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Afrika Korps

Afrika Korps

Overview
The German Africa Corps , or the Afrika Korps as it was popularly called, was the German expeditionary force
Expeditionary warfare
Expeditionary warfare is used to describe the organization of a state's military to fight abroad, especially when deployed to fight away from its established bases at home or abroad. Expeditionary forces were in part the antecedent of the modern concept of Rapid Deployment Forces...

 in Libya
Libya
Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

 and Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

 during the North African Campaign
North African campaign
During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts and in Morocco and Algeria and Tunisia .The campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers, many of whom had...

 of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The reputation of the Afrika Korps is synonymous with that of its first commander Erwin Rommel
Erwin Rommel
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel , popularly known as the Desert Fox , was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He won the respect of both his own troops and the enemies he fought....

, who later commanded the Panzer Army Africa
Panzer Army Africa
As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the now larger Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command structure,...

 which evolved into the German-Italian Panzer Army (Deutsch-Italienische Panzerarmee) and Army Group Africa, all of which Afrika Korps was a distinct and principal component.
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Encyclopedia
The German Africa Corps , or the Afrika Korps as it was popularly called, was the German expeditionary force
Expeditionary warfare
Expeditionary warfare is used to describe the organization of a state's military to fight abroad, especially when deployed to fight away from its established bases at home or abroad. Expeditionary forces were in part the antecedent of the modern concept of Rapid Deployment Forces...

 in Libya
Libya
Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

 and Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

 during the North African Campaign
North African campaign
During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts and in Morocco and Algeria and Tunisia .The campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers, many of whom had...

 of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The reputation of the Afrika Korps is synonymous with that of its first commander Erwin Rommel
Erwin Rommel
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel , popularly known as the Desert Fox , was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He won the respect of both his own troops and the enemies he fought....

, who later commanded the Panzer Army Africa
Panzer Army Africa
As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the now larger Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command structure,...

 which evolved into the German-Italian Panzer Army (Deutsch-Italienische Panzerarmee) and Army Group Africa, all of which Afrika Korps was a distinct and principal component. Throughout the North African campaign
North African campaign
During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts and in Morocco and Algeria and Tunisia .The campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers, many of whom had...

, the Afrika Korps fought against Allied forces until its surrender in May 1943.

Organization


The Afrika Korps was derived and formed upon Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

's personal choice of Erwin Rommel
Erwin Rommel
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel , popularly known as the Desert Fox , was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He won the respect of both his own troops and the enemies he fought....

 to its command on 12 February 1941 (Rommel himself landed on African soil in Libya on 14 February 1941 to begin leading his forces that would be brought into action).
The German Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht was part of the command structure of the armed forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.- Genesis :...

, OKW) and Army High Command or (Oberkommando des Heeres
Oberkommando des Heeres
The Oberkommando des Heeres was Nazi Germany's High Command of the Army from 1936 to 1945. The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht commanded OKH only in theory...

, OKH) had decided to send a "blocking force" (Sperrverband) to Libya
Libya
Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

 to support the Italian army. The Italian army group had been routed by Commonwealth Force's counter-offensive led by the British Eighth Army, in Operation Compass
Operation Compass
Operation Compass was the first major Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign during World War II. British and Commonwealth forces attacked Italian forces in western Egypt and eastern Libya in December 1940 to February 1941. The attack was a complete success...

. The German "blocking force", commanded by Rommel, at first consisted of only the 5./leichte "Afrika" Panzer
Panzer
A Panzer is a German language word that, when used as a noun, means "tank". When it is used as an adjective, it means either tank or "armoured" .- Etymology :...

 Regiment
Regiment
A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...

, which was quickly cobbled together from the second regiment of the 3./Panzer Division and various other small units attached for water treatment and medical care. These elements were organized into the 5th Light Division when they arrived in Africa from 10 February – 12 March 1941. In late April and into May, the 5th Light Division was joined by transference of the various elements constituting the 15th Panzer Division from Italy, though it did not completely arrive until after Rommel had made a counter-offensive and re-taken most of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica is the eastern coastal region of Libya.Also known as Pentapolis in antiquity, it was part of the Creta et Cyrenaica province during the Roman period, later divided in Libia Pentapolis and Libia Sicca...

 and then subsequently gone back over to the defensive. At this time, the Afrikakorps consisted of the two divisions plus various smaller supporting units, and was officially subordinated to the Italian chain of command in Africa (though Rommel had conducted his offensive without any authorization).

On 15 August 1941, the German 5./leichte "Afrika" Division was redesignated 21st Panzer Division
German 21st Panzer Division
The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the battles of the North African Campaign from 1941–1943 during World War II when it was one of the two armoured divisions making up the Afrika Korps.-Origins:...

 (commonly written as 21./PD), still attached to the enlarged entity still known as the Afrikakorps.

During the summer of 1941, the OKW and OKH invested more command structure in Africa by creating a new headquarters called Panzer Group Africa (Panzergruppe Afrika). On 15 August, Panzer Group Africa was activated with Rommel in command, and command of the Afrikakorps was turned over to Ludwig Crüwell
Ludwig Crüwell
Ludwig Crüwell , was a German general known for his involvement with the Afrika Korps. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves . The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or...

. The Panzer Group controlled the Afrikakorps plus some additional German units that were sent to Africa, as well as two corps of Italian units. (A German "group" was approximately the equivalent of an army
Army
An army An army An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine), in the broadest sense, is the land-based military of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the air force via means of aviation corps...

 in other militaries, and in fact, Panzer Group Africa was redesignated as Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika) on 30 January 1942.)

After the defeat at El Alamein
El Alamein
El Alamein is a town in the northern Matrouh Governorate of Egypt. Located on the Mediterranean Sea, it lies west of Alexandria and northwest of Cairo. As of 2007, it has a local population of 7,397 inhabitants.- Climate :...

 and the Allied invasion in Morocco and Algeria Operation Torch
Operation Torch
Operation Torch was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started on 8 November 1942....

, the OKW once more upgraded its presence in Africa by creating the XC Army Corps in Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

 on 19 November 1942, and then creating a new 5th Panzer Army
German Fifth Panzer Army
The 5th Panzer Army, also known as Panzer Group West and Panzer Group Eberbach was a panzer army which saw action in the Western front and North Africa...

 headquarters there as well on 8 December, under the command of Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim
Hans-Jürgen von Arnim
Hans-Jürgen Bernhard Theodor von Arnim was a German Generaloberst who served during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross...

.

On February 23, 1943, Panzer Army Africa—now called the German-Italian Panzer Army—was redesignated as the Italian 1st Army
Italian First Army
The Italian First Army was an Italian army formation, in World War I, facing Austro-Hungarian and German forces, and in World War II, fighting on the North African front.-World War I:...

 and put under the command of Italian general Giovanni Messe
Giovanni Messe
Giovanni Messe was an Italian general, politician, and Field Marshal . He is considered by many to have been the best Italian general of the Second World War.-Early life and career:Born in Mesagne, Apulia, Giovanni Messe pursued a military career in 1901...

, while Rommel was placed in command of a new Army Group Africa (Heeresgruppe Afrika), created to control both the Italian 1st Army and the 5th Panzer Army. The remnants of the Afrikakorps and other surviving units of the 1st Italian Army retreated into Tunisia. Command of the Army Group was turned over to von Arnim in March. On 13 May, remnants of the Afrikakorps surrendered, along with all other remaining Axis forces in North Africa.

Composition and terminology


"Afrika Korps" is derived from the original German name properly written as one word. Strictly speaking, the term refers to the original formation which, although not dissolved, became part of the ever-expanding German and Italian presence in North Africa for its February 1941–May 1943 role in the North African Campaign. However, it is sometimes used by the news media and veteran Allied soldiers as a name for all the German units in North Africa. Some notable attached units include the 15th Panzer Division, 21st Panzer Division, Afrika zbV (zur besonderen Verwendung, "special purpose") Division, which was created as an infantry
Infantry
Infantrymen are soldiers who are specifically trained for the role of fighting on foot to engage the enemy face to face and have historically borne the brunt of the casualties of combat in wars. As the oldest branch of combat arms, they are the backbone of armies...

 division and slowly upgraded to a fully motorized division, and then redesignated as the 90th Light Afrika Division; the 164th Light Afrika Division, the 999 Light "Afrika" Division, also the 334th Infantry division; and the Luftwaffenjäger-Brigade 1 or Fallschirmjäger-Ramcke Brigade Ramcke Parachute Brigade
Ramcke Parachute Brigade
Fallschirmjäger-Brigade AfrikaFallschirmjäger-Brigade RamckeLuftwaffen-Jäger-Brigade 1The Fallschirmjäger-Brigade Ramcke was an elite German Luftwaffe Fallschirmjäger Brigade which saw action in the Mediterranean Theatre during World War II.-History:Following the costly success of Operation...

 (named after its commander Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke
Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke
Hermann-Bernhard "Gerhard" Ramcke was a German general. He was a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Swords, Oak Leaves, and Diamonds, one of only 27 people in the German military so decorated...

). There were also eight Italian divisions (out of the 10 Italian Divisions in North Africa) under Rommel's command in Panzer Army Afrika, including two armored divisions, two motorized divisions, three infantry divisions, and the Folgore
Folgore Parachute Brigade
The Folgore Parachute Brigade is the largest unit of paratroopers of the Italian Army; a second smaller unit is the 4th Alpini Parachutist Regiment. The name Folgore is Italian for lightning....

 parachute division. The army was supported by a number of smaller units from both the German and Italian armed forces.

The designation "Light" (German: Leicht) did not refer to a standardized table of organization and equipment (TOE) for the various German divisions that bore that designation.

German unit organizations were based on tables of organization, (Kriegsstärkenachweisungen, or KStN). Every unit in the German Army raised had one, and all orders raising units indicated the corresponding KStN number and date which applied to them. For instance, the 5./leichte "Afrika" or 5th Light "Africa" had an organizational structure that was missing specific elements to make it a complete Panzer "Division", as did its late April to May 1941 arriving "full complement" partner division in Africa, the 15./Panzer Division. The 5./le. "Africa" Division eventually became at least partially expanded into the 21./PD or 21st Panzer Division. It was given German unit elements that were already on the ground in North Africa and some replacement equipment to meet the prescribed full Panzer Division KStN constraints (except for the Motorcycle Battalion component, which was never complete) and then renamed in August 1941. As the entire Afrikakorps organization was restructured and even renamed in August 1941, the nomenclature of Afrikakorps lasted less than six months. The famous force, with the short-lived name Afrikakorps, became a major German component of Panzer Army Africa; Panzerarmee Afrika, which evolved into the German-Italian Panzer Army (Deutsch-Italienische Panzerarmee) and then to Army Group Africa (Heeresgruppe Afrika) in the 27 months of the campaign for this force.

Additional German forces were sent to Africa and became components of the Panzer Army Africa, Panzerarmee Afrika. Examples such as the 164./le. "Africa" or 164th Light Afrika Division was at first only a partially-motorized infantry division, and actually never had any tanks at all, only armored cars and reconnaissance vehicles. Various German divisions in Africa occasionally reorganized or re-equipped without a change of name, or conversely were redesignated with a new name without any substantial reorganization. None of the German Armies actually fielded for service in North Africa completely met the service KStNs directed for their completion because of battle losses, sinkings across the Mediterranenan while in transit and the tremendous wear on the vehicles.

Ramcke Brigade


The Luftwaffenjäger-Brigade 1, known more commonly as the Ramcke Parachute Brigade
Ramcke Parachute Brigade
Fallschirmjäger-Brigade AfrikaFallschirmjäger-Brigade RamckeLuftwaffen-Jäger-Brigade 1The Fallschirmjäger-Brigade Ramcke was an elite German Luftwaffe Fallschirmjäger Brigade which saw action in the Mediterranean Theatre during World War II.-History:Following the costly success of Operation...

, worked alongside the Afrika Korps after Operation Hercules (the planned invasion of Malta
Malta
Malta , officially known as the Republic of Malta , is a Southern European country consisting of an archipelago situated in the centre of the Mediterranean, south of Sicily, east of Tunisia and north of Libya, with Gibraltar to the west and Alexandria to the east.Malta covers just over in...

) was cancelled and the Brigade was subsequently re-deployed to Germany.

Internment in Mississippi


Thousands of Korps POWs were held in camps at Camp Shelby
Camp Shelby
Camp Shelby is a military post whose North Gate begins at the southern boundary of Hattiesburg, Mississippi, on United States Highway 49. It is the largest state owned training site in the nation. During wartime, the camp's mission is to serve as a major, independent mobilization station of the...

 in Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

 after their capture.

Resurrection of units


Certain divisions were resurrected in Europe after the cessation of fighting in Tunisia:
  • 15./Panzer Division
  • 21./Panzer Division (in France)
  • Hermann Göring Panzer Division
    Fallschirm-Panzer Division 1 Hermann Göring
    The Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1. Hermann Göring was an élite German Luftwaffe armoured division. The HG saw action in North Africa, Sicily, Italy and on the Eastern front...

     (in Sicily and Italy)

Afrika Korps marching songs


1st song: Panzer rollen in Afrika vor / Heiß über Afrikas Boden

Heiß über Afrikas Boden die Sonne glüht.
Unsere Panzermotoren singen ihr Lied!
Deutsche Panzer im Sonnenbrand,
Stehen zum Kampf gegen England
Es rasseln die Ketten, es dröhnt der Motor,
Panzer rollen in Afrika vor!


Translation
The sun shines hot over Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

n ground.
Our panzer
Panzer
A Panzer is a German language word that, when used as a noun, means "tank". When it is used as an adjective, it means either tank or "armoured" .- Etymology :...

 engines are singing their song!
German panzers in the blazing sun,
As they stand ready for battle against England.
The tracks rattle, the engine roars,
Panzers rolling forwards in Africa.


2nd Song: "Unser Rommel" ("Our Rommel")

1.
Wir sind das deutsche Afrikakorps
Des Führers verwegene Truppe
Wir stürmen wie die Teufel hervor
Versalzen dem Tommy die Suppe
Wir fürchten nicht Hitze und Wüstensand
Wir trotzen dem Durst und dem Sonnenbrand
Marschieren beim Takt unserer Trommel
Vorwärts, vorwärts
|:Vorwärts mit unserem Rommel!:|


Translation of verse 1
We are the German Africa Korps
The Führer
Führer
Führer , alternatively spelled Fuehrer in both English and German when the umlaut is not available, is a German title meaning leader or guide now most associated with Adolf Hitler, who modelled it on Benito Mussolini's title il Duce, as well as with Georg von Schönerer, whose followers also...

's daring troops
We attack like the Devil
Make things hot for the Tommys
We fear neither heat nor desert sand
We brave the thirst and the blazing sun
Marching to the beat of our drum
Forwards, forwards
|:Forwards with our Rommel!:|


2.
Die Briten fürchten uns wie die Pest
Sie sitzen auf glühenden Kohlen
Wir rächen Deutsch-Ost und rächen Südwest
Das einst sie uns feige gestohlen
Sind Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 und Roosevelt auch Wut entbrannt
Wir werfen die Feinde in jedem Land
Es schlägt Generalmarsch die Trommel
Vorwärts, vorwärts
|:Vorwärts mit unserem Rommel!:|


Translation of verse 2
The British fear us like the plague
They're like cats on a hot tin roof
We're taking revenge for German East
German East Africa
German East Africa was a German colony in East Africa, which included what are now :Burundi, :Rwanda and Tanganyika . Its area was , nearly three times the size of Germany today....

 (Africa) and for South-West
German South-West Africa
German South West Africa was a colony of Germany from 1884 until 1915, when it was taken over by South Africa and administered as South West Africa, finally becoming Namibia in 1990...

 (Africa)
Which were cowardly stolen from us
Churchill and Roosevelt are getting mad
We beat the enemy in every country
The drum beats 'get ready'
Forwards, forwards
|:Forwards with our Rommel!:|


3.
Mit uns im Kampf und im Siege vereint
Marschieren Italiens Scharen
Bis einst die Sonne des Friedens uns scheint
Und wieder gen Deutschland wir fahren.
Doch wenn mich die feindliche Kugel fand
So lasset mich ruhen im Wüstensand
Und rühret noch einmal die Trommel
Vorwärts, vorwärts
|:Vorwärts mit unserem Rommel!:|


Translation of verse 3
With us united in battle and in victory
Italy's cohorts are marching
Until one day the sun of peace will shine on us
And we will return to Germany.
But if the enemy's bullet gets me
Then let me rest in the desert sand
Let the drum beat once more.
Forwards, forwards
|:Forwards with our Rommel!:|

See also


  • Army Group Africa
  • Erwin Rommel
    Erwin Rommel
    Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel , popularly known as the Desert Fox , was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He won the respect of both his own troops and the enemies he fought....

  • Panzer Army Africa
    Panzer Army Africa
    As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the now larger Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command structure,...

  • Fliegerführer Afrika
    Fliegerführer Afrika
    Fliegerführer Afrika was part of Luftflotte 2 , one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II. It acted in the Mediterranean and Libya in North African areas during 1941-1942...

  • Western Desert Campaign
    Western Desert Campaign
    The Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War, was the initial stage of the North African Campaign during the Second World War. The campaign was heavily influenced by the availability of supplies and transport. The ability of the Allied forces, operating from besieged Malta, to...

  • North African Campaign
    North African campaign
    During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts and in Morocco and Algeria and Tunisia .The campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers, many of whom had...

  • First Battle of El Alamein
    First Battle of El Alamein
    The First Battle of El Alamein was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought between Axis forces of the Panzer Army Africa commanded by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, and Allied forces The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert...

     (1–27 July 1942)
  • Second Battle of El Alamein
    Second Battle of El Alamein
    The Second Battle of El Alamein marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. The battle took place over 20 days from 23 October – 11 November 1942. The First Battle of El Alamein had stalled the Axis advance. Thereafter, Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery...

     (23 October – 4 November 1942)
  • László Almásy
    László Almásy
    László Ede Almásy de Zsadány et Törökszentmiklós was a Hungarian aristocrat, motorist, desert researcher, aviator, Scout-leader and soldier who also served as the basis for the protagonist in Michael Ondaatje's 1992 novel The English Patient and the movie based on it.-Biography:Almásy was born in...

  • Operation Salaam
    Operation Salaam
    Operation Salaam was a 1942 World War II military operation under the command of the Hungarian aristocrat and desert explorer László Almásy...

  • Hans von Luck
    Hans von Luck
    Hans-Ulrich von Luck und Witten , usually shortened to Hans von Luck, was a Colonel in the German Armored Forces during World War II. He served with the 7th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division, seeing action in Poland, France, North Africa, Italy and Russia...

  • Hans-Jürgen von Arnim
    Hans-Jürgen von Arnim
    Hans-Jürgen Bernhard Theodor von Arnim was a German Generaloberst who served during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross...

  • Panzer Division
    Panzer Division
    A panzer division was an armored division in the army and air force branches of the Wehrmacht as well as the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II....

  • Afrika Korps (game)
    Afrika Korps (game)
    Afrika Korps is a two-player wargame published by the Avalon Hill Game Company in 1963 and then re-released in 1965 and 1977. Played on a mapboard depicting the northern coastline of Africa, the game follows Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps and their Italian allies as they fought back-and-forth...

  • Heer
    German Army
    The German Army is the land component of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following the disbanding of the Wehrmacht after World War II, it was re-established in 1955 as the Bundesheer, part of the newly formed West German Bundeswehr along with the Navy and the Air Force...

  • Eastbourne Redoubt
    Eastbourne Redoubt
    Eastbourne Redoubt is a fort on what is now Royal Parade, Eastbourne, East Sussex, England.-History:The Redoubt was built between 1804 and 1810 to support the associated Martello towers in defending against the threat of an invasion by Napoleon. It has defended the Eastbourne coast for nearly 200...

    , home of General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim
    Hans-Jürgen von Arnim
    Hans-Jürgen Bernhard Theodor von Arnim was a German Generaloberst who served during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross...

    's Steyr 1500A Africa Korps Staff Car

Further reading

  • Editor Major-General Alfred Toppe Desert warfare:German experiences in World War II, written with the assistance of nine German commanders who served in North Africa, the manuscript (translated by Mr. H. Heitman) represents a collaborative attempt to determine "as many factors as possible which exerted a determining influence on desert warfare."
  • Hans von Luck
    Hans von Luck
    Hans-Ulrich von Luck und Witten , usually shortened to Hans von Luck, was a Colonel in the German Armored Forces during World War II. He served with the 7th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division, seeing action in Poland, France, North Africa, Italy and Russia...

    's memoirs Panzer Commander: The Memoirs of Colonel Hans von Luck include chapters from his time in North Africa under Rommel.

External links