Khanate of Bukhara

Khanate of Bukhara

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Khanate of Bukhara was a significant state in Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

 from the second quarter of 16th century to the late–18th century. Bukhara
Bukhara
Bukhara , from the Soghdian βuxārak , is the capital of the Bukhara Province of Uzbekistan. The nation's fifth-largest city, it has a population of 263,400 . The region around Bukhara has been inhabited for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time...

 became the capital of the short-lived Shaybanid empire during the reign of Ubaydallah Khan (1533-1540). The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, Abdullah Khan II (r. 1577–1598).

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Khanate was ruled by the Janid Dynasty (Astrakhanids or Ashtarkhanids). In 1740, it was conquered by Nadir Shah, the Shah of Iran
Afsharid dynasty
The Afsharids were members of an Iranian dynasty of Turkmen origin from Khorasan who ruled Persia in the 18th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. During Nader's reign,...

. After his death in 1747, the khanate was controlled by the descendents of the Uzbek emir Khudayar Bi, through the prime ministerial position of ataliq. In 1785, his descendent, Shah Murad, formalized the family's dynastic rule (Manghit
Manghit
The Manġhud or Mangudai were a Mongol tribe of the Urud-Manghud federation. They established the Nogai Horde in the 14th c. and the Manghit Dynasty to rule the Emirate of Bukhara in 1785. The clan name was used for Mongol vanguards as well...

 dynasty), and the khanate became the Emirate of Bukhara
Emirate of Bukhara
The Emirate of Bukhara was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of...

.

Shaybanid Dynasty


The Shaybanid dynasty ruled the Khanate from 1500 to 1598. Under their rule, Bukhara
Bukhara
Bukhara , from the Soghdian βuxārak , is the capital of the Bukhara Province of Uzbekistan. The nation's fifth-largest city, it has a population of 263,400 . The region around Bukhara has been inhabited for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time...

 became a center of arts and literature and educational reforms were introduced.

New books on history and geography were written in this period, such as Haft iqlīm--Seven Climates--by Amin Ahmad Razi
Amin Razi
' was a 16th century Persian geographer and author of an encyclopedia called Haft iqlīm . It provided information about the seven different regions known to the Islamic world at the time.-References:...

, a native of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. Bukhara of the 16th century attracted skilled craftsman of calligraphy
Calligraphy
Calligraphy is a type of visual art. It is often called the art of fancy lettering . A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner"...

 and miniature-paintings
Persian miniature
A Persian miniature is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa. The techniques are broadly comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts...

, such as Sultan Ah Maskhadi, Mahmud ibn Eshaq Shakibi, the theoretician in calligraphy and dervish
Dervish
A Dervish or Darvesh is someone treading a Sufi Muslim ascetic path or "Tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity, similar to mendicant friars in Christianity or Hindu/Buddhist/Jain sadhus.-Etymology:The Persian word darvīsh is of ancient origin and descends from a Proto-Iranian...

 Mahmud Buklian, Molana Mahmud Muzahheb, and Jelaleddin Yusuf. Among the famous poets and theologians who worked in Bukhara in that era were Mushfiki, Nizami Muamaya, and Mohammad Amin Zahed. Molana Abd-al Hakim was the most famous of the many physicians who practised in the Bukharan khanate in the 16th century.

Abd al-Aziz Khan (1540–1550) established a library "having no equal" the world over. The prominent scholar Sultan Mirak Munshi worked there from 1540. The gifted calligrapher Mir Abid Khusaini produced masterpieces of Nastaliq and Reihani script. He was a brilliant miniature-painter and master of encrustation, and was the librarian (kitabdar) of Bukhara's library.

The Shaybanids instituted a number of measures to improve the khanate's system of public education. Each neighborhood -- mahalla unit of local self-government—of Bukhara had a hedge school
Hedge school
A hedge school is the name given to an educational practice in 18th and 19th century Ireland, so called due to its rural nature. It came about as local educated men began an oral tradition of teaching the community...

, while prosperous families provided home education to their children. Children started elementary education at the age of six. After two years they could be taken to madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

. The course of education in madrasah consisted of three steps of seven years each. Hence, the whole course of education in madrasah lasted twenty-one years. The pupils studied theology, arithmetic, jurisprudence, logic, music, and poetry. This educational system had a positive influence upon the development and wide circulation of the Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 and Uzbek languages
Uzbek language
Uzbek is a Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan. It has about 25.5 million native speakers, and it is spoken by the Uzbeks in Uzbekistan and elsewhere in Central Asia...

, and also on the development of literature, science, art, and skills.

Shaybanids

  • Muhammad Shaybani
    Muhammad Shaybani
    Abu 'I-Fath Muhammad , known in later centuries as Shaybani Khan , was a khan of the Uzbeks who continued consolidating various Uzbek tribes and laid foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana. of Genghis Khan through his grandson Shayban and considered the Timurids as usurpers of the...

     (1500-1510)
  • Kochkunju Khan (1510-1530)
  • Abu Said (1530-1533)
  • Abu al-Ghazi (1533-1539)
  • Abdullah Khan I (1539-1540)
  • Abdul Latif Khan (1540-1552)
  • Navruz Ahmed (1552-1556)
  • Pir Muhammad Khan I (1556–61)
  • Iskandar Khan (1561-1583)
  • Abdullah Khan II (1583-98)

Janids or Ashtarkhanids

  • Baqi Muhammad Khan (1599-1605)
  • Vali Muhammad Khan
    Vali Muhammad Khan
    Vali Muhammad Khan was a leader of the Ashtarkhanid dynasty in the Khanate of Bukhara from 1605-1611 AD.He became leader after the death of his brother, Boqi Muhammad,...

     (1605-1611)
  • Imam Quli Khan (1611-1642)
  • Nadir Muhamma Khand (1642-1645)
  • Abdul Aziz Khan (1645-1680)
  • Subhan Quli Khan (1680-1702)
  • Ubaidullah Khan (1702-1711)
  • Abu'l-Faiz Khan (1711-1747)
  • ...
  • Abu’l Ghazi Khan (1758-1785)

See also


External links