Ivan Fyodorov (printer)

Ivan Fyodorov (printer)

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Ivan Fyodorov or Fedorovič ( Fedorovych, , Fedorow) (born ca. 1525, died December 16, 1583 in Lwów, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 (modern Lviv
Lviv
Lviv is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

)), was one of the fathers of Eastern Slavonic printing
Printing
Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing....

 (along with Schweipolt Fiol
Schweipolt Fiol
Schweipolt Fiol from Neustadt an der Aisch in Franconia was a German-born 15th century pioneer of printing in Eastern Europe....

 and Francysk Skaryna). Besides being the first printer in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, he was also a master cannon
Cannon
A cannon is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellents to launch a projectile. Cannon vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees,...

 maker and the inventor of a multibarreled mortar
Mortar (weapon)
A mortar is an indirect fire weapon that fires explosive projectiles known as bombs at low velocities, short ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories. It is typically muzzle-loading and has a barrel length less than 15 times its caliber....

.

Name


In those times Russians still did not have hereditary surnames, but used patronymic
Patronymic
A patronym, or patronymic, is a component of a personal name based on the name of one's father, grandfather or an even earlier male ancestor. A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic. Each is a means of conveying lineage.In many areas patronyms...

s or nicknames, which were also not stable. In his first book "Apostolos
Apostolos
-Orthodox liturgy:*The Apostolos is a book containing texts traditionally believed to be authored by one of the twelve apostles – various epistles and the Acts of the Apostles – from which one is selected to be read during service...

" (printed in Moscow in 1564) he called himself in typical Russian style Ivan Fedorov that is "Ivan, son of Fedor". In his other famous book "Ostrog Bible
Ostrog Bible
The Ostrog Bible was one of the earliest East Slavic translations of the Bible and the first complete printed edition of the Bible in Old Church Slavonic, published in Ostroh, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , by the printer Ivan Fyodorov in 1581 with the assistance of the Ruthenian Prince...

" (1581) he called himself in both Church Slavonic and Greek as "Ivan, son of Feоdor (Феодоров сын, Θεοδώρου υἱός), a printer from Moscow". In the Greek version there was "from Great Russia
Great Russia
Great Russia is an obsolete name formerly applied to the territories of "Russia proper", the land that formed the core of Muscovy and, later, Russia...

" instead of "from Moscow". But when he was living for a long time in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a dualistic state of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch. It was the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th- and 17th‑century Europe with some and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century...

, he adopted a Polish style "patronymic surname" and also added a nickname indicating his origin. In his Latin documents he signed Johannes Theodori Moscus (that is "a Muscovite"), or Ioannes Fedorowicz Moschus, typograghus Græcus et Sclavonicus. As a result of the dialectical replacement of consonant /f/ with /x~xw/ in East Slavic
East Slavic
East Slavic can refer to:* East Slavic languages* East Slavic peoples...

 the first letter F was sometimes changed, so the patronymic became Chwedorowicz or Chodorowicz. In his later Slavonic books (printed in PLC) he signed "Ioann (Ivan) Fe(o)dorovich" (with some orthographic differences), and added a nickname "a Muscovite printer" or just simply "a Muscovite".

Biography


There are contradictory accounts of Fyodorov's origin. His foreword to Lviv Apostle names Moscow as "our home, our fatherland and our kin", which may indicate that he was born in Moscow.

Fyodorov graduated from Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
The Jagiellonian University was established in 1364 by Casimir III the Great in Kazimierz . It is the oldest university in Poland, the second oldest university in Central Europe and one of the oldest universities in the world....

 in Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 in 1532 with a bachelor
Bachelor
A bachelor is a man above the age of majority who has never been married . Unlike his female counterpart, the spinster, a bachelor may have had children...

's degree.

In 1564–5 he took up an appointment as a deacon in the church of Saint Nicolas (Gostunsky) in the Moscow Kremlin
Moscow Kremlin
The Moscow Kremlin , sometimes referred to as simply The Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River , Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square and the Alexander Garden...

. Together with Pyotr Mstislavets he published a number of liturgical works in Church Slavonic using moveable type. This technical innovation created competition for the Muscovite scribes, who began to persecute Fyodorov and Mstislavets, finally forcing them to flee to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 12th /13th century until 1569 and then as a constituent part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1791 when Constitution of May 3, 1791 abolished it in favor of unitary state. It was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic...

 after their printing workshop was arsoned (as related by Giles Fletcher
Giles Fletcher, the Elder
Giles Fletcher, the Elder was an English poet and diplomat, member of the English Parliament.Giles Fletcher was the son of Richard Fletcher, vicar of Bishop's Stortford. He spent his early life at Cranbrook before entering Eton College about 1561...

 in 1591).

After their brief stay in Moscow they were received by the Great Lithuanian Hetman
Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Hetmans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the highest-ranking military officers, second only to the King, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The first Polish title of Grand Crown Hetman was created in 1505. The title of hetman was given to the leader of Polish Army and till 1581 it was...

 Hrehory Chodkiewicz at his estate in Zabłudów (northern Podlaskie), where they published Yevangeliye uchitel’noye (Didactic Gospel, 1569) (see Zabłudów Gospel) and Psaltir’ (Psalter
Psalter
A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms, often with other devotional material bound in as well, such as a liturgical calendar and litany of the Saints. Until the later medieval emergence of the book of hours, psalters were the books most widely owned by wealthy lay persons and were...

, 1570).

He moved to Lviv
Lviv
Lviv is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following...

 in 1572 and resumed his work as a printer the following year at the Saint Onuphrius Monastery
Church of St. Onuphrius, Lviv
The Basilian monastery and Greek Catholic church of St. Onuphrius in Lviv, Ukraine is located north of the Old Town, at the base of the Castle Hill....

. (Fyodorov's tombstone in Lviv is inscribed with "renewed neglected printing".) In 1574 Fyodorov, with the help of his son and Hryn Ivanovych of Zabłudów published the second edition of the Apostolos (previously published by him in Moscow), with an autobiographical epilogue, and an Azbuka (Alphabet book
Alphabet book
An Alphabet book is a book primarily designed for young children. It presents letters of the alphabet with corresponding words and/or images. Some alphabet books feature capitals and lower case letter forms, keywords beginning with specific letters, or illustrations of keywords...

).

In 1575 Fyodorov, now in the service of Prince Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski
Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski
Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski was a Lithuanian prince, starost of Volodymyr-Volynskyi, marshal of Volhynia and voivode of the Kiev Voivodeship, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He got married on January 1553 in Tarnów...

, was placed in charge of the Derman Monastery; in 1577–9 he established the Ostrog Press, where, in 1581, he published the Ruthenian
Ruthenian
Ruthenian may refer to:*Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe*Ruthenians, a historic ethnic group*Ruthenian Catholic Church, the sui iuris particular church united to the Bishop of Rome and the Roman Catholic Church...

 Ostrog Bible
Ostrog Bible
The Ostrog Bible was one of the earliest East Slavic translations of the Bible and the first complete printed edition of the Bible in Old Church Slavonic, published in Ostroh, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth , by the printer Ivan Fyodorov in 1581 with the assistance of the Ruthenian Prince...

 - the first full version of the Bible printed in moveable type, as well as a number of other books. Fyodorov returned to Lviv after a quarrel with Prince Konstantyn Ostrogski, but his attempt to reopen his printing shop was unsuccessful. His printery became the property of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood (later the Stauropegion Institute
Stauropegion Institute
The Stauropegion Institute was one of the most important cultural and educational institutions in western Ukraine from the end of the 18th century until World War II...

). The brotherhood used Fyodorov's original designs until the early 19th century.

In 1583 he visited Vienna and Kraków where he showed the Emperor his latest inventions.
he returned to Lviv where he died December 16, 1583 and was buried in Lviv on the grounds of the Saint Onuphrius Monastery
Church of St. Onuphrius, Lviv
The Basilian monastery and Greek Catholic church of St. Onuphrius in Lviv, Ukraine is located north of the Old Town, at the base of the Castle Hill....

.

Publications



1. Apostolos
Apostolos
-Orthodox liturgy:*The Apostolos is a book containing texts traditionally believed to be authored by one of the twelve apostles – various epistles and the Acts of the Apostles – from which one is selected to be read during service...

 (Apostol). Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, published in 1563 by 17/IV 1/III 1564, 6 unnumbered leaves + 262 numbered (hereinafter refers to numbering in Cyrillic letters), format pages, at least 285 x 193 mm, printed in two colors, circulation about 1,000, preserved in at least 47 copies.

2 and 3. Book of Hours
Book of Hours
The book of hours was a devotional book popular in the later Middle Ages. It is the most common type of surviving medieval illuminated manuscript. Like every manuscript, each manuscript book of hours is unique in one way or another, but most contain a similar collection of texts, prayers and...

 (Chasoslovets). Moscow, two copies (7/VIII - 29/IX and 2/IX - 29 / X 1565), 173 (in the second edition of 172) unnumbered letter, format, no less than 166 x 118 mm, printed in two colours, preserved at least 7 copies.

4. Didactic Gospel (Yevangeliye uchitelnoye). Zabłudów [3], 8/VII 1568-17/III 1569, 8 unnumbered + 399 numbered pages, the format of at least 310 x 194 mm, printed in two colours, preserved at least 31 copies.

5. Psalms with Book of Hours . Zabłudów, 26/IX 1569-23/III 1570, 18 unnumbered sheets + 284 sheets + 75 first account leaves the second account, the format (for cutting hard copies) at least 168 x 130 mm, printed in two colors. Very rare edition: only three known in existance [4], all incomplete. For the first time in Cyrillic typography the inclussion of a typed table. A digital version exists.

6. Apostolos. Lviv
Lviv
Lviv is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following...

, 25/II 1573-15/II 1574, 15 unnumbered + 264 numbered lists, the format of at least 300 x 195 mm, printed in two colours, edition 1000-1200, preserved at least 70 copies. Similar to the Moscow edition in 1564 with a few more refined design. There is an electronic version of the almost complete copy.

7. Primer. Lviv, 1574, 40 unnumbered leaves, band set 127,5 x 63 mm, two colour printing, circulation was probably 2000, but has only a single copy is known to have survived (stored in the library of Harvard University).

8. Greek-Ruthenian Church-Slavonic Reader. Ostrog
Ostroh
Ostroh is a historic city located in Rivne Oblast of western Ukraine, located on the Horyn River. Ostroh is the administrative center of the Ostroh Raion and is itself designated as a special administrative subordination within the oblast...

, 1578, 8 unnumbered leaves, band set 127,5 x 64 mm, printing in one colour, for the first time set in two columns (parallel Greek text and Slavonic), only one in existance (stored in the State Library of Goth, East Germany). This copy is bound with a copy of the Primer of 1578 (see below), because of what is often considered one of their books, which are referred to as ABC Ostrog in 1578. A digital version is available online.

9. ABC (Reader). Ostrog, 1578, 48 unnumbered leaves, band set 127,5 x 63 mm, printing in one colour, circulation was more, but only two incomplete specimens exist (the one already mentioned, the other kept in the Royal Library of Copenhagen). Lviv repeat primer 1574 with attached "Word of letters" Chernoryztsya Hrabra. A digital version is available online.

10. New Testament with Psalms. Ostrog, 1580, 4 unnumbered + 480 numbered sheets, the format of at least 152 x 87 mm, printed in two colours, the circulation of information available, preserved at least 47 copies.

11. Alphabetical index to the previous edition ("Knizhka, sobraniye veschey ..."). Ostrog, 1580, 1 unnumbered + 52 numbered sheets, band set 122 x 55 mm, printing in one colour, preserved in at least 13 copies (clearly printed and issued separately as a special edition).

12. Chronology of Andrew Rymsha ("Kotorogo sya m(s)tsa shto za starykh věkov děyelo korotkoye opisaniye"). Ostrog, 5 / V in 1581, two-page leaflet (text published on inside pages), band set about 175 x 65 mm. The only known copy is stored in the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library in St.Petersburg.

13. Bible. Ostrog, 1581. 8 unnumbered + 276 + 180 + 30 + 56 + 78 numbered lists five bills, the format of at least 309 x 202 mm, set in two columns, including some in Greek, mainly printing in one colour (vermilion only on the title). Circulation 1500, approximate 400 survive.

Further reading


In English
In Ukrainian
  • Ohienko I. «Іван Хведорович. Історично-літературна монографія», або «Іван Хведорович, Фундатор постійного друкарства на Україні, життя і діяльність». Див.: Стара Україна. Львів. 1924. № II — V. С. 21 — 34.
  • Isaievych, Ia. Pershodrukar Ivan Fedorov i vynyknennia drukarstva na Ukraïni (Lviv 1975)
  • Isaievych, Ia. Literaturna spadshchyna Ivana Fedorova, (Lviv 1989)

See also

  • Moscow Print Yard
    Moscow Print Yard
    Moscow Print Yard, also known as the Anonymous Printing House , was the first state-owned publishing house in Moscow , established in Kitai-gorod in 1553....