, is a software application
Application may refer to:* Application for employment* Application software* Function application in mathematics and computer science...
which allows users to explore a 3D representation of the surface of the Earth. The browser is specifically tailored to view India, offering the highest resolution in this region. A beta version was launched on 12 August 2009.
ISRO launched the beta version of its web-based 3D satellite imagery tool, Bhuvan, on August 12, 2009. Bhuvan offers more detailed imagery of Indian locations compared to other Virtual Globe
A virtual globe is a 3D software model or representation of the Earth or another world. A virtual globe provides the user with the ability to freely move around in the virtual environment by changing the viewing angle and position. Compared to a conventional globe, virtual globes have the...
software, with spatial resolutions ranging from 5 to 100 metres. Locations can be viewed from different perspectives, and the software will also provide functionality for the measurement of distances. The Bhuvan portal is designed to run on slow Internet connections. The images available do not include any military installations in India, due to security concerns.
Bhuvan has a number of other features, which include weather
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers, generally, to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate...
information and administrative boundaries of all states and district
Districts are a type of administrative division, in some countries managed by a local government. They vary greatly in size, spanning entire regions or counties, several municipalities, or subdivisions of municipalities.-Austria:...
s in India. Bhuvan provides images of the entire globe, but resolution is currently best in India. On the Indian subcontinent, Bhuvan will be able to display pictures from a perceived altitude of 10 metres, at which height a commuter moving on a road can easily be spotted.
The National Remote Sensing Agency played an important role in the development of this product. ISRO has used data provided by satellites including Resourcesat-1
RESOURCESAT-1 is an advanced remote sensing satellite built by Indian Space Research Organization. The tenth satellite of ISRO in IRS series, RESOURCESAT-1 is intended to not only continue the remote sensing data services provided by IRS-1C and IRS-1D, both of which have far outlived their...
Cartosat-1 is a stereoscopic Earth observation satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit. The satellite was built, launched and maintained by the Indian Space Research Organisation. Weighing around 1560 kg at launch, its applications will mainly be towards cartography in India. It was launched by...
Cartosat-2 is an Earth observation satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit. The satellite was built, launched and maintained by the Indian Space Research Organisation. Weighing around 680 kg at launch, its applications will mainly be towards cartography in India...
to get the best possible imagery of India. ISRO claims that the application can provide imagery from a perceived altitude of as little as 10 metres for major Indian cities, compared to the 200 metres provided by Google Earth
Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that was originally called EarthViewer 3D, and was created by Keyhole, Inc, a Central Intelligence Agency funded company acquired by Google in 2004 . It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite...
Bhuvan-3D is based on TerraExplorer software, a product of Skyline Software Systems. Bhuvan-2D is developed using open-source software Geospatial solutions (UMN Mapserver, Geoserver, 52 North, OpenLayers). 2D images are available on all mobile browsers, including Apple's iOS
iOS is an operating system for iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch, and Apple TV.IOS may also refer to:-Companies and organisations:* Illinois Ornithological Society, American state-based bird club...
Bhuvan allows users to view 2D and 3D images, along with information on soil, wasteland and water resources on the Indian subcontinent. Users can superimpose administrative boundaries of their choice, from a selection of boundaries available, on images as required. Bhuvan also allows visualization of AWS (Automatic Weather Station
A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for observing atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate. The measurements taken include temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed, wind...
) data in the graphic view, as well as in tabular form. Users can "fly" from one location to another, and also navigate using the 3D view pop-up menu (with fly-in, fly out, jump in, jump around and view point controls). The software features Heads-Up Display (HUD) navigation controls (tilt slider, opacity control, compass ring and zoom slider zoom slider). There is also a drawing function, which allows users to draw certain objects in both 2D (text labels, polylines, polygons, rectangles, 2D arrows, circles and ellipses) and 3D (placing of expressive 3D models, 3D polygons and boxes). Users can create snapshots (copies the 3D view to a floating window and allows to save to an external file) to record images and use measurement tools (horizontal distance, aerial distance, vertical distance, measure area) to record distances. Shadow analysis also allows a user to view terrain as it would appear at a specified time of day, by setting the sun position appropriately for the given time, thus creating accurate shadows and lighting.
ISRO plans to allow the end-user to participate in the development of features for the product in the future.
Some of the functionality planned for future versions includes:
- Online shapefile creation
- Urban Design Tools (to build roads, junctions and traffic lights in an urban setting)
Contour may refer to:* an outline or silhouette* a contour line on a contour map, or the corresponding line on the ground or sea bed* Contour , a phonetic sound* Pitch contour , a melody shape...
maps (displays a colourized terrain, maps and contour lines)
- Terrain profile (displays the terrain elevation profile along a path)
- Draw tools (creates simple markers, free hand lines and urban designs)
- Navigation map (to jump to and view locations in 3D)
The Bhuvan plug-in is required only for accessing 3D images. The plugin can be downloaded from the Bhuvan website and can be installed without the need for any administrative privileges.
Bhuvan 2D is compatible with all browsers and operating systems and does not require any plug-in installation. Bhuvan 2D is based on the open source application Geo-spatial solutions. Bhuvan 2D can also be accessed through mobile phones also without any plugin installation.
The Beta version of Bhuvan 3D can run only on the Windows operating system and is optimized for Internet Explorer 6
Internet Explorer 6 is the sixth major revision of Internet Explorer, a web browser developed by Microsoft for Windows operating systems...
and higher, with Protected Mode turned off. Bhuvan uses a TerraExplorer plugin from Skyline Inc., which is around 11 MB
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage or transmission with two different values depending on context: bytes generally for computer memory; and one million bytes generally for computer storage. The IEEE Standards Board has decided that "Mega will mean 1 000...
in size, and has to be installed prior to Bhuvan. The plugin is only supported on Internet Explorer
Windows Internet Explorer is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year...
for Microsoft Windows. Google Chrome, Firefox and other platforms are not yet supported.
Since the launch of Bhuvan, users have experienced various difficulties. One problem is that the Bhuvan site has, at various times, been either inaccessible or very slow. Users are required to register before they can use the product, and downloads of plug-ins up to 11 MB in size are needed before the application will work. Furthermore, the plugin only works on Windows, and only Internet Explorer is supported. It renders layers unevenly and sometimes images are completely blocked. Bhuvan promises images from a perceived altitude of 10 metres, but technical analysts dispute the results. If many locations of same name exist, Bhuvan is supposed to give multiple results so that users can choose the intended location, but Bhuvan sometimes fails to return multiple results. Images are also blurred.
Since the initial, buggy beta release, a more stable version has been released, with which users have reported fewer problems. A discussion forum has also been started for users experiencing difficulties.
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Collaborative mapping is the aggregation of web maps and user-generated content, from a group of individuals or entities, and can take several distinct forms.-Types:...
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- Google Map Maker
Google Map Maker is a service launched by Google in June 2008, designed to expand the breadth of the service currently offered by Google Maps. In some countries mapping data is unavailable, and so to combat this problem Google has decided to open up Google Maps to a collaborative community effort...
In recent years the ability to collect spatial information from volunteers has greatly expanded through the combination of , geo-tagged photos and the Internet...
OpenStreetMap is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. Two major driving forces behind the establishment and growth of OSM have been restrictions on use or availability of map information across much of the world and the advent of inexpensive portable GPS devices.The...