Bank card number

Bank card number

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Encyclopedia
A bank card number is the primary account number found on credit card
Credit card
A credit card is a small plastic card issued to users as a system of payment. It allows its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services...

s and bank cards. It has a certain amount of internal structure and shares a common numbering scheme
Numbering scheme
There are many different numbering schemes for assigning nominal numbers to entities. These generally require an agreed set of rules, or a central coordinator. The schemes can be considered to be examples of a primary key of a database management system table, whose table definitions require a...

. Credit card numbers are a special case of ISO/IEC 7812 bank card numbers.

An ISO/IEC 7812 number is typically 16 digits in length. It consists of:
• a six-digit Issuer Identification Number (IIN), the first digit of which is the Major Industry Identifier (MII),
• a variable length (up to 12 digits) individual account identifier,
• a single check digit
Check digit
A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection, the decimal equivalent of a binary checksum. It consists of a single digit computed from the other digits in the message....

calculated using the Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

.

The term "Issuer Identification Number" (IIN) replaces the previously used "Bank Identification Number" (BIN). See ISO/IEC 7812 for more information.

Major Industry Identifier (MII)

The first digit of a credit card number is the Major Industry Identifier (MII), which represents the category of entity which issued the credit card. Different MII digits represent the following issuer categories:
• 0 – ISO/TC 68
ISO/TC 68
ISO/TC 68 is a technical committee formed within the International Organization for Standardization , of Geneva, Switzerland, tasked with developing and maintaining international standards covering the areas of banking, securities, and other financial services...

and other future industry assignments
• 1 – Airlines
• 2 – Airlines and other future industry assignments
• 3 – Travel and entertainment
Entertainment
Entertainment consists of any activity which provides a diversion or permits people to amuse themselves in their leisure time. Entertainment is generally passive, such as watching opera or a movie. Active forms of amusement, such as sports, are more often considered to be recreation...

and banking/financial
• 4 – Banking and financial
FINANCIAL
FINANCIAL is the weekly English-language newspaper with offices in Tbilisi, Georgia and Kiev, Ukraine. Published by Intelligence Group LLC, FINANCIAL is focused on opinion leaders and top business decision-makers; It's about world’s largest companies, investing, careers, and small business. It is...

• 5 – Banking and financial
• 6 – Merchandising
Merchandising
Merchandising is the methods, practices, and operations used to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial activity. In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer...

and banking/financial
• 7 – Petroleum
Petroleum industry
The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting , and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline...

and other future industry assignments
• 8 – Healthcare, telecommunications and other future industry assignments
• 9 – National assignment

For example, American Express
American Express
American Express Company or AmEx, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States. Founded in 1850, it is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is best...

, Diner's Club, and Carte Blanche are in the travel and entertainment category, VISA
Visa
Visa or VISA may refer to:* Visa , a document issued by a country's government allowing the holder to enter or to leave that country...

, MasterCard
MasterCard
Mastercard Incorporated or MasterCard Worldwide is an American multinational financial services corporation with its headquarters in the MasterCard International Global Headquarters, Purchase, Harrison, New York, United States...

, and Discover
Discover Card
The Discover Card is a major credit card, issued primarily in the United States. It was originally introduced by Sears in 1985, and was part of Dean Witter, and then Morgan Stanley, until 2007, when Discover Financial Services became an independent company. Novus, a major processing center, used to...

are in the banking and financial category (Discover being in the Merchandising and banking/financial category), and Sun Oil and Exxon
Exxon
Exxon is a chain of gas stations as well as a brand of motor fuel and related products by ExxonMobil. From 1972 to 1999, Exxon was the corporate name of the company previously known as Standard Oil Company of New Jersey or Jersey Standard....

are in the petroleum category.

Issuer Identification Number (IIN)

The first six digits of the credit card number (including the initial MII digit) are known as the Issuer Identification Number (IIN). These identify the institution that issued the card to the card holder. The rest of the number is allocated by the issuer. Cards are issued by the issuer through an issuing network. The card number's length is its number of digits. Many credit card issuers print the first four digits of the IIN on their card, just beneath where the number is embossed, as an added security measure.
• credit card
Credit card
A credit card is a small plastic card issued to users as a system of payment. It allows its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services...

s
• debit card
Debit card
A debit card is a plastic card that provides the cardholder electronic access to his or her bank account/s at a financial institution...

s
• charge card
Charge card
A charge card is a card that provides an alternative payment to cash when making purchases in which the issuer and the cardholder enter into an agreement that the debt incurred on the charge account will be paid in full and by due date or be subject to severe late fees and restrictions on card...

s
• stored-value card
Stored-value card
A stored-value card refers to monetary value on a card not in an externally recorded account and differs from prepaid cards where money is on deposit with the issuer similar to a debit card...

s
• Electronic Benefit Transfer
Electronic Benefit Transfer
Electronic Benefit Transfer is an electronic system in the United States that allows state governments to provide financial and material benefits via a plastic debit card. Common benefits provided via EBT are typically sorted into two general categories: Food and cash benefits...

cards

In the United States, IINs are also used in NCPDP pharmacy claims to identify processors, and are printed on all pharmacy insurance cards. IINs are the primary routing mechanism for real-time claims. Each processor has one or more IINs, which it divides into plans by using Group Number and Processor Control Number fields.

The IIN database
Database
A database is an organized collection of data for one or more purposes, usually in digital form. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality , in a way that supports processes requiring this information...

and membership is managed by the American Bankers Association
American Bankers Association
The American Bankers Association is an industry trade group and professional association representing the United States' banking industry...

(ABA) and is updated monthly. The ABA is responsible for allocating IIN ranges to the issuing networks.

Online merchants may use IIN lookups to help validate transactions. For example, if the credit card's IIN indicates a bank in one country, while the customer's billing address is in another, the transaction may call for extra scrutiny.
Issuing network IIN ranges Active Length Validation
American Express
American Express
American Express Company or AmEx, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States. Founded in 1850, it is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is best...

34, 37 Yes 15 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Bankcard
Bankcard (credit card)
Bankcard was a shared-brand credit card issued by financial institutions in Australia and New Zealand between 1974 and 2006. It was managed by the Bankcard Association of Australia, a joint venture of Australia's largest banks, and was the nation's first mass-market credit card...

5610, 560221-560225 No 16 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

China UnionPay
China UnionPay
China UnionPay , also known as UnionPay or by its abbreviation, CUP, is the only domestic bank card organization in the People's Republic of China . Founded in March 2002, China UnionPay is an association for China's banking card industry, operating under the approval of the People's Bank of China...

62 Yes 16-19 unknown
Diners Club
Diners Club
Diners Club International, founded as Diners Club, is a charge card company formed in 1950 by Frank X. McNamara, Ralph Schneider and Matty Simmons...

Carte Blanche
300-305 Yes 14 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Diners Club
Diners Club
Diners Club International, founded as Diners Club, is a charge card company formed in 1950 by Frank X. McNamara, Ralph Schneider and Matty Simmons...

enRoute
EnRoute (credit card)
enRoute was a credit card issued by Air Canada until 1992, when the airline sold its credit card division to Diners Club.Initially, the card was used only for Air Canada transactions, but over time, the card was expanded into a more general credit card for business travellers, being accepted by...

2014, 2149 No 15 no validation
Diners Club International 36 Yes 14 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Diners Club
Diners Club
Diners Club International, founded as Diners Club, is a charge card company formed in 1950 by Frank X. McNamara, Ralph Schneider and Matty Simmons...

54, 55 Yes 16 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Discover Card
Discover Card
The Discover Card is a major credit card, issued primarily in the United States. It was originally introduced by Sears in 1985, and was part of Dean Witter, and then Morgan Stanley, until 2007, when Discover Financial Services became an independent company. Novus, a major processing center, used to...

6011, 622126-622925, 644-649, 65 Yes 16 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

InstaPayment 637-639 Yes 16 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

JCB
Japan Credit Bureau
Japan Credit Bureau is a credit card company based in Tokyo, Japan. Its English name is .Founded in 1961, JCB established dominance over the Japanese credit card market when it purchased Osaka Credit Bureau in 1968, and its cards are now issued in 20 different countries...

3528-3589 Yes 16 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Laser
Laser (debit card)
Laser Card is a debit card scheme in Ireland. The Laser Scheme is maintained and operated by , a not-for-profit body owned by four leading financial institutions in Ireland and overseen since 2008 by the Oversight Unit of the Central Bank. The scheme was launched in 1996 and in 2010 there were...

6304, 6706, 6771, 6709 Yes 16-19 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Maestro
Maestro (debit card)
Maestro is a multi-national debit card service owned by MasterCard, and was founded in 1990. Maestro cards are obtained from associate banks and can be linked to the card holder's current account, or they can be prepaid cards...

5018, 5020, 5038, 6304, 6759, 6761, 6762, 6763 Yes 12-19 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

MasterCard
MasterCard
Mastercard Incorporated or MasterCard Worldwide is an American multinational financial services corporation with its headquarters in the MasterCard International Global Headquarters, Purchase, Harrison, New York, United States...

51-55 Yes 16 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Solo
Solo (debit card)
Solo is a debit card in the United Kingdom. It is a sister to the UK Maestro debit card. Solo was launched on 1 July 1997 by the Switch Card Scheme for use on deposit accounts, as well as by customers who did not qualify for a Maestro card on current accounts.Solo was formerly issued as a...

6334, 6767 No 16, 18, 19 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Switch
Switch (debit card)
Switch is a debit card in the United Kingdom. It is a sister to the Solo debit card.Switch was launched in 1988 by Midland Bank, National Westminster Bank and the Royal Bank of Scotland as a multifunction cheque guarantee and cash card. The brand was merged with Maestro, an international debit card...

4903, 4905, 4911, 4936, 564182, 633110, 6333, 6759 No 16, 18, 19 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Visa
VISA (credit card)
Visa Inc. is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered on 595 Market Street, Financial District in San Francisco, California, United States, although much of the company's staff is based in Foster City, California. It facilitates electronic funds transfers throughout...

4 Yes 16 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

Visa Electron
Visa Electron
Visa Electron is a debit card available across most of the world, with the exception of Canada, Australia, Ireland and the United States. The card was introduced by VISA in the 1980s and is a sister card to the Visa Debit card...

4026, 417500, 4508, 4844, 4913, 4917 Yes 16 Luhn algorithm
Luhn algorithm
The Luhn algorithm or Luhn formula, also known as the "modulus 10" or "mod 10" algorithm,is a simple checksum formula used to validate a variety of identification numbers, such as credit card numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in US and Canadian Social Insurance Numbers...

On November 8, 2004, MasterCard and Diner's Club formed an alliance. Cards issued in Canada and the United States start with 54 or 55 and are treated as MasterCards worldwide. International cards use the 36 prefix and are treated as MasterCards in Canada and the United States, but are treated as Diner's Club cards elsewhere. Diner's Club International's web site makes no reference to old 38 prefix numbers, and they can be presumed reissued under the 55 or 36 IIN prefix. Effective October 16, 2009, Diner's Club cards beginning with 30, 36, 38 or 39 have been processed by Discover Card.

Effective October 1, 2006, Discover began using the entire 65 prefix, not just 650. Also, similar to the Master Card/Diner's agreement, China Union Pay cards are now treated as Discover cards and accepted on the Discover network.

A search on Visa's web site results in many references to card numbers being 16 digits long. However, searching for references to 13-digit cards will turn up no results. All 13-digit account numbers have since been migrated to 16-digit account numbers. At least two different schemes were devised for this that included appending three digits to the account number, and, in more rare cases, inserting three digits after the twelfth digit of the old 13-digit number.

Switch was re-branded as Maestro in mid-2007. In 2011, UK Domestic Maestro (formerly Switch) was aligned with the standard international Maestro proposition.

Other codes

The Card Security Code
Card security code
The card security code , sometimes called Card Verification Data , Card Verification Value , Card Verification Value Code , Card Verification Code , Verification Code , or Card Code Verification are different terms for security features for credit or debit card...

is typically the last three digits printed on the signature strip on the back of the card. On American Express cards, the Card Security Code is a printed (not embossed) group of four digits on the front towards the right.

The Card Security Code (CSC), sometimes called Card Verification Value (CVV or CV2), Card Verification Value Code (CVVC), Card Verification Code (CVC), Verification Code (V-Code or V Code), or Card Code Verification (CCV) is a security feature for credit or debit card transactions, giving increased protection against credit card fraud.

There are actually several types of security codes:
• The first code, called CVC1 or CVV1, is encoded on the magnetic stripe of the card and used for transactions in person.
• The second code, and the most cited, is CVV2 or CVC2. This CSC (also known as a CCID or Credit Card ID) is often asked for by merchants for them to secure "card not present" transactions occurring over the Internet, by mail, fax or over the phone. In many countries in Western Europe, due to increased attempts at card fraud, it is now mandatory to provide this code when the cardholder is not present in person.
• Contactless card and chip cards may supply their own codes generated electronically, such as iCVV or Dynamic CVV.

Security

Due to risk of credit card fraud
Credit card fraud
Credit card fraud is a wide-ranging term for theft and fraud committed using a credit card or any similar payment mechanism as a fraudulent source of funds in a transaction. The purpose may be to obtain goods without paying, or to obtain unauthorized funds from an account. Credit card fraud is also...

if a number (PAN) is known, various techniques are used to prevent these from being widely disseminated. These include:
• PAN truncation
PAN truncation
PAN truncation is an anti-fraud measure available on some credit-card-processing POS terminals as part of a merchant account service."PAN" is an acronym for Primary Account Number, i.e., the "card number" on either a debit or a credit card...

– only printing some of the digits on receipts
• Tokenization
Tokenization (data security)
Tokenization is the process of replacing some piece of sensitive data with a value that is not considered sensitive in the context of the environment that consumes the token and the original sensitive data...

– only using some of the digits during communication and storage of the transaction

• Bank account
Bank account
A Bank account is a financial account recording the financial transactions between the customer and the bank and the resulting financial position of the customer with the bank .-Account types:...

• International Bank Account Number
International Bank Account Number
The International Bank Account Number is an international standard for identifying bank accounts across national borders with a minimal risk of propagating transcription errors. It was originally adopted by the European Committee for Banking Standards , and was later adopted as an international...

• List of Bank Identification Numbers
• Routing transit number
Routing transit number
A routing transit number is a nine digit bank code, used in the United States, which appears on the bottom of negotiable instruments such as checks identifying the financial institution on which it was drawn...