Hamilton Fish Armstrong

Hamilton Fish Armstrong

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Hamilton Fish Armstrong (April 7, 1893 – April 24, 1973) was a United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 diplomat and editor.

Biography


He attended Princeton University
Princeton University
Princeton University is a private research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The school is one of the eight universities of the Ivy League, and is one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution....

, and started his journalistic activity at the New Republic
The New Republic
The magazine has also published two articles concerning income inequality, largely criticizing conservative economists for their attempts to deny the existence or negative effect increasing income inequality is having on the United States...

. During the First World War, he was a military attaché in Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

. After 1922, he worked at Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine and website on international relations and U.S. foreign policy published since 1922 by the Council on Foreign Relations six times annually...

, the review of Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations
The Council on Foreign Relations is an American nonprofit nonpartisan membership organization, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs...

, as adjoint of Archibald Cary Coolidge
Archibald Cary Coolidge
Archibald Cary Coolidge was an American educator. He was a Professor of History at Harvard College from 1908 and the first Director of the Harvard University Library from 1910 until his death...

. After his death in 1928, he became the editor of the magazine. Armstrong retired from Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine and website on international relations and U.S. foreign policy published since 1922 by the Council on Foreign Relations six times annually...

 in 1972, the fiftieth year of its publication, and died after a long illness on April 24, 1973, at the age of 80.

He was the editor of the magazine Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine and website on international relations and U.S. foreign policy published since 1922 by the Council on Foreign Relations six times annually...

between 1928 and 1972. He authored the book Hitler's Reich : The First Phase , published July 1933 by The Macmillan Company, N.Y..

Family


Armstrong married three times. Helen MacGregor Byrne became his wife in 1918, and they had one daughter, Helen MacGregor (later Mrs. Edwin Gamble) on September 3, 1923. Armstrong and Byrne divorced in 1938. In 1938, Walter Lippmann
Walter Lippmann
Walter Lippmann was an American intellectual, writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War...

 married the first wife of Hamilton Fish Armstrong; it was the end of a friendship between the two men.

Armstrong married Carman Barnes in 1945, a marriage which ended in a 1951 divorce. In that same year Armstrong married Christa von Tippelskirch.

Awards


Hamilton Fish Armstrong was awarded by Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

:
  • Order of the Serbian Red Cross (1918)
  • Order of St. Sava Fifth Class (1918)
  • Chevalier of Order of the White Eagle with Swords (1919)
  • Order of the Crown (Rumania) in 1924
  • Order of the White Lion of Czechoslovakia in 1937
  • Officer of the Legion of Honor of France (1937) and became a commander in 1947
  • Commander of the British Empire in 1972


He received honorary degrees from Brown (1942), Yale (1957), the University of Basel (1960), Princeton (1961), Columbia (1963), and Harvard (1963).

Works

  • 1926 The New Balkans
  • 1929 Where the East Begins
  • 1933 Hitler's Reich: The First Phase (1933),
  • 1934 Europe Between Wars?
  • 1936 Can We Be Neutral? avec Allen W. Dulles,
  • 1937 "We or They:"Two Worlds in Conflict
  • 1939 When There Is No Peace
  • 1939 Can America Stay Neutral? avec Allen W. Dulles,
  • 1940 Chronology of Failure
  • 1947 The Calculated Risk
  • 1951 Tito and Goliath
  • 1963 Those Days
  • 1971 Peace and Counterpeace: From Wilson to Hitler