushing the standards of highly technical, high-risk alpine climbing in the Canadian Rockies and the Himalayas.- Climbing accomplishments :...

, Mark Twight, Ward Robinson and Kevin Doyle.

Summer 2005 saw a resurgence of lightweight, alpine-style attempts on the Rupal Face:

- In August 2005, Pakistani military helicopters rescued Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

n mountaineer Tomaž Humar
Tomaž Humar
Tomaž Humar , nicknamed Gozdni Joža , was a Slovenian mountaineer. A father of two, Humar lived in Kamnik, Slovenia...

, who was stuck under a narrow ice ledge at 5,900 m (19,400 ft) for six days. It is believed to be one of the few successful rescues carried out at such high altitude.

- In September 2005, Vince Anderson
Vince Anderson
Vince Anderson is an American professional mountaineer, writer and mountain guide company manager from Ridgway, Colorado. He and Steve House won the Piolet d'Or in 2006 for an alpine-style first ascent of the Central Pillar of the Rupal Face, , September 1–8, 2005 on Nanga Parbat in northern...

 and Steve House
Steve House
Steve House is an American professional climber and mountain guide from La Grande, Oregon.-Biography:House earned a Bachelor of Science in ecology from The Evergreen State College in 1995...

 did an extremely lightweight, fast ascent of a new, direct route on the face, earning high praise from the climbing community.

On the 17th or 18 July 2006, José Antonio Delgado Sucre, a climber from Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

, died a few days after making the summit, where he was caught by bad weather for 6 days and was unable to make his way down. He was the only Venezuelan climber, and one of the few Latin Americans, to have reached the summit of five eight-thousanders. Part of the expedition and the rescue efforts at base camp were captured on video as José Antonio Delgado Sucre was the subject of a pilot for a mountaineering television series. Explorart Films, the production company, later developed the project into a feature documentary film called Beyond the Summit, which was scheduled to be released theatrically in South America in January 2008.

On July 15, 2008, Italian alpinist Karl Unterkircher
Karl Unterkircher
Karl Unterkircher was an Italian mountaineer. He is mostly known for opening new mountain routes. In 2004, he was the first alpinist to climb the two highest peaks on Earth without oxygen in the same year...

 fell into a crevasse during an attempt to open, with Walter Nones and Simon Kehrer, a new route to the top. Unterkircher died, but Simon Kehrer and Walter Nones were rescued by the Pakistani rescue team after many efforts.

On July 12, 2009, after reaching the top of Nanga Parbat, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

n climber Go Mi-Young
Go Mi-Young
Go Mi-Young, was a South Korean female mountaineer.Together with Kim Jae-Soo, she became one of the first climbers to summit three 8,000-meter peaks in a single season when they climbed Makalu, Kangchenjunga, and Dhaulagiri in six weeks.On July 12, 2009, after reaching the top of Nanga Parbat, she...

 fell off a cliff on the descent in bad weather. In her race to be the first woman to climb the 14 of the worlds highest peaks (the Eight Thousanders).

Nanga Parbat has never been climbed in winter.

Books


In the first chapter of Mistress of Mistresses
Mistress of Mistresses
Mistress of Mistresses is the first novel in the Zimiamvian Trilogy by Eric Rücker Eddison. It centers on political intrigues between the nobles and rulers of the Three Kingdoms of Rerek, Meszria and Fingiswold, following the death of King Mezentius, an extraordinary ruler who has held sway over...

,
by E.R. Eddison, the narrator compares his now deceased compatriot, Lessingham, to Nanga Parbat in a descriptive passage:
"I remember, years later, his describing to me the effect of the sudden view you get of Nanga Parbat from one of those Kashmir valleys; you have been riding for hours among quiet richly wooded scenery, winding up along the side of some kind of gorge, with nothing very big to look at, just lush, leafy, pussy-cat country of steep hillsides and waterfalls; then suddenly you come round a corner where the view opens up the valley, and you are almost struck senseless by the blinding splendour of that vast face of ice-hung precipices and soaring ridges, sixteen thousand feet from top to toe, filling a whole quarter of the heavens at a distance of, I suppose, only a dozen miles. And now, whenever I call to mind my first sight of Lessingham in that little daleside church so many years ago, I think of Nanga Parbat." (MoM, 1967, p.2-3)

Movies


Nanga Parbat (2010)
Nanga Parbat (2010)
Nanga Parbat is a 2010 motion picture mountaineering movie about two brothers Reinhold Messner and Günther Messner who climbed Nanga Parbat-Plot:...

A movie by Joseph Vilsmaier
Joseph Vilsmaier
Joseph Vilsmaier is a German film director.-Work:After attending a boarding school near Augsburg, he was trained as a technician to make film cameras and then spent nine years at a music conservatory. Following this he was a member of a jazz group...

 about the tragic expedition by the two Messner brothers in 1970, on which Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Messner is an Italian mountaineer and explorer from Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol "whose astonishing feats on Everest and on peaks throughout the world have earned him the status of the greatest climber in history." He is renowned for making the first solo ascent of Mount Everest without...

's younger brother Günther died.

Nearby peaks

  • Rakhiot Peak
    Rakhiot Peak
    Rakhiot Peak is a peak in the Himalaya range of the Northern Areas of Pakistan.It is one of the many subsidiary summits of the core of Nanga Parbat.-Location:It lies just south of the Indus River, in the Diamir District of the Northern Areas of Pakistan...

  • Chongra Peak
    Chongra Peak
    Chongra Peak is a peak in the Himalaya range of the Northern Areas of Pakistan.It is one of the many subsidiary summits of the Nanga Parbat massif.The peak lies just south of the Indus River, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan...

  • Mazeno Peak
  • Rupal Peak
    Rupal Peak
    Rupal Peak is a lofty mountain in Pakistan's western Himalaya. The peak is located just south of Nanga Parbat on the Rupal Valley and is sometimes climbed by mountaineers as they acclimatize for higher local peaks. Despite its unique beauty, steep north face and impressive height, Rupal is greatly...

  • Laila Peak (Rupal Valley)
    Laila Peak (Rupal Valley)
    Laila Peak is a major prominence at the southwestern terminus of the Rupal Valley. The peak soars above sea level and some 7,500 feet above the Rupal Valley floor. To its north lies the Rupal Glacier and to its east lies 5,642m Rupal Peak. To the north of the Rupal Glacier stands the Nanga Parbat...

  • Shaigiri
    Shaigiri
    Shaigiri is a lofty mountain in Pakistan's western Himalaya. The peak rises precipitously from the south end of the Rupal Valley, soaring above sea level and some 6,500 feet above the valley floor. To its east stands Rupal Peak, to its west, the iceflows of Rupal Glacier...


See also

  • Highest Mountains of the World
  • Rupal Valley
    Rupal Valley
    The Rupal Valley is located in the Astore District of Pakistan's Gilgit-Baltistan region. It lies just south of 8,126 meter Nanga Parbat and is popular for treks to the mountain's Rupal Face, one of highest mountain faces in the world. Rupal Village is located in the valley at...

  • Astore Valley
    Astore Valley
    Astore Valley is now located in Astore District in the autonomous Pakistani regions of Gilgit-Baltistan,previously in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. The valley, adjoining the eastern side of mountain Nanga Parbat, is about long, having area of .The entrance of the valley is located...

  • Hassan sadpara
    Hassan Sadpara
    Hassan Sadpara is a Pakistani adventurer from a small village, named Sadpara, 7 kilometres from Skardu. He is the first Pakistani to have climbed six eight-thousanders: K2 , Gasherbrum I , Gasherbrum II , Nanga Parbat , Broad Peak , and Mount Everest . He climbed five peaks without supplemental...


Sources

  • Herrligkoffer, Karl M., Nanga Parbat. Elek Books, 1954.
  • Irving, R. L. G.
    Robert Lock Graham Irving
    Robert Lock Graham Irving , was an English schoolmaster, writer and mountaineer. As an author, he used the name R. L. G. Irving, while to his friends he was Graham Irving.-Life and family:...

    , Ten Great Mountains (London, J. M. Dent & Sons, 1940)
  • Ahmed Hasan Dani, Chilas
    Chilas
    Chilas is a small town located in the Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan on the left side of river Indus. It is part of the Silk Road connected by the Karakoram Highway which links it to Islamabad in the south via Dassu, Besham, Mansehra, Abbottabad and Haripur...

    : The City of Nanga Parvat (Dyamar). 1983. ASIN B0000CQDB2
  • Alpenvereinskarte "Nanga Parbat", 1:50,000, Deutsche Himalaya Expedition 1934.
  • Andy Fanshawe and Stephen Venables, Himalaya Alpine-Style, Hodder and Stoughton, 1995.
  • Audrey Salkeld (editor), World Mountaineering, Bulfinch, 1998.
  • American Alpine Journal
  • Himalayan Index
  • DEM files for the Himalaya (Corrected versions of SRTM data)
  • Guardian International story on Gunther Messner
  • Climbing magazine, April 2006.

Further Reading

  • Buhl, Herman
    Hermann Buhl
    Hermann Buhl is considered one of the best climbers of all time. He was particularly innovative in applying alpine style to Himalayan climbing...

    , Nanga Parbat Pilgrimage, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1956, ISBN 0340264985
  • Messner, Reinhold
    Reinhold Messner
    Reinhold Messner is an Italian mountaineer and explorer from Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol "whose astonishing feats on Everest and on peaks throughout the world have earned him the status of the greatest climber in history." He is renowned for making the first solo ascent of Mount Everest without...

    , Solo Nanga Parbat, London, Kale and Ward, 1980, ISBN 0718212509 (Britain), ISBN 0195201965 (USA)

External links