Mizrahi Jews

Mizrahi Jews

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Mizrahi Jews'
Start a new discussion about 'Mizrahi Jews'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Mizrahi Jews or Mizrahiyim, , also referred to as Adot HaMizrach (עֲדוֹת-הַמִּזְרָח) (Communities of the East; Mizrahi Hebrew: ) are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

 and the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

. The term Mizrahi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

 and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries. This includes Jews from Iraq, Syria
Syrian Jews
Syrian Jews are Jews who inhabit the region of the modern state of Syria, and their descendants born outside Syria. Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups: from the Jews who inhabited the region of today's Syria from ancient times Syrian Jews are Jews who inhabit the region of the modern...

, Lebanon, Yemen
Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen . Between June 1949 and September 1950, the overwhelming majority of Yemen's Jewish population was transported to Israel in Operation Magic Carpet...

, Iran
Persian Jews
Persian Jews , are Jews historically associated with Iran, traditionally known as Persia in Western sources.Judaism is one of the oldest religions practiced in Iran. The Book of Esther contains some references to the experiences of Jews in Persia...

, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Uzbekistan, Kurdish areas
Kurdish Jews
Kurdish Jews or Kurdistani Jews are the ancient Eastern Jewish communities, inhabiting the region known as Kurdistan in northern Mesopotamia, roughly covering parts of Iran, northern Iraq, Syria and eastern Turkey. Their clothing and culture is similar to neighbouring Kurdish Muslims and Christian...

, the eastern Caucasus
Mountain Jews
Highland Jews, Mountain Jews or Kavkazi Jews also known as Juvuro or Juhuro, are Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Azerbaijan and Dagestan. They are also known as Caucasus Jews, Caucasian Jews, or less commonly East Caucasian Jews, because the majority of these Jews settled the eastern part...

, India, Northern and Eastern Sudan and Ethiopia
Beta Israel
Beta Israel Israel, Ge'ez: ቤተ እስራኤል - Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "Community of Israel" also known as Ethiopian Jews , are the names of Jewish communities which lived in the area of Aksumite and Ethiopian Empires , nowadays divided between Amhara and Tigray...

. Sometimes, Sephardi Jews such as Jews from Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

, Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

, or Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 are erroneously grouped into the Mizrahi category for some historical reasons.

Despite their heterogeneous origins, Mizrahi Jews generally practice rites identical or similar to traditional Sephardic Judaism, although with some differences among the minhag
Minhag
Minhag is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism. A related concept, Nusach , refers to the traditional order and form of the prayers...

im of the particular communities. This has resulted in a conflation of terms, particularly in Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, and in religious usage, where "Sephardi" is used in a broad sense to include Mizrahi Jews as well as Sephardim proper. Indeed, from the point of view of the official Israeli rabbinate, the Mizrahi rabbi
Rabbi
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

s in Israel are under the jurisdiction of the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel
Chief Rabbinate of Israel
The Chief Rabbinate of Israel is recognized by law as the supreme halakhic and spiritual authority for the Jewish people in Israel. The Chief Rabbinate Council assists the two chief rabbis, who alternate in its presidency. It has legal and administrative authority to organize religious...

 who, in most cases, is a Mizrahi Jew. Today they make up more than half of Israel's Jewish population, but before the mass immigration of 1,000,000 mostly Ashkenazi immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s they made up over 70% of Israel's Jewish population.

History and usage


"Mizrahi" is literally translated as "Eastern", מזרח (Mizraḥ), Hebrew for "east." In the past the word "Mizrahim," corresponding to the Arabic word Mashriq
Mashriq
Mashriq or Mashreq is derived from the Arabic consonantal root sh-r-q relating to the east or the sunrise, and essentially means "east"...

iyyun
(Easterners), referred to the natives of Syria, Iraq and other Asian countries, as distinct from those of North Africa (Maghrabiyyun
Maghreb
The Maghreb is the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. It includes five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania and the disputed territory of Western Sahara...

). For this reason some speakers object to the use of "Mizrahi" to include Moroccan Jews.

The term Mizrahim or Edot Hamizraḥ, Oriental communities, grew in Israel under the circumstances of the meeting of waves of immigrants from the Ashkenazi, Sephardic and Oriental Jewish communities. In modern Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

i usage, it refers to all Jews from North African and West Asian countries, many of them Arabic-speaking Muslim-majority countries. The term came to be widely used more by so-called Mizrahi activists in the early 1990s. Since then in Israel it has become an accepted semi-official and media designation.

Many "Mizrahi" ("Oriental" Jews) today reject this (or any) umbrella and simplistic description and prefer to identify themselves by their particular country of origin, or that of their immediate ancestors, e.g. "Iranian/Persian Jew", "Iraqi Jew", "Tunisian Jew", etc., or prefer to use the old term "Sefardic" in its broader meaning.

Other designations


Many Jews identify all non-Ashkenazi Jews as Sephardim
Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...

, in modern Hebrew "Sfaradim". This broader definition of "Sephardim" as including all or most Mizrahi Jews is also common in Jewish religious circles. The Ethiopian Jewish religious leaders in Israel have also joined the Mizrahi-Sefardic rite collectivities.

The reason for this classification is that most Mizrahi communities use much the same religious rituals as Sephardim proper. The prevalence of the Sephardic rite among Mizrahim is partly a result of Sephardim joining some of their communities following the 1492 expulsion from Sepharad
Alhambra decree
The Alhambra Decree was an edict issued on 31 March 1492 by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain ordering the expulsion of Jews from the Kingdom of Spain and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.The edict was formally revoked on 16 December 1968, following the Second...

 (Spain
History of the Jews in Spain
Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule in Spain, before the majority, together with resident Muslims, were forced to convert to Catholicism, be expelled or be killed when Spain became united under the Catholic Monarchs...

 and Portugal
History of the Jews in Portugal
The history of the Jews in Portugal reaches back over two thousand years and is directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities who have originated in the Iberian Peninsula .-Before Portugal:...

). Over the last few centuries, the previously distinctive rites of the Mizrahi communities were influenced, superimposed upon or altogether replaced by the rite of the Sephardim, perceived as more prestigious. Even before this assimilation, the original rite of many Jewish Oriental communities was already closer to the Sephardi rite than to the Ashkenazi one. For this reason, "Sephardim" has come to mean not only "Spanish Jews" but "Jews of the Spanish rite", just as "Ashkenazim
Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim , are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany...

" is used for "Jews of the German rite", whose ancestors spoke the Judeo-German, Yiddish language, whether or not they originated from Germany.

Many of the Sephardic Jews exiled from Spain
Alhambra decree
The Alhambra Decree was an edict issued on 31 March 1492 by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain ordering the expulsion of Jews from the Kingdom of Spain and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.The edict was formally revoked on 16 December 1968, following the Second...

 resettled in greater or lesser numbers in many Arabic-speaking countries
Arab world
The Arab world refers to Arabic-speaking states, territories and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.The standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 states and territories of the Arab League stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the...

, such as Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 and Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

. In Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, most eventually intermarried with and assimilated into the larger established community of Arabic-speaking Jews
Arab Jews
Arab Jews is a term referring to Jews living in the Arab World, or Jews descended from such persons.The term was occasionally used in the early 20th century, mainly by Arab nationalists, to describe the 1 million Jews living in the Arab world at the time...

. In North African countries, by contrast, where the Sephardim came to outnumber the pre-existing Mizrahi Jew communities it was some of the latter who assimilated into the more prosperous and prestigious Sephardic communities. In Morocco a distinction remained with the purely Sephardic Gerush Castilia of the Spanish-speaking northern strip who kept their Judeo-Spanish language known as Haketia
Haketia
Haketia is an endangered Jewish-Moroccan Romance language, also known as Djudeo Spañol or Ladino Occidental , that was spoken and spread throughout the North of Morocco such as in Tetuan, Tangiers and the Spanish towns of Ceuta and Melilla, in the latter of which it has achieved partial...

. Either way, this assimilation, combined with the use of the Sephardic rite, led to the popular designation and conflation of most non-Ashkenazic Jewish communities from the Middle East and North Africa as "Sephardic", whether or not they were descended from Spanish Jews, which is what the terms "Sephardic Jews" and "Sepharadim" properly implied when used in the ethnic as opposed to the religious sense.

In many Arab countries, older Arabic-speaking Jewish communities distinguished between themselves and the newer arrivals speaking Judeo-Romance languages
Judeo-Romance languages
Judaeo-Romance languages are Jewish languages derived from Romance languages, spoken by various Jewish communities originating in regions where Romance languages predominate, and altered to such an extent to gain recognition as languages in their own right.-Judaeo-Catalan or Catalanic:Catalanic,...

, that is, Sephardim expelled from Spain in 1492 and Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 in 1497. The established Arabic-speaking Jews called themselves Musta'arabim (Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 for Arabizers), while the newer Sephardi arrivals called them Moriscos (Ladino for Moorish).

The term "Arab Jews
Arab Jews
Arab Jews is a term referring to Jews living in the Arab World, or Jews descended from such persons.The term was occasionally used in the early 20th century, mainly by Arab nationalists, to describe the 1 million Jews living in the Arab world at the time...

" is controversial, used for self-identification by some members of the communities concerned but strongly opposed by others due to its political, social and ideological implications (see Arab Jews
Arab Jews
Arab Jews is a term referring to Jews living in the Arab World, or Jews descended from such persons.The term was occasionally used in the early 20th century, mainly by Arab nationalists, to describe the 1 million Jews living in the Arab world at the time...

).

Language



Most of the so-called Oriental Jewish or Mizrahi communities spoke Arabic, although Arabic is now mainly used as a second language, especially by the older generation. Most of the many notable philosophical, religious and literary works of the Jews in the Orient were written in Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 using a modified Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
The Hebrew alphabet , known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, or more historically, the Assyrian script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic. There have been two...

.

Among other languages associated with Mizrahim are Judeo-Persian (Dzhidi
Dzhidi language
Judæo-Persian, or Jidi , refers to both a group of Jewish dialects spoken by the Jews living in Iran and Judæo-Persian texts . As a collective term, Dzhidi refers to a number of Iranian languages or dialects spoken by Jewish communities throughout the formerly extensive Persian Empire...

), Georgian
Georgian language
Georgian is the native language of the Georgians and the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus.Georgian is the primary language of about 4 million people in Georgia itself, and of another 500,000 abroad...

, Bukhori, Kurdish
Kurdish language
Kurdish is a dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. It is part of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages....

, Judeo-Berber, Punic language, Juhuri, Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

, Judeo-Malayalam
Judeo-Malayalam
Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language of the Cochin Jews , from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by a few dozens of people in Israel and by probably fewer than 25 in India....

 and called by some Judeo-Aramaic dialects. Most Persian Jews
Persian Jews
Persian Jews , are Jews historically associated with Iran, traditionally known as Persia in Western sources.Judaism is one of the oldest religions practiced in Iran. The Book of Esther contains some references to the experiences of Jews in Persia...

 speak standard Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

.

Neo-Aramaic is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. It is identified as a "Jewish language", since it is the language of major Jewish texts such as the Talmud
Talmud
The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

 and Zohar
Zohar
The Zohar is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah. It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah and scriptural interpretations as well as material on Mysticism, mythical cosmogony, and mystical psychology...

, and many ritual recitations such as the Kaddish
Kaddish
Kaddish is a prayer found in the Jewish prayer service. The central theme of the Kaddish is the magnification and sanctification of God's name. In the liturgy different versions of the Kaddish are used functionally as separators between sections of the service...

. Traditionally, Aramaic has been a language of Talmudic debate in yeshivoth
Yeshiva
Yeshiva is a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and Torah study. Study is usually done through daily shiurim and in study pairs called chavrutas...

, as many rabbinic texts are written in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic. As spoken by the Jews of Kurdistan
Kurdish Jews
Kurdish Jews or Kurdistani Jews are the ancient Eastern Jewish communities, inhabiting the region known as Kurdistan in northern Mesopotamia, roughly covering parts of Iran, northern Iraq, Syria and eastern Turkey. Their clothing and culture is similar to neighbouring Kurdish Muslims and Christian...

, Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects are descended from Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
Jewish Babylonian Aramaic was the form of Middle Aramaic employed by Jewish writers in Babylonia between the 4th century and the 11th century CE. It is most commonly identified with the language of the Babylonian Talmud and of post-Talmudic literature, which are the most important cultural...

, as could be seen from its hundreds of reflexes in Jewish Neo-Aramaic.

By the early 1950s, virtually the entire Jewish community of Kurdistan—a rugged, mostly mountainous region comprising parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and the Caucasus, where Jews had lived since antiquity—relocated to Israel. The vast majority of Kurdish Jews, who were primarily concentrated in northern Iraq, left Kurdistan in the mass aliyah (emigration to Israel) of 1950-51. This ended thousands of years of Jewish history in what had been Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

 and Babylonia
Babylonia
Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

.

In 2007, an important book was published, authored by Mordechai Zaken, describing the unique relationship between Jews in urban and rural Kurdistan and the tribal society under whose patronage the Jews lived for hundreds of years. Tribal chieftains, or aghas, granted patronage to the Jews who needed protection in the wild tribal region of Kurdistan; the Jews gave their chieftains dues, gifts and services. The text provides numerous tales and examples about the skills, maneuvers and innovations used by Kurdistani Jews in their daily life to confront their abuse and extortion by greedy chieftains and tribesmen. The text also tells the stories of Kurdish chieftains who saved and protected the Jews unconditionally.

Post-1948 dispersal



After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, known to Israelis as the War of Independence or War of Liberation The war commenced after the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine and the creation of an independent Israel at midnight on 14 May 1948 when, following a period of civil war, Arab armies invaded...

 and subsequent establishment of the state of Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, most Mizrahi Jews (900 000) were either expelled by their Arab rulers or chose to leave and immigrated to Israel. Roughly half of Israeli Jews are of Mizrahi origin.

Anti-Jewish actions by Arab governments in the 1950s and 1960s, 25,000 Mizrahi Jews from Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 left after the 1956 Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, Suez War was an offensive war fought by France, the United Kingdom, and Israel against Egypt beginning on 29 October 1956. Less than a day after Israel invaded Egypt, Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to Egypt and Israel,...

, led to the overwhelming majority of Mizrahim leaving Arab countries. They became refugees
Jewish refugees
In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from antisemitism numerous times...

. Most went to Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. Many Moroccan and Algerian Jews went to France. Thousands of Lebanese, Syrian and Egyptian Jews immigrated to the United States and to Brazil.

Today, as many as 40,000 Mizrahim still remain in communities scattered throughout the non-Arab Muslim world
Muslim world
The term Muslim world has several meanings. In a religious sense, it refers to those who adhere to the teachings of Islam, referred to as Muslims. In a cultural sense, it refers to Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization...

, primarily in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, but also Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

, and Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. There are few remaining in the Arab world. About 5,000 remain in Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 and fewer than 2,000 in Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

. Other countries with remnants of ancient Jewish communities with official recognition, such as Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, have 1,000 or fewer Jews. A trickle of emigration continues, mainly to Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.

Absorption into Israeli society


Refuge in Israel was not without its tragedies: "in a generation or two, millennia of rooted Oriental civilization, unified even in its diversity,” had been wiped out, writes Mizrahi scholar Ella Shohat. The trauma of rupture from their countries of origin was further complicated by the difficulty of the transition upon arrival in Israel; Mizrahi immigrants and refugees were placed in rudimentary and hastily erected tent cities (Ma'abarot
Ma'abarot
The Ma'abarot were refugee absorption camps in Israel in the 1950s. The Ma'abarot were meant to provide accommodation for the large influx of Jewish refugees and new Olim arriving to the newly independent State of Israel, replacing the less habitable immigrant camps or tent cities...

) often in development towns on the peripheries of Israel. Settlement in Moshav
Moshav
Moshav is a type of Israeli town or settlement, in particular a type of cooperative agricultural community of individual farms pioneered by the Labour Zionists during the second aliyah...

im (cooperative farming villages) was only partially successful, because Mizrahim had historically filled a niche as craftsmen and merchant
Merchant
A merchant is a businessperson who trades in commodities that were produced by others, in order to earn a profit.Merchants can be one of two types:# A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between producer and retail merchant...

s and most did not traditionally engage in farmwork. As the majority left their property behind in their home countries as they journeyed to Israel, many suffered a severe decrease in their socio-economic status aggravated by their cultural and political differences with the dominant Ashkenazi community. Furthermore, a policy of austerity
Austerity in Israel
From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity , during which rationing and similar measures were enforced.-Rationale:...

 was enforced at that time due to economic hardships.

Mizrahi immigrants arrived with many mother tongues. Many, especially those from North Africa and the fertile crescent, spoke Arabic dialects; those from Iran and Central Asia (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) spoke Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

; Baghdadi Jews
Baghdadi Jews
Baghdadi Jews, also known as Iraqi Jews, are Jewish emigrants from Baghdad and elsewhere in Iraq, who fled religious persecution and formed immigrant communities in their new homelands...

 from India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 arrived with English; the Bene Israel
Bene Israel
The Bene Israel are a group of Jews who migrated in the 19th century from villages in the Konkan area to the nearby Indian cities, primarily Mumbai, but also to Pune, and Ahmedabad. Prior to these waves of emigrations and to this day, the Bene Israel formed the largest sector of the subcontinent's...

 from Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 arrived with Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

, Mizrahim from elsewhere brought Georgian
Georgian language
Georgian is the native language of the Georgians and the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus.Georgian is the primary language of about 4 million people in Georgia itself, and of another 500,000 abroad...

, Gruzinic
Gruzinic
Judaeo-Georgian is the traditional language spoken by the Georgian Jews, the ancient Jewish community of the Caucasus nation of Georgia.-Relationship to other languages:...

, Tajik
Tajik language
Tajik, Tajik Persian, or Tajiki, is a variety of modern Persian spoken in Central Asia. Historically Tajiks called their language zabani farsī , meaning Persian language in English; the term zabani tajikī, or Tajik language, was introduced in the 20th century by the Soviets...

, Juhuri
Juhuri language
Juhuri, Juwuri or Judæo-Tat is a form of the Tat language and is the traditional language of the Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Azerbaijan and Dagestan, now mainly spoken in Israel....

 and various other languages with them. Hebrew had historically been a language only of prayer for most Jews not living in Israel, including the Mizrahim. Thus, with their arrival in Israel, the Mizrahim retained culture, customs and language distinct from their Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim , are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany...

 counterparts.

Disparities and integration



The cultural differences between Mizrahi and Ashkenazi Jews impacted the degree and rate of assimilation into Israeli society, and sometimes the divide between Eastern European and Middle Eastern Jews was quite sharp. Segregation, especially in the area of housing, limited integration possibilities over the years. Intermarriage between Ashkenazim and Mizrahim is increasingly common in Israel and by the late 1990s 28% of all Israeli children had multi-ethnic parents (up from 14% in the 1950s). It has been claimed that intermarriage does not tend to decrease ethnic differences in socio-economic status, however that does not apply to the children of inter-ethnic marriages.

Although social integration is constantly improving, disparities persist. A study conducted by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), Mizrahi Jews are less likely to pursue academic studies than Ashkenazi Jews. Israeli-born Ashkenazim are up to twice more likely to study in a university than Israeli-born Mizrahim. Furthermore, the percentage of Mizrahim who seek a university education remains low compared to second-generation immigrant groups of Ashkenazi origin, such as Russians. According to a survey by the Adva Center, the average income of Ashkenazim was 36 percent higher than that of Mizrahim in 2004.

Business people

  • Nissim Gaon, Swiss businessman born in Sudan
    Sudan
    Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

  • Charles Saatchi
    Charles Saatchi
    Charles Saatchi is the co-founder with his brother Maurice of the global advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi, and led that business - the world's largest advertising agency in the 1980s - until they were forced out in 1995. In the same year the Saatchi brothers formed a new agency called M&C...

    , advertising executive and art collector (born in Iraq)
  • Maurice Saatchi, Baron Saatchi
    Maurice Saatchi, Baron Saatchi
    Maurice Nathan Saatchi, Baron Saatchi is the co-founder, with his brother Charles, of the advertising agencies Saatchi and Saatchi and M&C Saatchi, where he currently serves as Executive Director.- Early life :...

    , advertising executive and former chairman of the British
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

     Conservative Party
    Conservative Party (UK)
    The Conservative Party, formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest political party in the UK, and is currently the largest single party in the House...

  • Michael Kadoorie
    Michael Kadoorie
    The Hon. Sir Michael David Kadoorie, GBS is a business executive and philanthropist. As of March 2011, he is the 6th wealthiest person in Hong Kong, with the wealth of his family estimated to be 6.1 billion US dollars according to Forbes' annual list of billionaires.The son of business tycoon...

    , businessman from Hong-Kong several generations but of Iraqi descent
  • Isaac Mizrahi
    Isaac Mizrahi
    Isaac Mizrahi is an American TV presenter, fashion designer, and was the creative director of Liz Claiborne. He is best known for his eponymous fashion lines.-Early life:...

    , fashion designer (Egyptian Jew from Brooklyn
    Brooklyn
    Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City's five boroughs, with nearly 2.6 million residents, and the second-largest in area. Since 1896, Brooklyn has had the same boundaries as Kings County, which is now the most populous county in New York State and the second-most densely populated...

    )
  • Shlomo Moussaieff
    Shlomo Moussaieff (businessman)
    Shlomo Moussaieff is an Israeli millionaire of Bukharian Jewish descent who has lived in London since the early 1960s. He is the son of Rehavia Moussaieff, and grandson of Shlomo Moussaieff of Bukhara. He made most of his fortune by selling precious jewelry to international royalty and high...

    , Jewellery Designer/ Judaic Collector and Expert (Bukharian)
  • Lev Leviev
    Lev Leviev
    Lev Avnerovich Leviev is a Bukharian-Israeli billionaire businessman, with a net worth of roughly $1.5 billion following the 2008 global financial crisis. Leviev is one of the most prominent Mizrahi Jewish individuals in the world and has been a major philanthropist for Jewish causes in Eastern...

    , Israeli businessman of Bukharian descent http://www.forward.com/articles/11878/
  • David and Simon Reuben
    David and Simon Reuben
    David and Simon Reuben are well known British businessmen and philanthropists. In the Forbes magazine List of billionaires 2011, ranking of the wealthiest people in the UK, the brothers were placed second with an estimated fortune of £5.5  billion...

    , British businessmen born in India, from a family of Baghdadi Jews
    Baghdadi Jews
    Baghdadi Jews, also known as Iraqi Jews, are Jewish emigrants from Baghdad and elsewhere in Iraq, who fled religious persecution and formed immigrant communities in their new homelands...

  • Edmond Safra
    Edmond Safra
    Edmond J. Safra was a Jewish Brazilian-naturalized, Lebanese banker who continued the family tradition of banking in Lebanon, Brazil and Switzerland. He married Lily Watkins. He died in a fire that attracted wide media interest and was judicially determined to be due to arson.-Life of Edmond...

    , banker from Lebanon
  • Shlomo Eliyahu
    Shlomo Eliyahu
    Shlomo Eliahu is an Israeli businessman and former politician who served as a member of the Knesset between 1978 and 1981.-Biography:Born in Baghdad in 1936, Eliahu made aliyah to Israel in 1950 with his parents and eight siblings. After initially being based in a ma'abara at Beit Lid, his family...

    , Israeli businessman

Entertainers

  • Paula Abdul
    Paula Abdul
    Paula Julie Abdul is an American singer-songwriter, dancer, choreographer, actress and television personality.In the 1980s, Abdul rose from cheerleader for the Los Angeles Lakers to highly sought-after choreographer at the height of the music video era before scoring a string of pop music-R&B hits...

    , American singer and choreographer (Syrian Jewish descent)
  • Joe Amar, Israeli singer
  • Etti Ankri
    Etti Ankri
    Esther "Etti" Ankri is an Israeli singer-songwriter. She is a former Female Singer of the Year in Israel, and has also performed in the United States, England, and India. Ankri has been called a "rock genius", the "poet of Israeli spirituality," and "the contemporary voice of.....

    , Israeli pop singer
  • Zohar Argov
    Zohar Argov
    Zohar Argov was a popular Israeli singer and a distinctive voice in the Mizrahi music scene.- Background :The most serious hurdle on the way to stardom was Argov's socioeconomic background. He was born in Rishon LeZion, and grew up in a poor family, the eldest of ten children...

    , Israeli popular singer, called "the King" of the "Mizrahi" music (Yemenite)
  • Gali Atari
    Gali Atari
    Avigail "Gali" Atari is an Israeli actress and singer.-Career:She first appeared on the international scene in 1971, when she represented Israel at the World Popular Song Festival in Japan with the songs "All free" and "Give love away"...

    , Israeli singer and actress, won the Eurovision Song Contest
    Eurovision Song Contest
    The Eurovision Song Contest is an annual competition held among active member countries of the European Broadcasting Union .Each member country submits a song to be performed on live television and then casts votes for the other countries' songs to determine the most popular song in the competition...

     (from a Yemenite family)
  • Ehud Banai
    Ehud Banai
    -Early life:Banai, of Persian Jewish and Afghan Jewish descent, was born in Jerusalem to the actor Yaakov Banai, the eldest of the Banai siblings, and moved to Givataim at the age of four.-Music career:...

    , Israeli singer and composer
  • Evyatar Banai, Israeli singer and composer
  • Yuval Banai
    Yuval Banai
    Yuval Banay is an Israeli musician, best known as the lead singer of the influential Israeli pop rock band Mashina.-Personal life:Yuval was born on June 9, 1962 in Tel-Aviv to Yossi and Ilana Banai...

    , Israeli rock singer and composer
  • Yossi Banai
    Yossi Banai
    Yossi Banai was an Israeli performer, singer, actor, and dramatist.-Biography:Banai was born in Jerusalem, and grew up in the neighborhood of the Mahane Yehuda market...

    , Israeli singer and actor (from a Persian Jewish family settled in Jerusalem)
  • Meir Banai
    Meir Banai
    Meir Banai is a well known and respected Israeli musician, singer, and songwriter, who has been called a "veteran star" and "one of the perennial big guns of Israeli music".- Biography :...

    , Israeli singer
  • Shlomo Bar
    Shlomo Bar
    Shlomo Bar is an Israeli musician, composer, and social activist. He is a pioneer of ethnic music in Israel.- Biography :Born in Rabat, Morocco, in 1943, Bar emigrated to Israel a few years later. He learnt how to play the darbuka and other ethnic percussion instruments, performing in various small...

    , Israeli singer and composer
  • Sonia Benezra
    Sonia Benezra
    Sonia Benezra is a Canadian TV and radio interviewer and personality and actress who formerly hosted shows on MusiquePlus, MusiMax, MuchMusic and MuchMoreMusic. She hosted a daily live talk show on the French-language TQS television, also open to English-speaking entertainment figures, for five...

    , French Canadian radio and TV personality
  • Lili Boniche
    Lili Boniche
    Lili Boniche , born to a Sephardic Jewish family in the Kasbah area of Algiers, was a singer of Andalusian-Arab music. He died in Paris...

    , French-Algerian singer
  • Patrick Bruel
    Patrick Bruel
    Patrick Bruel is a French singer, actor, and professional poker player of Algerian Jewish descent.-Biography:...

    , French pop singer
  • Yizhar Cohen, Israeli singer, won the Eurovision Song Contest (Yemenite family)
  • Emmanuelle Chriqui
    Emmanuelle Chriqui
    Emmanuelle Sophie Anne Chriqui is a Canadian film and television actress. She is perhaps best known for her role on HBO's Entourage as Sloan McQuewick, as well as the love interest of Adam Sandler in the movie You Don't Mess with the Zohan...

    , Canadian actress
  • Shoshana Damari, Israeli singer (Yemen born)
  • Dana International
    Dana International
    Sharon Cohen , professionally known as Dana International is an Israeli pop singer of Yemenite Jewish ancestry. She has released eight albums and three additional compilation albums, positioning herself as one of Israel's most successful musical acts ever...

    , (Cohen) Israeli pop singer
    Pop music
    Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

    , won the Eurovision Song Contest (Yemenite family)
  • David D'or
    David D'Or
    David D'Or is an Israeli singer, composer, and songwriter. A countertenor with a vocal range of more than four octaves, he is a three-time winner of the Israeli "Singer of the Year" and "Best Vocal Performer" awards. He was also chosen to represent Israel in the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest, at...

    , Israeli pop and concert singer, countertenor (from a Jewish Libyan family)
  • Gad Elmaleh
    Gad Elmaleh
    Gad Elmaleh is a French-Moroccan stand-up comedian and actor. His latest show is called Papa est en haut . He has starred in several feature films, including Coco, Hors de prix, La Doublure and Midnight in Paris.- Early years :Elmaleh was born in Casablanca, Morocco...

    , Moroccan comedian, film director, and humorist
  • Yehoram Gaon
    Yehoram Gaon
    Yehoram Gaon is a Jewish Israeli singer, actor, director, producer, TV and radio host, and public figure...

    , Israeli singer and actor.
  • Eyal Golan
    Eyal Golan
    Eyal Golan, , is a popular Israeli singer who sings in the Mizrahi style. Golan is one of the most successful singers of the Mizrahi genre in Israel...

    , Israel charm pop singer
  • Zion Golan
    Zion Golan
    Zion Golan , also known as Tzion Golan, is an Israeli singer of Yemeni origin.-Background:Most of Golan's songs are in Yemeni Arabic. Many songs are from Yemen and are also sung by contemporary Yemeni singers. He also sings some songs in the ancient Yemeni dialect of Hebrew.-Personal life:Golan was...

    , Israeli singer (Yemenite descent)
  • Hélène Grimaud
    Hélène Grimaud
    Hélène Grimaud is a French pianist.-Biography:Grimaud was born in Aix-en-Provence, France. Although her autobiography Variations Sauvages suggests a...

    , French-born concert pianist/author of Berber-Jewish father & Corsican-Jewish mother
  • Sarit Hadad
    Sarit Hadad
    Sarit Hadad is an acclaimed Israeli singer. She stems from a musician family with both origins in the Tunisia and Caucases...

    , Israeli singer, from a Jewish family from Tunisia
    Tunisia
    Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

     and Azerbaijan
    Azerbaijan
    Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

    (Mountain Jew)
  • Ofra Haza
    Ofra Haza
    Ofra Haza was an Israeli singer of Yemeni origin, an actress and international recording artist....

    , Israeli pop and oriental singer (Yemenite family)
  • Moshe Ivgy
    Moshe Ivgy
    Moshe Ivgy is a Moroccan-born Israeli actor and director.-Biography:Moshe Ivgy was born in Casablanca, Morocco. He was married to actress Irit Sheleg. Their daughter Dana Ivgy is also an actress...

    , Israeli cinema and theatre actor
  • Malika Kalantarova, Famous Tajik-Bukharian dancer (People's Artist of USSR)
  • Chris Kattan
    Chris Kattan
    Christopher Lee "Chris" Kattan is an American actor/comedian, best known for his work on Saturday Night Live.-Early life:Kattan was born in Sherman Oaks, California. His father, Kip King, was an actor and voice actor who appeared on the series Reno 911! as Larrie Plum. His mother, Hajnalka E....

    , U.S actor (son a Jewish-Iraqi origin father)
  • Chemda Khalili, singer and co-host of Keith and the Girl
    Keith and The Girl
    Keith and The Girl, abbreviated as KATG, is a popular comedy podcast that began on March 7, 2005. It is hosted by comedian Keith Malley and singer Chemda Khalili in Queens, New York. Chemda is of Persian descent whilst Keith's exact origins are unknown, but believed to be eastern European...

  • Fatima Kuinova
    Fatima Kuinova
    Fatima Kuinova is a Bukharian Jewish Shashmakom singer. She was named "Merited Artist of the Soviet Union".Kuinova was born in Samarqand, Uzbek SSR, but moved to Stalinabad, Tajik SSR with her seven brothers and two sisters when she was thirteen years old, after their father was jailed and...

    , Soviet-Bukharian singer (Merited Artist of USSR)
  • Saleh and Daoud Al-Kuwaity
    Saleh and Daoud Al-Kuwaity
    Saleh and Daud Al-Kuwaity האחים צאלח ודאוד אל-כוויתי) were Jewish - Iraqi musicians born in Kuwait as Saleh and Daud Ezra.-Early life:The brothers were born in Kuwait to a family from an Iraqi origin...

    , Kuwait
    Kuwait
    The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

    i-born Iraq
    Iraq
    Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

    i musicians
  • Mélanie Laurent
    Mélanie Laurent
    Mélanie Laurent is a French actress, director, singer and writer. She is best known to international audiences for her role as Shosanna Dreyfus in Quentin Tarantino's 2009 film Inglourious Basterds, for which she won Best Actress from the Online Film Critics Society and the Austin Film Critics...

    , French actress and director
  • Yehezkel Lazarov
    Yehezkel Lazarov
    Yehezkel Lazarov is an Israeli actor, dancer and choreographer. He played in Three Mothers next to Miri Mesika and The Debt.-Biography:...

    , Israeli actor
  • Claude Lelouch, French cinema director
  • Enrico Macias
    Enrico Macias
    Gaston Ghrenassia, known by his stage name Enrico Macias, is an Algerian French Pied noir singer and musician...

    , French singer and composer
  • Miri Messika, Israeli pop singer
  • Haim Moshe
    Haim Moshe
    Haim Moshe born 1956)is an Israeli singer whose musical style has crossed over from Yemenite and Mediterranean "ethnic" music to include mainstream Israeli and western pop elements. He has helped Mizrahi music achieve wide popularityboth in Israel...

    , Israeli-born "Mizrahi" and pop singer (Yemenite)
  • Shoista Mullojonova, Bukharian legendary Shashmakom Folk Singer (People's Artist of Tajikistan
    Tajikistan
    Tajikistan , officially the Republic of Tajikistan , is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east....

    )
  • Farhat Ezekiel Nadira (Nadira
    Nadira
    -People:* Nadira of the Khanate of Kokand* Nadira , an Indian actress of the 1950s and 1960s, best known for her roles as a temptress* Nadira Babbar, an Indian actress and producer of the present day-In fiction:...

    ), Bollywood
    Bollywood
    Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

     actress of the 1940s and 50s (Baghdadi Jew from India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    )
  • Yaël Naïm
    Yael Naim
    Yael Naïm , is a French-Israeli singer-songwriter. She rose to fame in 2008 in the US after her hit single "New Soul" was used by Apple in an advertising campaign for its MacBook Air. The song peaked at #7 on the Billboard Hot 100.-Biography:Yael Naïm was born in Paris, France to Tunisian Jewish...

    , French
    French people
    The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

    -Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

    i singer
  • Achinoam Nini
    Achinoam Nini
    Achinoam Nini , also known by her professional name, Noa, is a leading Israeli international concert and recording artist.-Career:...

     ("Noa"), Israeli born, Yemenite pop singer
  • Kobi Oz
    Kobi Oz
    Kobi Oz is the lead singer of Israeli group Teapacks.-Biography:Yaakov Oz was born in Sderot to Tunisian Jewish parents. He began playing music and composing at the age of 15...

    , pop singer,composer and writer
  • Avi Peretz, Israeli Oriental and pop singer
  • Moshe Peretz
    Moshe Peretz
    Moshe Peretz is an Israeli Mizrahi Pop singer-songwriter and composer. He was born on May 10, 1983 in Tiberias.-Biography:Born in Tiberias To a Moroccan-Iraqi Jewish family....

    , Israeli singer of "Oriental" and pop music
  • Rita
    Rita Kleinstein
    Rita Yahan-Farouz is an Iranian-born Israeli pop singer and actress.-Early life:Rita Yahan-Farouz was born in Tehran, Iran. Her family emigrated to Israel in 1970.-Musical and acting career:-1980s:...

    , Iranian born, Israeli pop singer
  • Berry Sakharof
    Berry Sakharof
    Berry Sakharof is an Israeli rock guitarist, songwriter and singer.-Biography:Sakharof was born in Izmir, Turkey in 1957. His family immigrated to Israel when he was 3 years old.-Start of career:...

    , Israeli singer and composer
  • Jerry Seinfeld
    Jerry Seinfeld
    Jerome Allen "Jerry" Seinfeld is an American stand-up comedian, actor, writer, and television and film producer, known for playing a semi-fictional version of himself in the situation comedy Seinfeld , which he co-created and co-wrote with Larry David, and, in the show's final two seasons,...

    , American comedian and actor (Syrian Jewish descent)
  • Boaz Sharabi
    Boaz Sharabi
    Boaz Sharabi is an Israeli singer-songwriter, composer, guitarist, crooner, pianist, actor, tenor, chazan and lyricist, well-known for such integral Israeli classics as Latet, Halevai, At Li Laila, Pamela, Lashir Itach, Kol Od, Mi Yada Shekach Yihiyeh, K'Shetavo , Im At Adain Ohevet Oti and Etzli...

    , Israeli singer (born, Yemenite, Tunisian & Moroccan ancestry)
  • Harel Skaat
    Harel Skaat
    Harel Skaat is an Israeli singer and songwriter. He represented Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 with the song "Milim" ....

    , Singer and "Kokhav Nolad" ("Israeli Idol") contestant (Yemenite descent)
  • Bahar Soomekh
    Bahar Soomekh
    Bahar Soomekh is an Iranian-American actress and environmental activist. She began acting in the early 2000s, and is perhaps best known for her roles in the films Crash , Mission: Impossible III , and Saw III .-Early life:...

    , Persian Jewish-American actress
  • Subliminal
    Subliminal
    Subliminal may refer to:* Subliminal stimuli* Subliminal , Israeli rapper and producer* Subliminal , an electronic music label...

    , Israeli rapper of Persian/Tunisian descent
  • Shimi Tavori
    Shimi Tavori
    Shimi Tavori is an acclaimed Israeli singer. He performs in Hebrew and French.-Biography:Shimi Tavori was born to a Yemenite Jewish family in Ness Ziona, Israel....

    , Israeli singer
  • Ninette Tayeb
    Ninette Tayeb
    Ninet Tayeb is an Israeli-pop rock singer and actress who became widely known as the first winner of Kochav Nolad ....

    , Israel singer, won "A Star is Born" (Kokhav Nolad) Contest (Moroccan/Tunisian descent)
  • Avi Toledano
    Avi Toledano
    Born in Meknes in Morocco April 4, 1948, Avraham Toledano is known to European audiences for his involvement with the Eurovision Song Contest. In 1982 he represented Israel in Harrogate, UK with the uptempo revivalist number Hora...

    , Israeli pop singer and composer, with Sefardic Moroccan roots
  • Elliott Yamin
    Elliott Yamin
    Elliott Yamin , born Efraym Elliott Yamin, is an American singer known for his hit single "Wait for You" and placing third on the fifth season of American Idol....

    , American singer (Jewish Iraqi father)
  • Idan Yaniv
    Idan Yaniv
    Idan Yaniv is an Israeli singer born in Tel Aviv to Bukharan Jewish parents. He has successfully recorded two albums with many popular singles from both albums. His debut single was "Hoshev Aleya" and it was a hit that generated a lot of attention in Israel and in other Jewish communities in the...

    , Israeli singer of Bukharian descent (Israeli Artist of 2007)
  • Yaffa Yarkoni, Israeli singer (from a Caucasian Jewish family)
  • Ariel Zilber
    Ariel Zilber
    Ariel Zilber is an Israeli singer-songwriter and composer. He is considered one of the most prominent musicians and singer-songwriters in Israeli music, known for his highly literate lyrics and for his simple yet profound style.Zilber became a Baal Tshuva following the 2005 disengagement from...

    , Israeli singer and composer (son of a Yemenite Jewish-origin mother)
  • Boaz Mauda, Israeli singer (Jewish Yemenite descent)
  • Shiri Maimon
    Shiri Maimon
    Shiri Maimon is an Israeli pop/R&B singer, TV show host and actress, who rose to fame as the runner-up in the TV show Kokhav Nolad. She represented Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest 2005.-Early life:...

    , Israeli singer (Jewish Moroccan descent)

Medicine and therapy

  • Baruj Benacerraf
    Baruj Benacerraf
    Baruj Benacerraf was a Venezuelan-born American immunologist, who shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the "discovery of the major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface protein molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and...

     - American scientist born in Venezuela
    Venezuela
    Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

    , from a Moroccan
    Morocco
    Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

     Jewish family, winner of the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the field of life science and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will...

  • Yisrael Mordecai Safeek
    Yisrael Mordecai Safeek
    Yisrael Mordecai Safeek MD, MBA, CPE, FACPE is an American Anesthesiologist and Physician Executive. He is the President and CEO of Integrity Physician Solutions, an organization helping to lead the transformation of health care toward Accountable Care throughout the US...

    , American physician executive: Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
    Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
    The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award recognizes U.S. organizations in the business, health care, education, and nonprofit sectors for performance excellence. The Baldrige Award is the only formal recognition of the performance excellence of both public and private U.S. organizations given by...

     Examiner.

Politicians and military

  • Yekutiel Adam
    Yekutiel Adam
    Yekutiel "Kuti" Adam was an Israeli general and former Deputy Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defence Forces....

    , Israeli general (from a Caucasian Jewish family)
  • Binyamin Ben-Eliezer
    Binyamin Ben-Eliezer
    Binyamin Fuad Ben-Eliezer , , born 12 February 1936) is an Israeli politician and former military officer of Iraqi origin. He currently serves as a member of the Knesset for the Labor Party, and has held several ministerial posts, including Minister of Industry, Trade and Labour, Minister of...

    , Israeli general, current Israeli minister of Infrastructure, former minister of Defense and Israel Labor Party
    Labor (Israel)
    The Israeli Labor Party , commonly known as HaAvoda , is a social-democratic and labour Zionist political party in Israel. The party is an observer member of both Socialist International and the Party of European Socialists. The Israeli Labor Party was established in 1968 by a merger of Mapai,...

     chairman, (Iraqi Jew), commonly called by his Arabic name "Fuad"
  • Aryeh Deri
    Aryeh Deri
    Aryeh Deri is an Israeli politician, and former leader of Israel's Shas Party.-Biography:After Deri was convicted of taking $155,000 in bribes while serving as Interior Minister and given a three-year jail sentence in 2000, he was replaced by Eli Yishai...

    , former leader of Shas
    Shas
    Shas is an ultra-orthodox religious political party in Israel, primarily representing Sephardic and Mizrahi Haredi Judaism.Shas was founded in 1984 by dissident members of the Ashkenazi dominated Agudat Israel, to represent the interests of religiously observant Sephardic and Mizrahi ...

     Party and minister of Internal Affairs, (Moroccan Jew)
  • Yisrael Yeshayahu
    Yisrael Yeshayahu
    Yisrael Yeshayahu Sharabi was a Yemen-born Israeli politician, minister and the fifth Speaker of the Knesset.-Biography:Born in Sa'dah, Yemen, Yeshayahu was a member of the Dor Daim movement, before making aliyah in 1929...

     Sharabi, Minister of Post and Speaker of Knesset
    Knesset
    The Knesset is the unicameral legislature of Israel, located in Givat Ram, Jerusalem.-Role in Israeli Government :The legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the President and Prime Minister , approves the cabinet, and supervises the work of the government...

     1970s and 80s, ethnicity/country of origin: Yemen
  • Les Gara
    Les Gara
    Les Gara is a Democratic member of the Alaska House of Representatives, representing the 23rd District since 2003.Gara is a former Assistant Attorney General and part owner of a local restaurant, Snow City Cafe. Although in the House Minority, he has been successful with various progressive social...

    , Democratic member of the Alaska State Legislature, former deputy state attorney general (Iraqi parents)
  • Dalia Itzik
    Dalia Itzik
    Dalia Itzik , born 20 October 1952, is an Israeli politician who currently serves as a member of the Knesset for Kadima. She has previously served in several ministerial positions, and on 4 May 2006 became the first female speaker of the Knesset, and has since served as President of Israel in an...

    , former Knesset speaker
  • Avigdor Kahalani
    Avigdor Kahalani
    Brigadier-General Avigdor Kahalani is a former Israeli soldier and politician.-Background:Kahalani was born in Ness Ziona during the Mandate era. He studied at Tel Aviv University, gaining a B.A. in History, before going on to Haifa University, where he studied for an M.A. in Political Science...

    , former minister of Internal Security and decorated IDF tank commander
  • Moshe Katsav
    Moshe Katsav
    Moshe Katsav is an Israeli politician. He served as the eighth President of Israel, a leading Likud member of the Israeli Knesset, and a Cabinet Minister in its government....

    , former President of the State of Israel
    President of Israel
    The President of the State of Israel is the head of state of Israel. The position is largely an apolitical ceremonial figurehead role, with the real executive power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister. The current president is Shimon Peres who took office on 15 July 2007...

     and minister of Transportation, ethnicity/country of origin: Iran
  • David Levy
    David Levy (Israeli politician)
    David Levy is an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset between 1969 and 2006, as well as Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Immigrant Absorption, Minister of Housing & Construction and as a Minister without Portfolio...

    , former minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister (Moroccan Jew), minister of housing and transports
  • Shaul Mofaz
    Shaul Mofaz
    Lt. General Shaul Mofaz is an Israeli politician who serves as the Chairman of the Foreign Affairs And Defense Committee at the Knesset...

    , former Israeli Minister of Defense and chief of the IDF General Staff, Iranian Jew
  • Yitzhak Mordechai
    Yitzhak Mordechai
    Yitzhak Mordechai is an Israeli former general and politician. He served as a member of the Knesset between 1996 and 2001, and as Minister of Defense and Minister of Transport. He retired from political life after being indicted for sexual assaults during his military service and later...

    , retired IDF general, former minister of Defense and minister of Transportation, ethnicity/country of origin: Iraq
  • Dorrit Moussaieff
    Dorrit Moussaieff
    Dorrit Moussaieff is an Israeli-born British jewellery designer, editor and businesswoman. She is the First Lady of Iceland, married to Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson, president of Iceland.-Biography:...

    , First Lady of Iceland
    First Lady of Iceland
    Wives and husbands of the presidents:*Georgia Björnsson wife of Sveinn Björnsson*Dóra Þórhallsdóttir wife of Ásgeir Ásgeirsson*Halldóra Eldjárn wife of Kristján Eldjárn*Vigdís Finnbogadóttir was not married...

     (Bukharian Jew)
  • Abie Nathan
    Abie Nathan
    Avraham "Abie" Nathan was an Israeli humanitarian and peace activist, perhaps best known as the founder of the Voice of Peace radio station.-Early years:...

    , Israeli peace activist
  • Yitzhak Navon
    Yitzhak Navon
    Yitzhak Navon is an Israeli politician, diplomat, and author. He served as the fifth President of Israel between 1978 and 1982 as a member of the center-left Alignment party...

    , fifth president of Israel and former minister of Education
    Education
    Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

    , from a Sephardic Jewish
    Sephardi Jews
    Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...

     family
  • Shlomo Hillel
    Shlomo Hillel
    Shlomo Hillel is an Iraqi-born Israeli diplomat and politician who served as Speaker of the Knesset, Minister of Police and Minister of Internal Affairs. He was also an ambassador to several countries in Africa.-Biography:...

    , was speaker of the Knesset, minister
  • Amir Peretz
    Amir Peretz
    Amir Peretz is an Israeli politician and member of the Knesset for the Labour Party. He is a former Defense Minister of Israel and former leader of the Labour Party, having left those positions in June 2007....

    , current Knesset member and former Israeli Minister of Defense, Labor Party chairman, and chairman of the Histadrut
    Histadrut
    HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim B'Eretz Yisrael , known as the Histadrut, is Israel's organization of trade unions. Established in December 1920 during the British Mandate for Palestine, it became one of the most powerful institutions of the State of Israel.-History:The Histadrut was founded in...

    , ethnicity/country of origin: Morocco
  • Silvan Shalom
    Silvan Shalom
    ' , born 4 October 1958) is an Israeli politician, member of the Knesset for Likud and the country's Vice Prime Minister and Minister for Regional Development. He previously served as the country's Foreign Minister and Finance Minister.-Biography:...

    , former Israeli minister of Foreign Affairs, minister of Treasury and Deputy Prime Minister, Tunisian Jew
  • Meir Sheetrit
    Meir Sheetrit
    Meir Sheetrit is a Moroccan-born Israeli politician. He is currently a member of the Knesset for Kadima. He has served as Minister of the Interior, Minister of Housing & Construction, Minister of Finance, Minister of Justice, Minister of Transportation and Minister of Education, Culture &...

    , current Israeli minister of Internal Affairs and former Deputy Prime Minister, minister of Treasury and of Education
  • Moshe Levi
    Moshe Levi
    Leiutanant General Moshe Levy was the 12th Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces . He served in this position from 1983–1987...

    , Israeli general, chief of the Idf General Staff
  • Shlomo Ben Ami, Israeli historian, diplomat and diplomat, was minister of police
  • Gabi Ashkenazi
    Gabi Ashkenazi
    Gavriel "Gabi" Ashkenazi , was the Chief of General Staff of the Israel Defence Forces from 2007 to 2011.- Background and early life :...

    , Israeli general, chief of the IDF General Staff
  • Dan Halutz
    Dan Halutz
    ' is an Israeli Air Force Lt. General and former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and commander of the Israeli Air Force. Halutz was appointed as Chief of Staff on June 1, 2005. On January 17, 2007 he announced his resignation. He has a degree in economics. He was born to a Mizrahi...

    , Israeli general, chief of the IDF General Staff
  • Moshe Shahal
    Moshe Shahal
    -Biography:Born in Baghdad in Iraq, Shahal made aliyah in 1950. He studied economics and Political Science at the University of Haifa, before graduating with a law degree from Tel Aviv University....

    , minister and lawyer
  • Moshe Nissim
    Moshe Nissim
    Moshe Nissim is a former Israeli politician, minister and Deputy Prime Minister.-Background:Born in Mandate Palestine, Nissim studied law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, gaining an MA. He was an Officer of Justice in the IDF during his national service, and went on to work as an attorney...

    , was Israeli finance and justice minister
  • Eli Cohen
    Eli Cohen
    Eli Cohen was an Israeli spy. He is best known for his work in Syria, where he developed close relationships with the political and military hierarchy and became the Chief Adviser to the Minister of Defense. He was eventually exposed and executed in Syria in 1965...

    , Israeli spy in Syria
  • J. F. R. Jacob, India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    n general, distinguished himself in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

  • Shimon Sheetrit
    Shimon Sheetrit
    Prof. Shimon Shetreet is a former Israeli politician who held several ministerial portfolios between 1992 and 1996.-Biography:Born in Erfoud in Morocco, Shetreet's family made aliyah to Israel in 1949. He studied law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, gaining an LLB and LLM...

    , Israeli lawman and politician, was justice minister, professor of law
  • Ran Cohen
    Ran Cohen
    Ran Cohen is an Israeli politician and former Knesset member for Meretz-Yachad. He is a resident of Mevaseret Zion and married with four children....

    , politician from the left liberal party Meretz, former MK
  • Nissim Dahan
    Nissim Dahan
    Nissim Dahan is a former Israeli politician who served as Minister of Health from 2001 until 2003.-Biography:Born in Morocco, Dahan's family made aliyah in 1955. He worked in the Ministry of Religious Affairs, becoming director of its organisations and institutions department...

    , rabbi and politician from Shass party, was minister of health
  • Shalom Simhon
    Shalom Simhon
    Shalom Simhon is an Israeli politician and member of the Knesset for Independence. He currently serves as the Minister of Industry, Trade and Labour and Minister of Minorities in the Israeli cabinet.-Biography:...

    , Israeli politician, from Labor party, minister of agriculture

Religious figures

  • Baba Sali
    Baba Sali
    After this incident, the Jewish population of Tafilalt fled to the nearby city of Arfoud, and then to the city of Boudnib. In Bodniv, Rabbi Yisrael was asked to succeed his brother as rav, but he refused. He wanted to travel to Palestine to print his brother's sefarim...

    , venerated rabbi born in Morocco
  • Ovadia Yosef
    Ovadia Yosef
    Ovadia Yosef is the former Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, a recognised Talmudic scholar and foremost halakhic authority.He currently serves as the spiritual leader of the Shas political party in the Israeli parliament...

    , former Sephardic Chief Rabbi
    Chief Rabbi
    Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognized religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities...

     of Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

     and spiritual leader of Shas
    Shas
    Shas is an ultra-orthodox religious political party in Israel, primarily representing Sephardic and Mizrahi Haredi Judaism.Shas was founded in 1984 by dissident members of the Ashkenazi dominated Agudat Israel, to represent the interests of religiously observant Sephardic and Mizrahi ...

  • Mordechai Eliyahu
    Mordechai Eliyahu
    Mordechai Tzemach Eliyahu ) was a prominent rabbi, posek and spiritual leader. He served as the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1983 to 1993.-Biography:...

    , former Sephardic Chief Rabbi
    Chief Rabbi
    Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognized religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities...

     of Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

  • Amnon Yitzhak
    Amnon Yitzhak
    Amnon Yitzhak , is an Orthodox Haredi Israeli.Harav Amnon Yitzhak is best known for his involvement in Orthodox Judaism outreach . He is involved in activities which are centered on helping Jews to become more religious or observant...

    , Orthodox rabbi of Yemenite origin
  • Shlomo Moussaieff (rabbi)
    Shlomo Moussaieff (rabbi)
    Shlomo Moussaieff was born in the city of Bukhara in 1852 in what is today Uzbekistan and was one of the founders of the Bukharian Quarter in Jerusalem...

    , Co-founder of Bukharian Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem

Sports and game players

  • Yossi Benayoun
    Yossi Benayoun
    Yosef Shai "Yossi" Benayoun is an Israeli international footballer who plays for Arsenal on loan from Chelsea.Benayoun plays as an attacking midfielder, often occupying the space just behind the striker. In Israel, he is sometimes nicknamed "The Diamond from Dimona". He is also the captain of the...

    , Israeli football player at Arsenal FC
  • Doron Jamchi
    Doron Jamchi
    Doron Jamchi , is an Israeli former basketball player. He played in the small forward position .He played for Maccabi Tel Aviv B.C...

    , Israeli basketball player
  • Oded Kattash
    Oded Kattash
    Oded Kattash is an Israeli basketball coach and former player. He is currently the head coach of Hapoel Jerusalem BC. As a player, he won a Euroleague title in the 1999–2000 season while playing with Panathinaikos....

    , Israeli basketball player
  • Robert Mizrachi
    Robert Mizrachi
    Robert Mizrachi is an American professional poker player.Robert Mizrachi was a former poker dealer at a South Miami casino...

    , poker player, Iraqi Jew
  • Michael Mizrachi
    Michael Mizrachi
    Michael David Mizrachi is an American professional poker player who won the 2010 World Series of Poker $50,000 Players Championship.. Mizrachi also has two World Poker Tour Titles, and finished 5th in the Main Event of the 2010 World Series of Poker.-Personal life:Mizrachi was born in Miami,...

    , poker player, Iraqi Jew
  • Eli Ohana
    Eli Ohana
    Eli Ohana is a former Israeli football player and later a manager. He is currently the manager of the Israel U21 team. He is considered to be one of the greatest Israeli players ever.-Early life and playing career:...

    , Israeli football player
  • Haim Revivo
    Haim Revivo
    Haim Michael Revivo is a retired Israeli football player, and a businessman. He was especially famous for his free-kick goals and his entertaining celebrations after these goals.- From Ashdod to Tel Aviv :...

    , Israeli football player
  • Shahar Zubari
    Shahar Zubari
    Shahar Zubari is an Israeli windsurfer and Olympic bronze medalist, surfing in the "Neil Pryde" RS:X discipline. He was born in Eilat, Israel.-Early career:...

    , Israeli Olympic
    Olympic Games
    The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

     medalist in Windsurfing.

Writers and academics

  • Michel Abitbol
    Michel Abitbol
    Michel Abitbol is an Israeli Jewish historian, professor, and chair of the Department of African Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He is considered an expert on the history of the Jews of North Africa. He is also the scientific director of the Center for Research on Moroccan Jewry,...

    , noted historian and professor at Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ; ; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second-oldest university, after the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. The Hebrew University has three campuses in Jerusalem and one in Rehovot. The world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J...

  • Erez Bitton, Israeli Hebrew poet
  • Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
    Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
    Claude Cohen-Tannoudji is a French physicist and Nobel Laureate. He shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics with Steven Chu and William Daniel Phillips for research in methods of laser cooling and trapping atoms...

    , French physicist
    Physicist
    A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic particles of which all ordinary matter is made to the behavior of the material Universe as a whole...

    , Nobel Prize
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

     winner (from an Algerian Jewish family)
  • Jacques Derrida
    Jacques Derrida
    Jacques Derrida was a French philosopher, born in French Algeria. He developed the critical theory known as deconstruction and his work has been labeled as post-structuralism and associated with postmodern philosophy...

    , French philosopher (of Algerian Jewish descent)
  • Sami Michael
    Sami Michael
    Sami Michael is an Israeli author. Since 2001, Michael has been the President of The Association for Civil Rights in Israel .Michael was among the first in Israel to call for the creation of an independent Palestinian state to exist alongside Israel. In his novels Michael writes about the...

    , Israeli Hebrew writer (born in Iraq)
  • Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson
    Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson
    Dr. Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson is an American author, residing in New Zealand. Masson is best known for his conclusions about Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis...

    , psychotherapist
  • Samir Naqqash
    Samir Naqqash
    Samir Naqqash was an Iraqi Jewish novelist, short-story writer, and playwright who immigrated to Israel.-Biography:...

    , Israeli Jewish writer in Arab language (born in Iraq)
  • Yehouda Shenhav
    Yehouda Shenhav
    Yehouda Shenhav is an Israeli sociologist and critical theorist. He is known for his contributions in the fields of bureaucracy, management and capitalism, as well as for his research on ethnicity in Israeli society and its relationship with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.-Biography:Born Yehouda...

    , Israeli sociologist (born in an Iraqi Jewish family, Shahrabani)
  • Saba Soomekh
    Saba Soomekh
    Saba Soomekh is an Iranian-born American professor and writer.Soomekh was born in Teheran, Iran to a Persian Jewish family that moved to Los Angeles, California to escape the Islamic Revolution of Iran. Saba is a sister to actress Bahar Soomekh...

    , professor/writer
  • A.B. Yehoshua, Israeli Hebrew writer, professor (from a Sefardic family originating from Morocco)
  • Avi Shlaim
    Avi Shlaim
    Avi Shlaim FBA is a British/Israeli historian. He is a professor of International Relations at the University of Oxford and a fellow of the British Academy.Shlaim is especially well known as a historian of the Arab-Israeli conflict...

    , Oxford University scholar; author specialising on the Israel-Palestine conflict and Zionism. Shlaim is originally from Iraq.
  • Ella Shohat
    Ella Shohat
    Professor Ella Habiba Shohat is Professor of Cultural Studies at New York University, and has taught, lectured and written extensively on issues having to do with Eurocentrism and Orientalism, as well as with postcolonial and transnational approaches to Cultural Studies...

    , Israeli-American sociologist and author
  • Albert Memmi
    Albert Memmi
    Albert Memmi is a Tunisian Jewish writer and essayist who migrated to France.- Biography :Born in colonial Tunisia,from a Tunisian Jewish mother and a Tunisian-Italian Jewish father, he speaks Hebrew and Tunisian-Arabic...

    , French-Tunisian writer
  • Eli Amir
    Eli Amir
    -External links:...

    , Israeli Hebrew writer
  • Smadar Lavie
    Smadar Lavie
    Smadar Lavie is a Mizrahi Israeli anthropologist, author, and activist specializing in the anthropology of Egypt, Israel and Palestine, with special emphasis on issues of race, gender and religion.. Dr...

    , Israeli anthropologist
  • Hélène Cixous
    Hélène Cixous
    Hélène Cixous is a professor, French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher, literary critic and rhetorician. She holds honorary degrees from Queen's University and the University of Alberta in Canada; University College Dublin in Ireland; the University of York and University College...

    , French writer
  • Jacques Attali
    Jacques Attali
    Jacques Attali is a French economist, writer and senior civil servant.Former adviser to President François Mitterrand and first president of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, he founded the non-profit organization PlaNet Finance and was nominated President of the Commission for...

    , French thinker and author
  • Shimon Adaf
    Shimon Adaf
    Shimon Adaf is an Israeli poet and author born in Sderot.Shimon Adaf's first book of poetry, Icarus' Monologue won a prize from the Israeli Ministry of Education. In 1996–2000, Adaf studied at Tel Aviv University, simultaneously writing articles on literature, film and rock music for Israeli...

    , Israeli Hebrew poet and writer
  • Ronit Matalon
    Ronit Matalon
    -About:Matalon was born in Ganei Tikva, Israel, the daughter of Egyptian-Jewish immigrants. Matalon studied literature and philosophy at Tel Aviv University and worked as a journalist for Haaretz newspaper, where she covered Gaza and the West Bank between 1987 and 1993. She is a resident of Tel...

    , Israeli Hebrew writer, from a Sephardic Egyptian family
  • Orly Castel Bloom, Israeli Hebrew writer (from an Egyptian Jewish family)
  • Baruj Benacerraf
    Baruj Benacerraf
    Baruj Benacerraf was a Venezuelan-born American immunologist, who shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the "discovery of the major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface protein molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and...

    , American-Venezuelan medical scientist, Nobel Prize, from a sephardic family with Moroccan roots
  • Haim Sabato
    Haim Sabato
    Haim Sabato is a Cairo-born Israeli rabbi and author. Born to a distinguished family of Aleppan descent in Cairo, Sabato moved with his family to Jerusalem, Israel, as a young child during the 1950s. He co-founded the Hesder yeshiva in Ma'ale Adumim, Yeshivat Birkat Moshe, in 1977, and has...

    , Israeli rabbi and Hebrew writer
  • Rachel Shabi
    Rachel Shabi
    Rachel Shabi is the author of Not the Enemy: Israel's Jews from Arab Lands, a book on Israel's Oriental Jews, and a contributing writer to The Guardian.Shabi was born to Iraqi Jewish parents...

    , British/Israeli journalist and author of "Not the Enemy, Israel's Jews from Arab lands" about Mizrahi Jews in Israel
  • Sasson Somekh
    Sasson Somekh
    Sasson Somekh is a professor emeritus of Modern Arab Literature at Tel Aviv University.-Biography:Sasson Somekh was born in Baghdad to a secular Jewish family. In 1951, Somekh and his family immigrated to Israel in the wake of growing pressures on the Jews of Iraq to leave the country...

    , Israeli Arabologist
  • Nissim Ezekiel
    Nissim Ezekiel
    ' was an Indian Jewish poet, playwright, editor and art-critic. He was a foundational figure in postcolonial India's literary history, specifically for Indian writing in English....

    , Indian poet and art critic
  • Andre Chouraqui
    André Chouraqui
    Nathan André Chouraqui was a French lawyer, writer, scholar and politician.Chouraqui was born in Aïn Témouchent, Algeria...

    , French-Israeli thinker and writer
  • Bernard-Henri Lévy
    Bernard-Henri Lévy
    Bernard-Henri Lévy is a French public intellectual, philosopher and journalist. Often referred to today, in France, simply as BHL, he was one of the leaders of the "Nouveaux Philosophes" movement in 1976.-Early life:...

    , French philosopher

See also


Organizations


Articles


Communities