Al ash-Sheikh

Al ash-Sheikh

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The Al ash-SheikhIt is incorrect to use the term the Al ash-Sheikh family as the word Al already means family. See Etymology. It would, in theory, be correct to use the term House of the Sheikh, but, unlike House of Saud
House of Saud
The House of Saud , also called the Al Saud, is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia and one of the wealthiest and most powerful dynasties in the world. The family holds thousands of members...

, in practice this is rarely done.
(also transliterated in a number of other ways, including Al ash-Shaykh, Al ash-Shaikh, Al al-Shaykh, or Al-Shaykh Also, Al al-Sheikh, Al al-Shaikh, Al-Sheikh, Al-Shaikh, Al-Ashaykh, Al-Ashaikh, or Al-Asheikh, and the word Al in any of these transliterations can be renderred as Aal.) is Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

's leading religious family. They are the descendants of Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th century Sunni Muslim reformer. Within Saudi Arabia, the family is second in prestige only to the Saudi royal family, the Al Saud
House of Saud
The House of Saud , also called the Al Saud, is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia and one of the wealthiest and most powerful dynasties in the world. The family holds thousands of members...

, with whom they formed a power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago. The arrangement, which persists to this day, is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and the Al ash-Sheikh supporting the Al Saud's political authority.

Although the Al ash-Sheikh's domination of the religious establishment has diminished in recent decades, they still hold most of the important religious posts in Saudi Arabia, and are closely linked to the Al Saud by a high degree of intermarriage. Because of the Al ash Sheikh's religious-moral authority, the arrangement between the two families remains crucial in maintaining the Saudi royal family's legitimacy to rule the country.

Etymology


The Arabic name Al ash-Sheikh (آل الشيخ) (which is transliterated in a number of ways) translates into English as family of the Sheikh or House of the Sheikh. The word Al, in conjunction the name of an ancestor, means family of or House of. The term ash-Sheikh refers to the Islamic religious reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the family's ancestor. He was known as the Sheikh
Sheikh
Not to be confused with sikhSheikh — also spelled Sheik or Shaikh, or transliterated as Shaykh — is an honorific in the Arabic language that literally means "elder" and carries the meaning "leader and/or governor"...

, a term of respect for a noted elder, teacher or religious leader.

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab


The Al ash-Sheikh are the descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th century Sunni Muslim reformer. Ibn Abd al-Wahhab was born in 1703 in the Nejd. He became influenced by the stringent teachings of Ibn Taymiya
Ibn Taymiya
Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah , full name: Taqī ad-Dīn Abu 'l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd as-Salām Ibn Taymiya al-Ḥarrānī , was an Islamic scholar , theologian and logician born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. He lived during the troubled times of...

, a medieval jurist of the conservative Hanbali
Hanbali
The Hanbali school is one the schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. The jurisprudence school traces back to Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal but was institutionalized by his students. Hanbali jurisprudence is considered very strict and conservative, especially regarding questions of dogma...

 school of jurisprudence. As a consequence, he began to preach a simple, puritanical form of Islam that was hostile to religious innovations and critical of the moral laxity he claimed to see in his contemporaries. He attracted support, and his followers became known as Muwahhidun (translated in English as unitarians) because of his emphasis on the oneness of God. Outside Arabia they became known as Wahhabis.

In the 1740s, he moved to Al-Diriyyah in Nejd, where Muhammad ibn Saud, founder of the Al Saud dynasty
House of Saud
The House of Saud , also called the Al Saud, is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia and one of the wealthiest and most powerful dynasties in the world. The family holds thousands of members...

, was the local ruler. Muhammad ibn Saud decided to support Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's cause, and the combination of the religious zeal inspired by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's teachings and the Al Saud's military and political leadership initiated a period of conquest and expansion. Most of central Arabia and the Hejaz
Hejaz
al-Hejaz, also Hijaz is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. Defined primarily by its western border on the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina...

 was brought under the Al Saud's rule in what became known as the "First Saudi State
First Saudi State
The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 when imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Prince Muhammad ibn Saud formed an alliance to establish a religious & political sovereignty determined to cleanse the Arabian Peninsula of heretical practices and deviations from orthodox Islam...

". The religious establishment, led by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab and his family, benefitted from the expansion in an unprecedented manner, enjoying prestige and influence and sharing the treasury with the Al Saud. After his death in 1791, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's legacy was carried on by his many descendants, who continued to hold positions of religious authority.

Pact with the Al Saud



Muhammad ibn Saud and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab had concluded a formal agreement in 1744: according to one source, Muhammad ibn Saud had declared when they first met,
"This oasis is yours, do not fear your enemies. By the name of God, if all Nejd was summoned to throw you out, we will never agree to expel you." Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab replied, "You are the settlement's chief and wise man. I want you to grant me an oath that you will perform jihad
Jihad
Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

 (holy war) against the unbelievers. In return you will be imam, leader of the Muslim community and I will be leader in religious matters".


Ibn Saud accordingly gave his oath. The descendants of Muhammad ibn Saud, the Al Saud, continued to be the political leaders of the Saudi state in central Arabia through the 19th and into the 20th centuries, and eventually created the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. The descendants of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, on the other hand, have historically led the ulema
Ulema
Ulama , also spelt ulema, refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law...

, the body of Islamic religious leaders and scholars, and dominated the Saudi state's clerical institutions.

The agreement between Ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad ibn Saud of 1744 became a "mutual support pact" and power-sharing arrangement between the Al Saud and the Al ash-Sheikh, which has remained in place for nearly 300 years. The pact between the two families, which persists to this day, is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Wahhabi doctrine. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule. In fact, each legitimizes the other. This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today.

The 19th and early 20th centuries



Following Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s death, his son, Abd Allah ibn Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab, became leader of the Saudi religious establishment. He endorsed further Al Saud expansion and wrote a number of tracts against Shia belief.

By the early 19th century, the Saudi conquests had attracted the hostile attention of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

. Ottoman forces from Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 were sent to Arabia in 1811 and, by 1818, had destroyed the Al Saud's state. The defeat of the Al Saud was also a disaster for the Al ash-Sheikh. The Ottomans executed many of the family in 1818 including Sulayman ibn Abd Allah, a grandson of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab and an influential author of treatises. A whole branch of the family was exiled to Egypt and never returned. This had a major impact on the Saudi religious establishment and left it with no important sources of religious authority for most of the nineteenth century.
Nevertheless, the family survived in Nejd. When the Al Saud re-established themselves with a much smaller so-called "Second Saudi State
Second Saudi State
The Second Saudi State existed during the 19th century when the rule of the House of Saud was restored to central and eastern Arabia after having previously been brought down by an Ottoman-Egyptian invasion in 1818...

" from 1824, Abd al-Rahman ibn Hasan and, subsequently, Abd al-Latif ibn Abd al-Rahman, both descendants of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, became the leaders of the Saudi religious establishment. However, the destruction of the first Saudi state and the exile or execution of most of the Al ash-Sheikh religious scholars of significance in 1818 meant that the religious establishment lost much of its prestige, influence and material wealth: their eminence in the 18th century was in sharp contrast with their decline in the 19th century.

For much of the rest of the century, the Al Saud struggled for control of central Arabia with their rivals, the Al Rashid of Ha'il
Ha'il
Ha'il , also spelled Hail, Ha'yel, or Hayil, is an oasis city in Nejd in northwestern Saudi Arabia. It is the capital of the Ha'il Province. The city has a population of 356,876 according to Ha'il Province....

. Eventually, they were defeated in 1891; the Saudi state was again destroyed and the Al Saud went into exile. The ulema was led, at the time, by another descendant of Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Abd Allah bin Abd al-Latif. Rather than going into exile after the defeat, he decided to side with the Al-Rashid and moved to Ha'il, indicating that preservation of the Wahhabi cause took precedence over the family compact with the Al Saud. But the Al Saud returned from exile in 1902 under the leadership of Abdul Aziz Al Saud
Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia
King Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia was the first monarch of the Third Saudi State known as Saudi Arabia. He was commonly referred to as Ibn Saud....

 (later Saudi Arabia's first King) and re-established the Saudi state around Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

. Abd Allah bin Abd al-Latif then changed sides again and re-joined the Al Saud, a change of heart which was accepted by Abdul Aziz.

On the eve of Abdul Aziz's return from exile, the religious establishment had limited authority and influence after the decline in its fortunes of the 19th century. However, he recognized that he could use them to legitimize and help consolidate any conquests he made. He therefore cemented the relationship with the Al ash-Sheikh by preferential treatment and matrimonial links, for example, by marrying the daughter of Abd Allah bin Abd al-Latif. With the support of the Al ash-Sheikh and the other Wahhabi ulema, Abdul Aziz went on to conquer the rest of the territory that was to become Saudi Arabia and declared the formation of the new kingdom in 1932. Even after his conquests were complete, Abdul Aziz continued to favor the ulema and especially the Al ash-Sheikh. Their support remained essential for the legitimization of his regime and the process of integration of the conquered territories through religion, education and law. The Al ash-Sheikh were given prestige, privileges, influence and key positions in the government.

Role in modern Saudi Arabia


The Al ash-Sheikh's position as leader of the ulema is significant because of the central role of religion in Saudi society. It has been said that Islam is more than a religion, it is a way of life in Saudi Arabia, and, as a result, the influence of the ulema is all-pervasive. Specifically, Saudi Arabia is almost unique in giving the ulema a direct involvement in government, the only other example being Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. Not only is the succession to the throne subject to the approval of the ulema, but so are all new laws (royal decrees). The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, have a significant role in the judicial and education systems and a monopoly of authority in the sphere of religious and social morals.

Believed to number several hundred individuals currently, the Al ash-Sheikh has continued to produce religious leaders who have exercised great influence on government decision-making. The Al ash-Sheikh ulema have dominated key state institutions such as the Council of Senior Ulema and the Higher Council of Qadis (Judges). Traditionally the most senior religious office, the Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
The title of Grand Mufti refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni or Ibadi Muslim country. The Grand Mufti issues legal opinions and edicts, fatwā, on interpretations of Islamic law for private clients or to assist judges in deciding cases...

, was filled by a member of the family, and, in fact, there has only ever been one Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia who was not an Al ash-Sheikh. Other members of the family serve in important military and civilian capacities, as well as serving as judges and other religious figures.

However, the Al ash-Sheikh's domination of the ulema has diminished somewhat in recent decades. This is in part because an increase in the number of students in the seminaries has led to an influx from other families, and the Al ash-Sheikh have not produced offspring in sufficient numbers to maintain a numerical predominance. Furthermore, in 1969, King Faisal
Faisal of Saudi Arabia
Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. As king, he is credited with rescuing the country's finances and implementing a policy of modernization and reform, while his main foreign policy themes were pan-Islamic Nationalism, anti-Communism, and pro-Palestinian...

 abolished the office of Grand Mufti and replaced it with a ministry of justice. The minister appointed was deliberately not an Al ash-Sheikh, although subsequent ministers have been. Members of the family have held other ministerial positions but the family's representation in the cabinet dropped from three to two members in 2003 (the Minister of Justice and Minister of Islamic Affairs) and currently stands at one minister, Saleh bin Abdulaziz Al-ash Sheikh, Minister of Islamic Affairs following King Abdullah's
Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, is the King of Saudi Arabia. He succeeded to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother, King Fahd. When Crown Prince, he governed Saudi Arabia as regent from 1998 to 2005...

 ministerial changes of 2009.

Nevertheless, the Al ash-Sheikh are still Saudi Arabia's leading religious family and second in prestige only to the royal family. The family continue to hold many of the most important religious posts in Saudi Arabia: for example, the current Grand Mufti (the position having been restored in 1993) is a member of the family, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh
Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh
Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Lateef Aal ash-Shaikh is a Muslim scholar and the current Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia.-Biography:...

. The family's position is derived not only from their role in the ulema but also from being closely linked to the Al Saud by a high degree of intermarriage. This began in the eighteenth century and has continued in modern times: King Faisal's mother was Tarfa bint Abdullah, daughter of Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh. The family alliance with the Al ash-Sheikh is still crucial to the Al Saud in maintaining their legitimacy. At the same time, the Al ash-Sheikh remain strong supporters of the continued rule of the Al Saud.

Notable members

  • Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh
    Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh
    Sheikh Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh was a leading Sunni Muslim scholar in Saudi Arabia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and was the grandfather of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia.-Background:...

     (1848-1921), Head of Saudi religious establishment during the early years of Ibn Saud
    Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia
    King Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia was the first monarch of the Third Saudi State known as Saudi Arabia. He was commonly referred to as Ibn Saud....


  • Abd Allah ibn Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab (1752-1826), Head of Saudi religious establishment after Ibn Abd al-Wahhab died.
  • Abd al-Latif ibn Abd al-Rahman (1810-1876), Head of Saudi religious establishment in 1860s and early 1870s
  • Abd al-Rahman ibn Hasan (1780-1869), Head of Saudi religious establishment in the Second Saudi State
    Second Saudi State
    The Second Saudi State existed during the 19th century when the rule of the House of Saud was restored to central and eastern Arabia after having previously been brought down by an Ottoman-Egyptian invasion in 1818...


  • Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh
    Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh
    Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Lateef Aal ash-Shaikh is a Muslim scholar and the current Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia.-Biography:...

    , current Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia
  • Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh
    Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh
    Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh is the current Chairman of the Majlis ash-Shura of Saudi Arabia, and was, until 2009, the country's Minister of Justice.-Background and education:...

    , Saudi Minister of Justice (1993-2009)
  • Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh
    Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh
    Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh was a leading Sunni Muslim scholar in Saudi Arabia and Minister of Justice between 1975 and 1990.-Background:...

    , Saudi Minister of Justice (1975-1990)
  • Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792), founder of the Wahhabi movement
  • Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh
    Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh
    Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh was the Grand Mufti, or highest religious authority, in Saudi Arabia from 1953 to his death in 1969.-Background:...

     (1893-1969), Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to 1969
  • Saleh bin Abdul-Aziz Al ash-Sheikh
    Saleh bin Abdul-Aziz Al ash-Sheikh
    Saleh bin Abdul-Aziz Al ash-Sheikh is the current Minister of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Call and Guidance.-Background and career:Saleh bin Abdul-Aziz Al ash-Sheikh is a member of a noted family of Saudi religious scholars, the Al ash-Sheikh. He has been Minister of Islamic Affairs, Endowments,...

    , current Saudi Minister of Islamic Affairs since 1996.
  • Sulayman ibn Abd Allah (1780-1818), influential author of treatises