Israeli legislative election, 1977

Israeli legislative election, 1977

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Israeli legislative election, 1977'
Start a new discussion about 'Israeli legislative election, 1977'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The Elections
Elections in Israel
Elections in Israel are based on nationwide proportional representation. The electoral threshold is currently set at 2%, with the number of seats a party receives in the Knesset being proportional to the number of votes it receives. The Knesset is elected for a four-year term, although most...

 for the ninth Knesset
were held on 17 May 1977. For the first time in Israeli political history, the right-wing, led by Likud
Likud
Likud is the major center-right political party in Israel. It was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had...

, won the election, ending almost 30 years of rule by the left-wing Alignment
Alignment (political party)
The Alignment was an alliance of the major left-wing parties in Israel between the 1960s and 1990s. It was established in 1965 as an alliance of Mapai and Ahdut HaAvoda but was dissolved three years later when the two parties and Rafi formally merged into the Israeli Labor Party...

 and its predecessor, Mapai
Mapai
Mapai was a left-wing political party in Israel, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the Israeli Labor Party in 1968...

. The dramatic shift in Israeli politics caused by the outcome led to it becoming known as "the revolution" (Hebrew
Hebrew language
Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family. Culturally, is it considered by Jews and other religious groups as the language of the Jewish people, though other Jewish languages had originated among diaspora Jews, and the Hebrew language is also used by non-Jewish groups, such...

: המהפך, HaMahapakh), a phrase coined by TV anchor Haim Yavin
Haim Yavin
Haim Yavin , is an Israeli television anchor and documentary filmmaker. He was one of Israel's leading news presenters, associated with the job for so many decades that he was known as "Mr. Television."-Biography:...

 when he announced the election results live on television with the words "Ladies and gentlemen - a revolution!" (Hebrew: !גבירותי ורבותי - מהפך, Gvirotai veRabotai - Mahapakh!). The election saw the beginning of a period lasting almost two decades where the left- and right-wing blocs held roughly equal amounts of seats in the Knesset.

Voter turnout was 79.2%.

Background


The Alignment was re-elected in December 1973
Israeli legislative election, 1973
The Elections for the eighth Knesset were held on 31 December 1973. Voter turnout was 78.6%.-Results:1 Aryeh Eliav left the Alignment and merged with Ratz to form Ya'ad - Civil Rights Movement...

, following the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

, but continued in-fighting and investigation
Agranat Commission
The Agranat Commission was a National Commision of Inquiry set up to investigate failings in the Israel Defense Forces in the prelude to the Yom Kippur War, when Israel was found unprepared for the Egyptian attack against the Bar Lev Line and a simultaneous attack by Syria in the Golan — the first...

 into Israel's preparedness led to the resignations of Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Israel
The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful political figure in Israel . The prime minister is the country's chief executive. The official residence of the prime minister, Beit Rosh Hamemshala is in Jerusalem...

 Golda Meir
Golda Meir
Golda Meir ; May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was a teacher, kibbutznik and politician who became the fourth Prime Minister of the State of Israel....

 and Minister of Defense, Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan was an Israeli military leader and politician. The fourth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces , he became a fighting symbol to the world of the new State of Israel...

 the following April. This led to a power struggle between former Chief of Staff and Ambassador to the United States Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
' was an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995....

 and Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
GCMG is the ninth President of the State of Israel. Peres served twice as the eighth Prime Minister of Israel and once as Interim Prime Minister, and has been a member of 12 cabinets in a political career spanning over 66 years...

. Rabin was elected by the party by a small margin; it was felt that the Labor Party (the major faction of the Alignment) needed a candidate untouched by the disastrous war. Rabin formed a new government on 3 June 1974, and presided uneasily over a quarrelsome coalition, with Shimon Peres as Defense Minister; their bitter feud dates from this period.

During the mid-1970s, American Secretary of State Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
Heinz Alfred "Henry" Kissinger is a German-born American academic, political scientist, diplomat, and businessman. He is a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the administrations of Presidents Richard Nixon and...

 sought to progress a peace deal between Israel and the Arab countries. The Sinai Interim Agreement
Sinai Interim Agreement
The Sinai Interim Agreement, also known as the Sinai II Agreement, was a diplomatic agreement signed by Egypt and Israel on September 4, 1975...

 was signed on 4 September 1975 following a threatened 'reassessment' of the United States' regional policy and its relations with Israel. Rabin notes it was "an innocent-sounding term that heralded one of the worst periods in American-Israeli relations." Despite progress on the Egyption front, settlement activity in the West Bank
West Bank
The West Bank ) of the Jordan River is the landlocked geographical eastern part of the Palestinian territories located in Western Asia. To the west, north, and south, the West Bank shares borders with the state of Israel. To the east, across the Jordan River, lies the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

 increased with support from Peres and some National Religious Party
National Religious Party
The National Religious Party ) was a political party in Israel representing the religious Zionist movement. Formed in 1956, at the time of its dissolution in 2008, it was the second oldest surviving party in the country after Agudat Yisrael, and was part of every government coalition until 1992...

 members.

General strikes and protests on 30 March 1976 turned violent. Six unarmed demonstrators were killed by the IDF and police. At least 100 Arabs were wounded and many others jailed. The significant event is commemorated annually as Land Day
Land Day
Land Day , March 30, is an annual day of commemoration for Palestinians of the events of that date in 1976. In response to the Israeli government's announcement of a plan to expropriate thousands of dunams of land for "security and settlement purposes", a general strike and marches were organized...

. Despite Arab MKs being brought into the government as Deputy Ministers for the first time in the early 1970s, support for the traditional Arab political parties such as Progress and Development
Progress and Development
Progress and Development was a political party in Israel.-History:Progress and Development was an Israeli Arab organisation formed to fight the 1959 elections...

 and the Arab List for Bedouins and Villagers
Arab List for Bedouins and Villagers
The Arab List for Bedouin and Villagers was an Israeli Arab political party in Israel.-Background:The party was created in the run-up to the 1973 elections as an Israeli Arab party associated with the governing Alignment...

, which were aligned with Mapai and the Alignment, was on the wane, as they were replaced by independent Arab parties, such as the United Arab List
United Arab List (1977)
The United Arab List was an Israeli Arab political party in Israel during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It is not connected to the modern day United Arab List.-Background:...

 formed in 1977 by former members of Alignment-allied parties.

Inflation had been an issue for the government since the start of the 1970s, and worsened after the oil crisis
1973 oil crisis
The 1973 oil crisis started in October 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or the OAPEC proclaimed an oil embargo. This was "in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military" during the Yom Kippur war. It lasted until March 1974. With the...

 that followed the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

. To try and cope with the issue, Rabin's government had devalued the lira by around 50% during its term in office.

Several corruption scandals also affected the government. The Yadlin affair
Yadlin affair
The Yadlin Affair refers to a political corruption scandal that broke in Israel in 1976, involving senior members of the Labor Party...

 of 1976 involved Asher Yadlin, a major fundraiser for the Labor Party (the major faction of the Alignment) and head of the Kupat Holim
Clalit
Clalit, also Klalit is one of Israel's leading health service organizations. Widely known as Kupat Holim Clalit, it was established in 1911 as a mutual aid society...

health-insurance program, who in September that year was about to be appointed Governor of the Bank of Israel
Bank of Israel
The Bank of Israel is the central bank of Israel. It is located in Kiryat HaMemshala in Israel's capital city of Jerusalem, with a branch office in Tel Aviv. The current governor is Stanley Fischer.-History:...

. However, after Yadlin was detained by police, on 24 October the cabinet decided to appoint Arnon Gafni instead. In mid-December Yadlin was charged with taking bribes totaling I£280,000, as well as other offenses, and was remanded in custody until his trial. On 14 March 1977, Yadlin pleaded guilty to some of the charges, involving bribes totaling I£ 124,000, but claimed that he had handed over
I£ 80,000 of the money to Labor Party funds, adding that he had raised "millions" for the party. The judge did not accept his claim and sentenced him to five years' imprisonment and a fine of I£ 250,000.

The Yadlin affair also brought Minister of Housing
Housing and Construction Minister of Israel
The Ministry of Housing and Construction is a portfolio in the Israeli cabinet. The ministry was created in 1961, and until 1977 it was known as the Ministry of Housing. Construction was also previously part of the Labour and Construction ministry during the provisional government between 1948 and...

 Avraham Ofer
Avraham Ofer
Avraham Ofer was an Israeli politician, famous for committing suicide following the eruption of a corruption scandal.- Biography :Ofer was born in the Khorostkov shtetl in Poland in 1922, and immigrated to Mandate Palestine in 1933. He went to High School in Jerusalem and studied in the Hebrew...

 to the police's attention, In November 1976, Yigal Laviv, a correspondent of the weekly HaOlam HaZeh
Haolam Hazeh
HaOlam HaZeh was a weekly news magazine published in Israel until 1993.The magazine was founded in 1937 under the name Tesha BaErev but was renamed HaOlam HaZeh in 1946...

 who had also been involved in airing the charges against Yadlin, gave the police information on 30 different matters raising suspicions of offenses committed by Ofer, including allegations of embezzlement in Shikun Ovdim funds in favor of the party. The police examined Laviv's charges, but came to the conclusion toward the end of the year that they were not substantiated, leading Ofer to expect that an official statement clearing him would soon be made. However, Attorney General Aharon Barak
Aharon Barak
Aharon Barak is a Professor of Law at the Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya and a lecturer in law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Yale Law School, and the University of Toronto Faculty of Law....

 decided to prosecute. On 31 December, however, a witness in the Yadlin affair sent the police a statement which raised more questions for investigation, and various rumors were published about possible charges. On 2 January, Rabin and Justice Minister Haim Yosef Zadok
Haim Yosef Zadok
-Early life:Zadok was born in 1913 in Rava-Ruska in Eastern Galicia in Austria-Hungary . He studied philosophy and Jewish studies at the University of Warsaw. He was a member of the Gordonia youth movement in Poland and in the "Poale Zion Federation" Party.In 1935 he immigrated to the British...

 assured Ofer that everything possible would be done to expedite the inquiry. On 3 January 1977 his body was found in his car on a Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

 beach. In a suicide note Ofer said he was innocent, but did not have the strength "to bear any more." He was reported to have been particularly depressed by the lack of support from his political associates.

Towards the end of 1976, Rabin's coalition with the National Religious Party
National Religious Party
The National Religious Party ) was a political party in Israel representing the religious Zionist movement. Formed in 1956, at the time of its dissolution in 2008, it was the second oldest surviving party in the country after Agudat Yisrael, and was part of every government coalition until 1992...

 suffered a crisis: a motion of no confidence had been brought by Agudat Yisrael over a breach of the Sabbath
Shabbat
Shabbat is the seventh day of the Jewish week and a day of rest in Judaism. Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until a few minutes after when one would expect to be able to see three stars in the sky on Saturday night. The exact times, therefore, differ from...

 on an Israeli Air Force base, when four F-15
F-15 Eagle
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is a twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter designed by McDonnell Douglas to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. It is considered among the most successful modern fighters with over 100 aerial combat victories with no losses in dogfights...

 jets were delivered from the US, and the NRP had abstained from the vote. Rabin dissolved his government on 22 December 1976 and decided on new elections, which were to be held in May 1977.

Alignment


Internal elections were held in the Labor Party on 23 February 1977, in which Rabin beat Peres by 1,445 votes to 1,404. However, on 15 March Haaretz
Haaretz
Haaretz is Israel's oldest daily newspaper. It was founded in 1918 and is now published in both Hebrew and English in Berliner format. The English edition is published and sold together with the International Herald Tribune. Both Hebrew and English editions can be read on the Internet...

 reported that Rabin and his wife, Leah, held a US Dollar bank account, then illegal under Israeli law. Although Leah claimed responsibility, the Dollar Account affair
Dollar Account affair
The Dollar Account affair was a political scandal in Israel in 1977, following the exposure of an illegal US Dollar bank account held by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and his wife Leah...

, as it became known, resulted in Rabin's resignation from head of the Alignment list on 8 April, and his replacement as head of the Alignment list by Peres.

Likud


Although polls suggested that Likud may win a historic victory, party leader Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
' was a politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of the State of Israel. Before independence, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah. He proclaimed a revolt, on 1 February 1944,...

 suffered a heart attack shortly before the election, and did not participate in the campaign. The Likud campaign leading up to the election had centered on Begin's personality. Demonized by the Alignment as totalitarian and extremist, his self-portrayal as a humble and pious leader struck a chord with many who felt abandoned by the ruling party's ideology, particularly the predominantly Mizrahi
Mizrahi Jews
Mizrahi Jews or Mizrahiyim, , also referred to as Adot HaMizrach are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East, North Africa and the Caucasus...

 working class living in urban neighborhoods and peripheral towns.

Dash


On 2 November 1976, former Chief of Staff Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin on 21 March 1917, died 28 June 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.-Early life and military career:...

 announced the formation of a new party to be called Democrats - Change, later renamed the Democratic Movement for Change
Democratic Movement for Change
The Democratic Movement for Change , commonly known by its Hebrew acronym Dash was a short-lived and initially highly-successful centrist political party in Israel...

, known by its Hebrew acronym, Dash. It consisted of several liberal movements (including Shinui
Shinui
Shinui is a Zionist, secular and anti-clerical free market liberal party and political movement in Israel. The party twice became the third largest in the Knesset, but both occasions were followed by a split and collapse; in 1977 the party won 15 seats as part of the Democratic Movement for...

), together with numerous public figures, including Amnon Rubinstein
Amnon Rubinstein
Amnon Rubinstein is an Israeli law scholar, politician, and columnist. A member of the Knesset between 1977 and 2002, he served in several ministerial positions. He is currently dean of the Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya and a patron of Liberal International.-Early life:Rubinstein was born...

, Shmuel Tamir
Shmuel Tamir
Shmuel M. Tamir was a prominent Israeli independence fighter, lawyer, Knesset member from 1965 to 1980, and Minister of Justice in the government of Menachem Begin from 1977 until 1980-Irgun:...

, Meir Amit
Meir Amit
Meir Amit was an Israeli politician and general. He served as Director of the Mossad from 1963 to 1968 before entering politics and holding two ministerial positions.-Biography:...

, Meir Zorea
Meir Zorea
Meir "Zarro" Zorea MC was a general in the Israel Defense Forces and later a member of the Knesset. He earned distinction through his combat actions in World War II and in the Israeli War of Independence...

 and several other business leaders and academics, as well as some Israeli Arabs.

Within a few weeks the party had 37,000 members, and it became the first party to hold primary election
Primary election
A primary election is an election in which party members or voters select candidates for a subsequent election. Primary elections are one means by which a political party nominates candidates for the next general election....

s to choose its Knesset list.

New parties


The Left Camp of Israel
Left Camp of Israel
The Left Camp of Israel was a left-wing political party in Israel. It was also known as Sheli , an acronym for Peace for Israel .-Background:...

 was formed before the elections by the merger of Meri
Meri (political party)
Meri , lit. Israeli Radical Camp) was a small radical left-wing political party in Israel. It was founded in the 1960s as HaOlam HaZeh – Koah Hadash by Uri Avnery, editor of HaOlam HaZeh.-History:...

, Moked
Moked
Moked was a left-wing political party in Israel.-Background:Moked came into existence during the seventh Knesset, when Maki merged with the Blue-Red Movement, which was unrepresented....

, the Independent Socialist Faction
Independent Socialist Faction
The Independent Socialist Faction was a political party in Israel in the 1970s.-Background:The party was established on 27 January 1976, during the eighth Knesset, as the Social-Democratic Faction, when Aryeh Eliav and Marcia Freedman left Ya'ad – Civil Rights Movement. Prior to its creation,...

 and some members of the Black Panthers
Israeli Black Panthers
The Black Panthers were an Israeli protest movement of second-generation Jewish immigrants from Middle Eastern countries. They were one of the first organizations in Israel with the mission of working for social justice for the Mizrahi Jews...

. The United Arab List had been formed by former members of the Alignment-allied Arab parties.

Businessman Shmuel Flatto-Sharon
Shmuel Flatto-Sharon
Shmuel "Samy" Flatto-Sharon is a controversial French-Israeli businessman, radio talk-show host and former politician who was a member of the Knesset between 1977 and 1981.-Biography:...

 formed his own list (named after himself). Barely speaking Hebrew, Flatto-Sharon was hoping to be elected to the Knesset to avoid extradition to France, where he had been charged with embezzling $60 million. The list ran on right-wing populism
Right-wing populism
Right-wing populism is a political ideology that rejects existing political consensus and combines laissez-faire liberalism and anti-elitism. It is considered "right-wing" because of its rejection of social equality and government programs to achieve it, its opposition to social integration, and...

 (he was a supporter of the Gush Emunim
Gush Emunim
Gush Emunim was an Israeli messianic and political movement committed to establishing Jewish settlements in the West Bank. While not formally established as an organization until 1974 in the wake of the Yom Kippur War, Gush Emunim sprang out of the conquests of the Six-Day War in 1967, encouraging...

 settlement movement) and promises to provide apartments to young voters. Ultimately the list won enough votes for two seats, but only took one. Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon is an Israeli statesman and retired general, who served as Israel’s 11th Prime Minister. He has been in a permanent vegetative state since suffering a stroke on 4 January 2006....

, who had left Likud in 1975 to serve as an advisor to Rabin, formed a new party Shlomtzion, whilst Marcia Freedman
Marcia Freedman
Marcia Freedman is an American-Israeli activist on behalf of peace, women's rights, and gay rights. In the early 1970s she helped create and lead the feminist movement in Israel...

, formerly a Ratz MK had formed the Women's Party
Women's Party (Israel)
The Women's Party was a minor political party in Israel.-Background:The party was established prior to the 1977 elections, with the founders including Israeli-American Marcia Freedman. Freedman had been an MK for Ratz in the eighth Knesset, but had broken away with Aryeh Eliav to form the...


Results

Party Votes % Seats +/-
Likud
Likud
Likud is the major center-right political party in Israel. It was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had...

 1 3 4 8 10
583,968 33.4 43
4
Alignment
Alignment (political party)
The Alignment was an alliance of the major left-wing parties in Israel between the 1960s and 1990s. It was established in 1965 as an alliance of Mapai and Ahdut HaAvoda but was dissolved three years later when the two parties and Rafi formally merged into the Israeli Labor Party...

 6 7
430,023 24.6 32
Dash
Democratic Movement for Change
The Democratic Movement for Change , commonly known by its Hebrew acronym Dash was a short-lived and initially highly-successful centrist political party in Israel...

 2
202,265 11.6 15 New
National Religious Party
National Religious Party
The National Religious Party ) was a political party in Israel representing the religious Zionist movement. Formed in 1956, at the time of its dissolution in 2008, it was the second oldest surviving party in the country after Agudat Yisrael, and was part of every government coalition until 1992...

160,787 9.2 12
2
Hadash
Hadash
Hadash is a Jewish and Arab socialist front of organizations that runs for the Israeli parliament. It currently has four members in the 120-seat Knesset.-Background:...

80,118 4.6 5
1
Agudat Yisrael 58,652 3.3 4
1
Flatto-Sharon 11 35,049 2.0 1 New
Shlomtzion 1 33,947 1.9 2 New
Left Camp of Israel
Left Camp of Israel
The Left Camp of Israel was a left-wing political party in Israel. It was also known as Sheli , an acronym for Peace for Israel .-Background:...

 9
27,281 1.6 2
1
United Arab List
United Arab List (1977)
The United Arab List was an Israeli Arab political party in Israel during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It is not connected to the modern day United Arab List.-Background:...

24,185 1.4 1
Poalei Agudat Yisrael 23,571 1.3 1
Ratz 20,621 1.2 1
Independent Liberals
Independent Liberals (Israel)
The Independent Liberals were a political party in Israel between the 1960s and 1980s.-History:The Independent Liberals party was formed during the fifth Knesset in the aftermath of the merger of the Liberal Party and Herut. Seven of the 17 Liberal Party MKs led by former Minister of Justice,...

20,384 1.2 1
Movement for the Renewal of Social Zionism
Movement for the Renewal of Social Zionism
The Movement for the Renewal of Social Zionism was a short-lived minor political party in Israel during the mid-1980s.-Background:The party was formed on 6 June 1983 by Minister without Portfolio Mordechai Ben-Porat following the break-up of Telem .However, the party failed to cross the electoral...

14,516 0.8 0 New
Beit Yisrael 9,505 0.5 0 New
Arab Reform Movement 5,695 0.3 0 New
Women's Party
Women's Party (Israel)
The Women's Party was a minor political party in Israel.-Background:The party was established prior to the 1977 elections, with the founders including Israeli-American Marcia Freedman. Freedman had been an MK for Ratz in the eighth Knesset, but had broken away with Aryeh Eliav to form the...

5,674 0.3 0 New
Kach
Kach and Kahane Chai
Kach was a far-right political party in Israel. Founded by Rabbi Meir Kahane in the early 1970s, and following his Jewish nationalist ideology , the party entered the Knesset in 1984 after several electoral failures...

4,396 0.3 0 0
Hofesh 2,498 0.1 0 New
New Generation 1,802 0.1 0 New
Zionist Panthers 1,798 0.1 0 New
Do Kiyum BeTzedek 1,085 0.1 0 New
Invalid/blank votes 23,906
Total 1,771,776 100 120 0
Source: Nohlen et al


1 Shlomtzion merged into Likud, but Yitzhak Yitzhaky later broke away to form One Israel.

2 When Dash broke up, seven MKs founded Shinui
Shinui
Shinui is a Zionist, secular and anti-clerical free market liberal party and political movement in Israel. The party twice became the third largest in the Knesset, but both occasions were followed by a split and collapse; in 1977 the party won 15 seats as part of the Democratic Movement for...

, seven founded the Democratic Movement
Democratic Movement (Israel)
The Democratic Movement was a short-lived political party in Israel formed in the aftermath of the spectacular breakup of Dash. Founded in 1978, it lasted only until 1981.-Background:...

, and Assaf Yaguri
Assaf Yaguri
Assaf Yaguri was an Israeli soldier and politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Democratic Movement for Change and Ya'ad between 1977 and 1981.-Biography:...

 founded Ya'ad
Ya'ad (political party)
Ya'ad was a short-lived, one-man political party in Israel. It is not related to the other political party of the same name, Ya'ad – Civil Rights Movement.-Background:...

.

3 Three Likud MKs broke away to form Rafi – National List
Ometz (political party)
Ometz , originally Rafi – National List , then the National List was a small right-wing political party in Israel, which existed briefly in 1981, and then from 1983 until 1987...

, one later returned.

4 Two Likud MKs broke away to form Tehiya
Tehiya
Tehiya , originally known as Banai , then Tehiya-Bnai , was a small right-wing political party in Israel that existed from 1979 until 1992...

.

5 The Democratic Movement split up when three MKs founded Ahva
Ahva (political party)
Ahva was a short-lived political party in Israel, one of several spinoffs created by the collapse of Dash.-Background:Ahva was formed on 8 July 1980 when two MKs broke away from the Democratic Movement, itself a relatively new party, having been formed in 1978 when Dash split up...

 and Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin
Yigael Yadin on 21 March 1917, died 28 June 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.-Early life and military career:...

, Binyamin Halevi, Mordechai Elgrably
Mordechai Elgrably
Mordechai Elgrably is an Israeli former politician who served as a member of the Knesset for several parties between 1977 and 1981.-Biography:Born in Meknes in Morocco, Elgrably received a religious education and was a member of the scout movement...

 and Shmuel Tamir
Shmuel Tamir
Shmuel M. Tamir was a prominent Israeli independence fighter, lawyer, Knesset member from 1965 to 1980, and Minister of Justice in the government of Menachem Begin from 1977 until 1980-Irgun:...

 left to sit as independents.

6 Zeidan Atashi
Zeidan Atashi
Zeidan Atashi is an Israeli Druze former diplomat and politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Democratic Movement for Change and Shinui between 1977 and 1981, and again from 1984 until 1988.-Biography:...

 and David Golomb
David Golomb
David Golomb is a former Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Alignment, Labor Party, Democratic Movement for Change and Shinui in two spells between 1968 and 1969, and again from 1977 until 1981.-Biography:...

 defected from Shinui to the Alignment.

7 Moshe Dayan left the Alignment and formed Telem
Telem (political party)
Telem , lit. Movement for National Renewal) was a political party in Israel.-Background:Telem was formed on 19 May 1981 during the ninth Knesset by Moshe Dayan and two ex-Likud MKs. Dayan had been elected to the Knesset as an MK for the Alignment, which had lost the election for the first time in...

 with two members of Rafi – National List and Shafik Assad.

8 Shafik Assad defected from Ahva to Telem, whilst Akiva Nof
Akiva Nof
Akiva Nof is a former Israeli politician and song-writer, who served as a member of the Knesset for five parties between 1974 and 1984.-Biography:...

 joined Likud

9 Saadia Marciano
Saadia Marciano
Saadia Marciano was an Israeli social activist and politician, and founder of the Israeli Black Panthers.-Biography:Born in Oujda, Morocco in 1950, Marciano's family immigrated to Israel before his first birthday, where he grew up in the Musrara neighborhood of Jerusalem...

 left the Left Camp of Israel and formed the Unity Party
Unity Party (Israel)
The Unity Party , officially the Unity Party for the Advancement and Education of the Society in Israel and originally known as Equality in Israel – Panthers was a short-lived political party in...

 with independent MK, Mordechai Elgrably.

10 Yosef Tamir defected from Likud to Shinui, but then left to sit as an independent.

11 Flatto-Sharon won enough votes for two seats, but was a one-man party.

Aftermath


Likud's Menachem Begin formed the country's eighteenth government
Eighteenth government of Israel
The eighteenth government of Israel was formed by Menachem Begin on 20 June 1977, following the May 1977 elections. It was the first government in Israeli political history led by a right-wing party, with the coalition consisting of Begin's Likud , the National Religious Party and Agudat...

 on 20 June 1977; the coalition initially included the National Religious Party
National Religious Party
The National Religious Party ) was a political party in Israel representing the religious Zionist movement. Formed in 1956, at the time of its dissolution in 2008, it was the second oldest surviving party in the country after Agudat Yisrael, and was part of every government coalition until 1992...

, Agudat Yisrael and Shlomtzion, which soon merged into Likud. This ended the historic alliance between religious parties and the previously dominant left-wing bloc, and initiated a period of alliance between religious parties and the right-wing bloc. The cabinet also included Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan was an Israeli military leader and politician. The fourth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces , he became a fighting symbol to the world of the new State of Israel...

, formerly of the Alignment, as Foreign Minister; this resulted in Dayan's expulsion from the Labor party and he formed the short-lived Telem
Telem (political party)
Telem , lit. Movement for National Renewal) was a political party in Israel.-Background:Telem was formed on 19 May 1981 during the ninth Knesset by Moshe Dayan and two ex-Likud MKs. Dayan had been elected to the Knesset as an MK for the Alignment, which had lost the election for the first time in...

 party.

Begin kept four ministerial portfolios empty (Communications, Justice, Labour and Social Welfare and Transportation), hoping to persuade Dash to join the government. This was achieved on 24 October, with Yadin being appointed Deputy Prime Minister. However, the coalition commanded a majority without the votes of Dash members, and the party collapsed after less than a year, splitting into three factions on 14 September 1978.

The Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following thirteen days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two framework agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States...

 and the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty
Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty
The 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. on the 26th of March 1979, following the 1978 Camp David Accords, which were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter.The peace...

 which resulted in an Israeli withdrawal from Sinai led to Tehiya
Tehiya
Tehiya , originally known as Banai , then Tehiya-Bnai , was a small right-wing political party in Israel that existed from 1979 until 1992...

 and One Israel
One Israel (1980)
One Israel was a short-lived, one-man political party in Israel led by Yitzhak Yitzhaky.-Background:The formation of One Israel during the ninth Knesset was largely precipitated by Menachem Begin's controversial decision to sign the Camp David Accords and the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty despite...

 breaking away from Likud, including and One Israel
One Israel (1980)
One Israel was a short-lived, one-man political party in Israel led by Yitzhak Yitzhaky.-Background:The formation of One Israel during the ninth Knesset was largely precipitated by Menachem Begin's controversial decision to sign the Camp David Accords and the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty despite...

. Begin relied on opposition votes to pass the treaty in the Knesset as several party members, including future Prime Ministers Ariel Sharon and Yitzhak Shamir
Yitzhak Shamir
' is a former Israeli politician, the seventh Prime Minister of Israel, in 1983–84 and 1986–92.-Biography:Icchak Jeziernicky was born in Ruzhany , Russian Empire . He studied at a Hebrew High School in Białystok, Poland. As a youth he joined Betar, the Revisionist Zionist youth movement...

 objected to it and abstained from voting.

During the Knesset term, United Arab List MK Hamad Abu Rabia
Hamad Abu Rabia
Sheikh Hamad Abu Rabia was a Bedouin Israeli politician and a member of the Knesset, best known for being assassinated by sons of another Israeli Arab Druze politician.-Biography:...

 was assassinated by the sons of party rival Jabr Moade after Abu Rabia allegedly refused to give up his seat as had been decided in a rotation agreement. Despite his sons' actions, Moade replaced Abu Rabia in the Knesset.

External links