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Ardalan

Ardalan

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Ardalan or (1169-1867) was the name of a vassaldom in north-western Persia (Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

) during Qajar period.

Ardalan vassaldom was established in an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan
Kurdistan Province
Kurdistan Province or Kordestan Province or Kurdestan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, not to be confused with the greater geographical area of Iranian Kurdistan. The province of Kurdistan is 28,817 km² in area which encompasses just one-fourth of the Kurdish inhabited areas of Iran or...

 from medieval period up to mid 19th century. Ardalan is also the name of the ruling family of that vassaldom. Their center was in the city of Sanandaj
Sanandaj
Sanandaj , also Romanized as Senneh and Sinneh) is a city in and the capital of Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 311,446, in 81,380 families....

 (or Sanandaj or Senna). Ardalan was mainly composed of the Kurdish
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

 tribe of Ardalan of present day north-western Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, now dispersed in and around the city of Sanandaj. The ruling family of this tribe claimed descent from Medes
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

.

History


According to Sharaf al-Din Bitlisi, the renowned Kurdish
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

 historian, the earliest known leader of the tribe, Bawa Ardalan, was a descendant of "Ahmad b. Marwan", who ruled in Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

. He settled down among the Gorans in Kurdistan and toward the end of the Mongol period took over the Şare Zur
Sharazor
Sharazor was the name of a Sassanid district , Kurdish kingdom, Ottoman vilayet and finally a Sanjak of Mosul vilayet situated to the southern and eastern part of what is now known as Iraqi Kurdistan....

, where he established himself as an absolute ruler.
It is not known when the Ardalans established themselves in Sinne, but it was probably in the 14th century.
The territories of Zardiawa (Karadagh), Khanaqin
Khanaqin
Khanaqin is a city in Iraq. It is located at 34.3°N, 45.4°E in the Diyala Governorate, near the Iranian border on a tributary of the Diyala River...

, Kirkuk
Kirkuk
Kirkuk is a city in Iraq and the capital of Kirkuk Governorate.It is located in the Iraqi governorate of Kirkuk, north of the capital, Baghdad...

, and Kifri
Kifri
Kifri is a town in Iraq and a seat of Kifri District. The district population was estimated at 42,010 in 2003 . Kurds form the majority of the population both in this town and in the District, which is currently part of Diyala Governorate...

, which were already the homelands of the Goran-Kurds, all belonged to this principality. The capital city of the principality was first in Zalm Sharazor
Sharazor
Sharazor was the name of a Sassanid district , Kurdish kingdom, Ottoman vilayet and finally a Sanjak of Mosul vilayet situated to the southern and eastern part of what is now known as Iraqi Kurdistan....

, but was moved to Sinne later on.
The Ardalan state was completely independent until it was incorporated into Safavid Empire as a semi-autonomous frontier province. During the Safavid period, the Ardalans were deeply involved in the struggles between the Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ian and Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 empires and, whenever it suited them, they shifted their allegiance to the Ottoman state, thus when one of their leaders Ambez Miran supported the Ottomans agains the Iranians he was expelled and left Ardalan to live in Soran
Soran
m²Soran may refer to:Places*Soran Emirate, a Kurdish principality*Soran District, a region within the Kurdish Autonomous Region in northern Iraq*Soran, Iraq, the seat of the district government, adjacent to DiyanaPeople*Soran clan, Kurdish clan...

. Moreover, it is believed that people who carry the Surname Miran [prince] in Northern Erbil are the sons of Ambez, mainy founded in Shaqlawa and few other places.
Ardalans reigned from Safavid period to mid nineteenth century. The Qajar monarch Nasser-al-Din Shah(1848-1896) was determined to undermine the power and influence of Ardalans. He first interfered in the affairs of the province in 1851. Then in 1867, he terminated Ardalan's special status as a semi-autonomous frontier province and named his own uncle, Farhad Mirza Mo'tamad-al-Dawla, as the governor of what has become simply the province of Kordistan, thus putting an end to the Ardalan Dynasty.
In 1941, the Ardalans participated in the first Kurdish
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

 revolt in Iran during the World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. However, they were not involved in the establishment of the Republic of Mahabad
Republic of Mahabad
The Republic of Mahabad , officially known as Republic of Kurdistan and established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Kurdish government that sought Kurdish autonomy within the limits of the Iranian state. The capital was the city of Mahabad in northwestern Iran...

 in 1946, and the territory of that short-lived autonomic state did not include Sinne.
After The end of the Ardalan Dynasty, the royal family continued having a great geographical and political influence in Kordestan (and Iran), ultimately since they still were landlords and furthermore retained one of the few-highest Noble family rankings in Iran. This outcome was moreover characteristic for most of the ruling families of the former vassaldom-state system of Iran. Today the family is mostly known for being a noble family, thus in means of a symbolic and prestigious value (as for most noble families today) resting on the legacy of formerly have been a royal family.

Gorani Culture in Ardalan


Because the official religion of Ardalan principality was Yarsan (Kakayi or Ahl-e Haqq
Ahl-e Haqq
The Ahl-e Haqq or Yârsân , are members of a religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran. The total number of members is estimated at around 1,000,000, primarily found in western Iran and Iraq, mostly ethnic Kurds and Laks, though there are also smaller groups of Luri,...

, or 'People of the Spirit'), and because this religion was tied to the Gorani
Gorani
Gorani may refer to:In culture:* Gorani people, a Balkan ethnic groupIn geography:* Gorani, a village in Uda Commune, Argeş County, Romania* Gorani, a village in Odăile Commune, Buzău County, Romania...

 (Hewrami) dialect, it came to be used for poetry, next to Persian, in Ardalan principality.

Via the Yarsan religious teachings, the Gorani language was spread intensively, especially among the poor segments of the population. ln addition, many of the intellectual Kurds living outside the Gorani dialect territories adopted next to Persian, also Gorani for their poetry. The most famous poets of the Yarsan down through the centuries wrote solely in Gorani language. These include Baba Yadegar(born in Sharazour in the eighth century), Yal-Bagi Jaff (1493-1554), and Khan Almas Khani Kandoolei (1662-1728).
Many other famous Kurdish-Muslim poets have, down the centuries, written in Gorani, such as Mala Pareshani Dinawari (still living in 1398/99). He was a Shiite Muslim who was much opposed to the Yarsan beliefs and the Dervishes. Other poets such as Saidi Hawrami (1784-1842), and Mala Abdul-Rahimi Mawlawi Tavgozi (1806-1882) are also worthy of mention.

The blossoming of literature in the Ardalan principality was accompanied by an intense cultivation of music. Music is an essential element of the cultural tradition of the Yarsan religious community. In connection with this, it is interesting that the Kurds in East and South Kurdistan, where to the Gorani culture was spread, call songs 'Gorani'.

List of Rulers of Ardalan State

  1. Bawa Ardalan (14th century)
  2. Timur Khan Ardalan (During the reign of Shah Tahmasp I).
  3. Helo (eagle) Khan Erdelan, 1586 well known for his conquests and independence, sacked Baghdad among others
  4. Khan Ahmad Khan (During the reign of Shah Abbas I)
  5. Soleiman Khan (During the reign of Shah Safi 1629-1642) (He rebuilt the Senna(Sinne) Dij or "the Castle of Senna")http://www.irancaravan.com/DTown.htm
  6. Sobhanverdi Khan (During the reign of Nader Shah
    Nader Shah
    Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

    )
  7. Ahmad Khan (Son of Sobhanverdi Khan) (He was made governor of a region stretching all the way from Hamadan
    Hamadan
    -Culture:Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.Handicrafts: Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and beautiful carpets....

     to Mosul
    Mosul
    Mosul , is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial...

    )
  8. Khosrow Khan Bozorg (1754-1788)
  9. Aman-Allah Khan Bozorg (1799-1825), was the last important Ardalan ruler (wali).