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Arthur Ernest Bishop
was a noted Australian engineer and inventor, and was born in Sydney
Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...
, New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...
Bishop demonstrated highly innovative capabilities during the Second World War relating to overcoming problems of instability of aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...
tail-wheel landing gear
Landing Gear is Devin the Dude's fifth studio album. It was released on October 7, 2008. It was his first studio album since signing with the label Razor & Tie. It features a high-profile guest appearance from Snoop Dogg. As of October 30, 2008, the album has sold 18,906 copies.-Track...
during take-off and landing, and was awarded license fees for his inventions. These were significant and partly as a result, he was able in 1954 to move to Detroit, Michigan
Michigan is a U.S. state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake"....
, USA, with ideas and patents to improve steering systems for automobiles, and for the next two decades introduced improvements into various vehicles around the world mainly in aspects of hydraulically-powered and variable-ratio steering
Steering is the term applied to the collection of components, linkages, etc. which will allow a vessel or vehicle to follow the desired course...
. In order to license the ideas or supply purpose-built manufacturing equipment, he developed both lower-cost methods for mass production, while also giving improvements to steering feel and vehicle response. By the 1970's he had returned to Australia as a base, and had developed a variable-ratio rack and pinion
A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. A circular gear called "the pinion" engages teeth on a linear "gear" bar called "the rack"; rotational motion applied to the pinion causes the rack to move, thereby...
using a normal pinion, regarded at the time by gearing experts as being theoretically impossible, and also a low-cost forging method for the variable rack to eliminate machining of the teeth. His organisation grew to include over 200 personnel world-wide, and he created over 300 patents.
As well as receiving a number of Australian awards, in 2003 he was elected as the first Australian Fellow of the International Society of Automotive Engineers.
He died in 2006.