Vincennes, Indiana

Vincennes, Indiana

Overview
Vincennes is a city in and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Knox County
Knox County, Indiana
As of the census of 2000, there were 39,256 people, 15,552 households, and 10,139 families residing in the county. The population density was 76 people per square mile . There were 17,305 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile...

, Indiana
Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

, United States. It is located on the Wabash River
Wabash River
The Wabash River is a river in the Midwestern United States that flows southwest from northwest Ohio near Fort Recovery across northern Indiana to southern Illinois, where it forms the Illinois-Indiana border before draining into the Ohio River, of which it is the largest northern tributary...

 in the southwestern
Southwestern Indiana
Southwestern Indiana is a 11-county region of Indiana located at the southernmost and westernmost part of the state. As of the 2000 census, the region's combined population is 465,338. Evansville, Indiana's third largest city, is the primary hub for the region as well as the primary regional hub...

 part of the state. The population was 18,701 at the 2000 census. Founded in 1732, Vincennes is the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in Indiana and one of the oldest settlements west of the Appalachians.

Inhabited for thousands of years by different cultures of indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory....

, in historic times, native groups were the Shawnee
Shawnee
The Shawnee, Shaawanwaki, Shaawanooki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki, are an Algonquian-speaking people native to North America. Historically they inhabited the areas of Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Maryland, Kentucky, Indiana, and Pennsylvania...

, Wabash
Wabash
Usually refers to or is related to the Wabash River in the Midwestern United States. Wabash may also refer to:Geographical features:* Wabash, Indiana* Wabash County, Illinois* Wabash County, Indiana* Wabash Valley Seismic ZoneOther:...

, Miami tribe
Miami tribe
The Miami are a Native American nation originally found in what is now Indiana, southwest Michigan, and western Ohio. The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the only federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States...

, among those in the Wabash confederacy.

The first European settlers were Canadians, when Vincennes was founded as part of the French colony of Louisiana
Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control from 1682–1763 and 1800–03, the area was named in honor of Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle...

.
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Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Vincennes is a city in and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Knox County
Knox County, Indiana
As of the census of 2000, there were 39,256 people, 15,552 households, and 10,139 families residing in the county. The population density was 76 people per square mile . There were 17,305 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile...

, Indiana
Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

, United States. It is located on the Wabash River
Wabash River
The Wabash River is a river in the Midwestern United States that flows southwest from northwest Ohio near Fort Recovery across northern Indiana to southern Illinois, where it forms the Illinois-Indiana border before draining into the Ohio River, of which it is the largest northern tributary...

 in the southwestern
Southwestern Indiana
Southwestern Indiana is a 11-county region of Indiana located at the southernmost and westernmost part of the state. As of the 2000 census, the region's combined population is 465,338. Evansville, Indiana's third largest city, is the primary hub for the region as well as the primary regional hub...

 part of the state. The population was 18,701 at the 2000 census. Founded in 1732, Vincennes is the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in Indiana and one of the oldest settlements west of the Appalachians.

History


Inhabited for thousands of years by different cultures of indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory....

, in historic times, native groups were the Shawnee
Shawnee
The Shawnee, Shaawanwaki, Shaawanooki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki, are an Algonquian-speaking people native to North America. Historically they inhabited the areas of Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Maryland, Kentucky, Indiana, and Pennsylvania...

, Wabash
Wabash
Usually refers to or is related to the Wabash River in the Midwestern United States. Wabash may also refer to:Geographical features:* Wabash, Indiana* Wabash County, Illinois* Wabash County, Indiana* Wabash Valley Seismic ZoneOther:...

, Miami tribe
Miami tribe
The Miami are a Native American nation originally found in what is now Indiana, southwest Michigan, and western Ohio. The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the only federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States...

, among those in the Wabash confederacy.

The first European settlers were Canadians, when Vincennes was founded as part of the French colony of Louisiana
Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control from 1682–1763 and 1800–03, the area was named in honor of Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle...

. After the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

 (part of the Seven Years War, in defeat France ceded territory east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 to England. The area was under British rule associated with the colony of Canada
Province of Quebec (1763-1791)
The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War. Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France...

 until after the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

. It then became part of the Illinois Country
Illinois Country
The Illinois Country , also known as Upper Louisiana, was a region in what is now the Midwestern United States that was explored and settled by the French during the 17th and 18th centuries. The terms referred to the entire Upper Mississippi River watershed, though settlement was concentrated in...

 of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia
Colony and Dominion of Virginia
The Colony of Virginia was the English colony in North America that existed briefly during the 16th century, and then continuously from 1607 until the American Revolution...

. Next part of Knox County
Knox County, Indiana
As of the census of 2000, there were 39,256 people, 15,552 households, and 10,139 families residing in the county. The population density was 76 people per square mile . There were 17,305 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile...

 in the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
The Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, more commonly known as the Northwest Territory, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 13, 1787, until March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio...

, it was later included in the Indiana Territory
Indiana Territory
The Territory of Indiana was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1800, until November 7, 1816, when the southern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Indiana....

. Vincennes served as capital of the Indiana Territory from 1800 until 1813, when the government was moved to Corydon
Corydon, Indiana
Corydon is a town in Harrison Township, Harrison County, Indiana, United States, founded in 1808, and is known as Indiana's First State Capital. After Vincennes, Corydon was the second capital of the Indiana Territory from May 1, 1813, until December 11, 1816. After statehood, the town was the...

.

New France


The first trading post on the Wabash River
Wabash River
The Wabash River is a river in the Midwestern United States that flows southwest from northwest Ohio near Fort Recovery across northern Indiana to southern Illinois, where it forms the Illinois-Indiana border before draining into the Ohio River, of which it is the largest northern tributary...

 was established by the Sieur Juchereau, Lieutenant General of Montréal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

. With thirty-four Canadiens, he founded the company post on 28 October 1702 to trade for Buffalo
American Bison
The American bison , also commonly known as the American buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds...

 hides with American Indians. The exact location of Juchereau's trading post is not known, but because the Buffalo Trace
Buffalo Trace
Buffalo Trace may refer to:* Buffalo Trace legendary pioneer trail in southern Indiana* Buffalo Trace Distillery maker of bourbon whiskey* Buffalo Trace Council: a division of Boy Scouts of America based in southwestern Indiana...

 crosses the Wabash at Vincennes, many believe it was here. The post was a success; in the first two years, the traders collected over 13,000 buffalo hides. When Juchereau died, the post was abandoned. The French-Canadian settlers left what they considered hostile territory for Mobile
Old Mobile Site
The Old Mobile Site was the location of the French settlement La Mobile and the associated Fort Louis de La Louisiane, in the French colony of New France in North America, from 1702 until 1712. The site is located in Le Moyne, Alabama, on the Mobile River in the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta...

 (in present-day Alabama), then the capital of Louisiana
Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control from 1682–1763 and 1800–03, the area was named in honor of Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle...

.

The oldest European town in Indiana, Vincennes was officially established in 1732 as a second French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 fur trading post in this area. The Compagnie des Indes commissioned a Canadian officer, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes
François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes
François Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes was a French Canadian explorer and soldier who established several forts in what is now the U.S. state of Indiana, including Fort Vincennes....

, to build a post along the Wabash River to discourage local nations from trading with the British. de Vincennes founded the new trading post near the meeting points of the Wabash River
Wabash River
The Wabash River is a river in the Midwestern United States that flows southwest from northwest Ohio near Fort Recovery across northern Indiana to southern Illinois, where it forms the Illinois-Indiana border before draining into the Ohio River, of which it is the largest northern tributary...

, White River
White River (Indiana)
The White River is a two-forked river that flows through central and southern Indiana and is the main tributary to the Wabash River. Via the west fork, considered to be the main stem of the river by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, the White River is long.-West Fork:The West Fork, long, is...

, and the overland Buffalo Trace
Buffalo Trace (road)
The Buffalo Trace was a trackway running through what are now the American states of Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. Originally formed by migrating bison, the trace crossed the Ohio River near the Falls of the Ohio and the Wabash River near Vincennes...

. De Vincennes, who had lived with his father among the Miami tribe
Miami tribe
The Miami are a Native American nation originally found in what is now Indiana, southwest Michigan, and western Ohio. The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the only federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States...

, was able to convince the Piankeshaw
Piankeshaw
The Piankeshaw Indians were Native Americans, and members of the Miami Indians who lived apart from the rest of the Miami nation. They lived in an area that now includes western Indiana and Ohio, and were closely allied with the Wea Indians...

 to establish a village at his trading post. He also encouraged Canadien settlers to move there, and started his own family to increase the village population. Because the Wabash post was so remote, however, Vincennes had a hard time getting trade supplies from Louisiana for the native nations, who were also being courted by British traders.

In 1736, during the French war with the Chickasaw
Chickasaw
The Chickasaw are Native American people originally from the region that would become the Southeastern United States...

 nation, de Vincennes was captured and burned at the stake in the modern state of Arkansas
Arkansas
Arkansas is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Its name is an Algonquian name of the Quapaw Indians. Arkansas shares borders with six states , and its eastern border is largely defined by the Mississippi River...

. His settlement on the Wabash was renamed Poste Vincennes in his honor.

Louisiana Governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienvillepronounce] was a colonizer, born in Montreal, Quebec and an early, repeated governor of French Louisiana, appointed 4 separate times during 1701-1743. He was a younger brother of explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville...

 next appointed Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive
Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive
Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive , was an officer in the French marine troops in New France.- Biographie :Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive was born in Montreal in 1700.In 1720, he followed his father to Fort Saint-Joseph.....

 to command Poste Vincennes. With little help from the colonial government, St. Ange was able to build up the small village and attract new tribes to trade. In 1742, he received a grant from the Piankeshaw for 1500000 acres (6,070.3 km²) to the north and east of Poste Vincennes. The opportunity for land attracted many new Canadien settlers, and the growing village was sometimes called St. Ange.

As the French colonials pushed north from Louisiana and south from Canada, however, the British colonists to the east continued to push west. In addition, British traders lured away many of Indians who had traded with the Canadiens. This competition escalated in the Ohio Country
Ohio Country
The Ohio Country was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie...

 until the eruption of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

 (the North American theater of the Seven Years War between England and France.)

British Empire


On February 10, 1763, when New France
New France
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763...

 was ceded to the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 at the conclusion of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

, Vincennes fell under the dominion of Great Britain. British Lt. John Ramsey came to Vincennes in 1766. He took a census of the settlement, built up the fort, and renamed it Fort Sackville. The population grew quickly in the years that followed, resulting in a unique culture of interdependent Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 and French and British colonials and traders.Vincennes was far from centers of colonial power. In 1770 and 1772 General Thomas Gage
Thomas Gage
Thomas Gage was a British general, best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as military commander in the early days of the American War of Independence....

, the commander in chief of Britain's North American forces, received warnings that the residents of Vincennes were not remaining loyal, and were inciting native tribes along the river trade routes against the British. The British Colonial Secretary, the Earl of Hillsborough
Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire
Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire PC , known as the Viscount Hillsborough from 1742 to 1751 and as the Earl of Hillsborough from 1751 to 1789, was a British politician of the Georgian era...

, ordered the residents to be removed from Vincennes. Gage delayed while the residents responded to the charges against them, claiming to be "peaceful settlers, cultivating the land which His Most Christian Majesty granted us".Vincennes was far from centers of colonial power. In 1770 and 1772 General Thomas Gage
Thomas Gage
Thomas Gage was a British general, best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as military commander in the early days of the American War of Independence....

, the commander in chief of Britain's North American forces, received warnings that the residents of Vincennes were not remaining loyal, and were inciting native tribes along the river trade routes against the British. The British Colonial Secretary, the Earl of Hillsborough
Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire
Wills Hill, 1st Marquess of Downshire PC , known as the Viscount Hillsborough from 1742 to 1751 and as the Earl of Hillsborough from 1751 to 1789, was a British politician of the Georgian era...

, ordered the residents to be removed from Vincennes. Gage delayed while the residents responded to the charges against them, claiming to be "peaceful settlers, cultivating the land which His Most Christian Majesty granted us." The issue was resolved by Hillsborough's successor, Lord Dartmouth
William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth
William Legge 2nd Earl of Dartmouth PC, FRS , styled as Viscount Lewisham from 1732 to 1750, was a British statesman who is most remembered for his part in the government before and during the American Revolution....

, who insisted to Gage that the residents were not lawless vagabonds, but English subjects whose rights were protected by the King. In 1778, residents at Poste Vincennes received word of the French alliance
Treaty of Alliance (1778)
The Treaty of Alliance, also called The Treaty of Alliance with France, was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised military support in case of attack by British forces indefinitely into the future...

 with the American Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting on May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun. It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met briefly during 1774,...

 from Father Pierre Gibault
Pierre Gibault
Father Pierre Gibault was a Jesuit missionary and priest in the Northwest Territory in the 18th century, and an American Patriot during the American Revolution....

 and Dr. Jean Laffont. They revolted in support of the Americans, as did the local Piankeshaw
Piankeshaw
The Piankeshaw Indians were Native Americans, and members of the Miami Indians who lived apart from the rest of the Miami nation. They lived in an area that now includes western Indiana and Ohio, and were closely allied with the Wea Indians...

, led by Chief Young Tobacco
Young Tobacco
Young Tobacco was the English name given to a Piankeshaw chief who lived near Post Vincennes during the American Revolution. His influence seems to have extended beyond his own village to all those along the Wabash River....

.

The Battle Of Vincennes 1779



Lieutenant Colonel George R. Clark
George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark was a soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the Kentucky militia throughout much of the war...

 created a plan to capture the French forts that the British occupied after Louisiana was ceded. After Kaskaskia was captured by Clark. Lieutenant Colonel Henry Hamilton, sent British soldiers and reinforcements to Fort Vincennes and even helped to rebuild the fort. Spanish trader Francis Vigo
Francis Vigo
Francis Vigo was an Italian-American who aided the American forces during the Revolutionary War and helped found a public university in Vincennes, Indiana, USA....

 who was captured once by the British at Vincennes found Clark and warned him of the British at the fort. Vigo gave service, ordered war suplies from the Spanish to help, and even served as a secret agent for the Patriots. Clark rounded up enough men to outnumber the British and planned a brilliant surprise attack on Fort Vincennes in the heartache of winter, a horrible time when no armies were expected to be able to attack due to illness, lack of food, and the flood waters were high during this time. The Patriots won the Battle of Vincennes on February 23–24, 1779. Hamilton thought Poste Vincennes as "a refuge for debtors and Vagabonds from Canada." George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark was a soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the Kentucky militia throughout much of the war...

 recaptured Fort Sackville in the Battle of Vincennes
Battle of Vincennes
The Illinois campaign was a series of events in the American Revolutionary War in which a small force of Virginia militiamen led by George Rogers Clark seized control of several British posts in the Illinois country, in what is now the Midwestern United States...

 without losing a single soldier.
The episode was featured in the 1901 novel Alice of Old Vincennes by Maurice Thompson
Maurice Thompson
James Maurice Thompson was an American novelist.-Biography:Raised on a Georgia plantation, Thompson first pursued a career as a lawyer. In 1871 he opened a law practice with his brother, William Henry Thompson...

. Also, the USS Vincennes
USS Vincennes (CG-49)
The fourth USS Vincennes is a U.S. Navy Ticonderoga class Aegis guided missile cruiser. On July 3, 1988, the ship shot down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 civilian passengers on board, including 38 non-Iranians and 66 children.The ship was launched 14 April 1984 and...

 AEGIS
Aegis combat system
The Aegis Combat System is an integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin...

 cruiser
Cruiser
A cruiser is a type of warship. The term has been in use for several hundreds of years, and has had different meanings throughout this period...

 would be named in honor of this battle.

United States


Although the Americans would remain in control of Vincennes, it took years to establish peace. In 1786, Captain John Hardin
John Hardin
John J. Hardin was a soldier, farmer, rancher, noted marksman and hunter. He was wounded fighting in Lord Dunmore's War; served as a Continental Army officer in the American Revolutionary War and as a Kentucky Co., Virginia militia commander in the Northwest Indian War...

 led a mounted Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

 militia across the Ohio River
Ohio River
The Ohio River is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River. At the confluence, the Ohio is even bigger than the Mississippi and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system, including the Allegheny River further upstream...

 and destroyed a friendly Piankeshaw town near Vincennes. This led to a series of attacks and counter-attacks between Wabash Indians and American settlers. Finally, on 15 July 1786, the Wabash landed in forty-seven war canoes at Vincennes to drive the Americans back to Kentucky. The Indians warned the French in advance of their attack and assured them that they would not be harmed, but the French warned the Americans. They quickly supplied Fort Patrick Henry and waited out the siege
Siege
A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault. The term derives from sedere, Latin for "to sit". Generally speaking, siege warfare is a form of constant, low intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static...

. One American was killed and four wounded, and the war party left after destroying the Americans' farms.

In response, Virginia Governor Patrick Henry authorized George Rogers Clark to raise the Kentucky militia and mount an expedition against the warring tribes. General Clark gathered a force of 1,000 militia and departed Clarksville
Clarksville, Indiana
Clarksville is a town in Clark County, Indiana, United States, along the Ohio River as a part of the Louisville Metropolitan area. The population was 21,724 at the 2010 census. The town, once a home site to George Rogers Clark, was founded in 1783 and is the oldest American town in the Northwest...

 9 September 1786, along the Buffalo Trace
Buffalo Trace (road)
The Buffalo Trace was a trackway running through what are now the American states of Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. Originally formed by migrating bison, the trace crossed the Ohio River near the Falls of the Ohio and the Wabash River near Vincennes...

. The militia spent ten days in Vincennes before marching north along the Wabash, but men deserted by the hundreds. Clark was soon forced to return to Vincennes without any action taken. Clark left 150 men to help defend Vincennes, but this force soon turned into a lawless mob, and the citizens of Vincennes petitioned Congress for help. Secretary of War Henry Knox
Henry Knox
Henry Knox was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, and also served as the first United States Secretary of War....

 sent Colonel Josiah Harmar
Josiah Harmar
Josiah Harmar was an officer in the United States Army during the American Revolution and the Northwest Indian War. He was the senior officer in the Army for seven years....

 and the First American Regiment
First American Regiment
The First American Regiment was the first peacetime regular army force authorized by United States Congress after the American Revolutionary War...

 to restore order. The Kentucky militia fled Vincennes at the approach of U.S. Regulars.

Colonel Harmar left 100 regulars under Major Jean François Hamtramck
Jean François Hamtramck
Jean-François Hamtramck was a French-Canadian from Quebec who joined the Continental Army and became a decorated officer in the American Revolutionary War....

 and directed them to build a fort, Fort Knox. Vincennes remained an isolated town, difficult to supply due to its position deep within Indian territory. Secure transport to and from Vincennes meant travelling with a large, armed party, whether over land or via the Wabash River. On 30 September 1790, Major Hamtramck led 350 men from Vincennes as far north as the Vermillion River
Vermilion River (Wabash River tributary)
The Vermilion River is a tributary of the Wabash River in the states of Illinois and Indiana, United States.There are two "Vermilion Rivers" in Illinois. The Wabash tributary flows south, while the other Vermilion River flows north to the Illinois River...

, to engage some of the Indian villages which had been at war with Vincennes. The Kickapoo tracked the party, however, and evacuated every village along the way before the Americans arrived. Hamtramck destroyed some abandoned villages, but he did not engage any war parties. Faced with desertions from Kentucky militia, Hamtramck returned to Vincennes. The expedition had done no serious harm to the enemies of Vincennes, but it distracted some of the Wabash villages while Josiah Harmar, now a General, led a much larger expedition up through Ohio country towards Kekionga
Kekionga
Kekionga, also known as Kiskakon or Pacan's Village, was the capital of the Miami tribe at the confluence of the Saint Joseph, Saint Marys and Maumee rivers on the western edge of the Great Black Swamp...

.

Vincennes was not secure until the conclusion of the Northwest Indian War
Northwest Indian War
The Northwest Indian War , also known as Little Turtle's War and by various other names, was a war fought between the United States and a confederation of numerous American Indian tribes for control of the Northwest Territory...

 in 1795. By 1798, the population had reached 2,500. Vincennes was no longer considered a trading outpost, but a thriving city.

Flag of Vincennes, Indiana



This flag for the city of Vincennes, Indiana, albeit somewhat unofficial, is used by several areas around the city. It features the signature V, four fleurs-de-lis
Fleur-de-lis
The fleur-de-lis or fleur-de-lys is a stylized lily or iris that is used as a decorative design or symbol. It may be "at one and the same time, political, dynastic, artistic, emblematic, and symbolic", especially in heraldry...

, symbolizing the city's French heritage, its existence in four centuries: 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st, since the city's establishment in 1732. Similar in appearance to the flag of Indianapolis
Indianapolis
Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana, and the county seat of Marion County, Indiana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population is 839,489. It is by far Indiana's largest city and, as of the 2010 U.S...

, Vincennes' flag is more squared in appearance and has a diamond center rather than a circle. It represents the layout of Vincennes. White stripes radiating from the diamond represent Vincennes' part in the settlement of the frontier, as it was at the crossroads of several great pioneer trails.

Geography


Vincennes is located at 38°40′42"N 87°30′58"W (38.678329, -87.516067).

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 7.2 square miles (18.6 km²), of which 7.1 square miles (18.5 km²) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) (0.97%) is water.

Climate


Vincennes has hot summers and cold winters with heavy rainfall at times throughout much of the year. There are an average of 35.0 days with highs of 90 °F (32.2 °C) or higher and an average of 111.9 days with lows of 32 °F (0 °C) or lower. Average January temperatures are a high of 36.3 °F (2.4 °C) and a low of 18.3 °F (-7.6 °C). Average July temperatures are a high of 87.7 °F (30.9 °C) and a low of 64.8 °F (18.2 °C). The record high temperature was 104 °F (40 °C) on June 26, 1988. The record low temperature was -26 F on January 19, 1994.

Average annual precipitation is 44.43 inches (112.9 cm). Measurable precipitation occurs on an average of 105.6 days each year. The wettest year was 1990 with 60.08 inches (152.6 cm) and the dryest year was 1988 with 36.02 inches (91.5 cm). The most precipitation in one month was 11.18 inches (28.4 cm) in November 1985. The most precipitation in 24 hours was 5.07 inches (12.9 cm).

Average annual snowfall is 5.8 inches (14.7 cm). Measurable snowfall occurs on only 2.6 days. The snowiest season was 1989-90 when 16.4 inches (41.7 cm) fell. The most snow in one month was 8.5 inches (21.6 cm) in December 1990. The most snow in 24 hours was 8 inches (20.3 cm) on March 24, 1990.

Public schools


Elementary Schools
  • Tecumseh - Harrison Elementary
  • Franklin Elementary
  • Vigo Elementary
  • Riley Elementary
  • Washington Elementary (Decommissioned in May 2010)

Middle School
  • Clark Middle School

High School
  • Lincoln High School
    Lincoln High School (Vincennes)
    Vincennes Lincoln High School, sometimes referred to as Lincoln High School and archaicly as Vincennes High School, is a high school located in Vincennes, Indiana...

  • South Knox High School
    South Knox High School
    South Knox High School is a high school located southeast of Vincennes in an unincorporated community called Verne. Its athletic nickname is the "Spartans", and it participates in the Blue Chip Conference....


Parochial schools


Elementary School
  • Flaget Elementary (K-5)

High School
  • Vincennes Rivet High School (6-12)

Other private schools

  • Wabash Valley Christian Academy (K-1)
  • Southwestern Indiana Youth Village (4-12)

Higher education

  • Vincennes University
    Vincennes University
    Vincennes University is a public university in Vincennes, Indiana, in the United States. Founded in 1801 as Jefferson Academy, VU is the oldest public institution of higher learning in Indiana. Since 1889, VU has been a two-year university, although baccalaureate degrees in seven select areas are...

     was established in 1801 as Jefferson Academy. It is the oldest college of higher learning in the U.S. north of the Ohio River and west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Demographics



As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 18,701 people, 7,614 households, and 4,332 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 2,620.3 people per square mile (1,011.3/km²). There were 8,574 housing units at an average density of 1,201.4 per square mile (463.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.34% White, 3.28% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 0.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.02% of the population.

There were 7,614 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.8% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.1% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.85.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 20.5% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,289, and the median income for a family was $35,424. Males had a median income of $27,029 versus $20,254 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $14,993. About 15.0% of families and 20.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 12.7% of those age 65 or over.

Government


The city government consists of a seven member city council. Five of whom are elected from districts the other two are elected at large. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote.

Time zone controversy


On November 4, 2007, Knox County joined Daviess, Martin, Pike, and Dubois counties in returning to Eastern Daylight Time (UTC-5
UTC-5
UTC−05:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of −05.This offset is used in the Eastern Time Zone during standard time and in the Central Time Zone during Daylight Saving Time ....

). Controversy concerning time in Indiana
Time in Indiana
Time in Indiana refers to the controversial time zone division of Indiana, and to the state's historical response to daylight saving time. The official dividing line between Eastern Time and Central Time has, over time, progressively moved west, from the Indiana–Ohio border, to a position where it...

 has caused a change in the time zone of Vincennes on three different occasions since The Standard Time Act of 1918.

Notable residents

  • Clint Barmes
    Clint Barmes
    Clint Harold Barmes [BAR-miss] is an American professional baseball shortstop and second baseman for the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball. He played for the Colorado Rockies from 2003-2010 and Houston Astros in 2011...

     (b.1979), Baseball
    Baseball
    Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

     Player, Houston Astros
    Houston Astros
    The Houston Astros are a Major League Baseball team located in Houston, Texas. They are a member of the National League Central division. The Astros are expected to join the American League West division in 2013. Since , they have played their home games at Minute Maid Park, known as Enron Field...

  • David Carter, retired American Football
    American football
    American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

     player, guard Houston Oilers
  • Henry Dodge
    Henry Dodge
    Henry Dodge was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate, Territorial Governor of Wisconsin and a veteran of the Black Hawk War. His son was Augustus C. Dodge with whom he served in the U.S. Senate, the first, and so far only, father-son pair to serve concurrently....

    , U.S. Senator from Wisconsin
    Wisconsin
    Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States and is part of the Midwest. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin's capital is...

  • Mike Eskew, former Chairman and CEO of UPS
    United Parcel Service
    United Parcel Service, Inc. , typically referred to by the acronym UPS, is a package delivery company. Headquartered in Sandy Springs, Georgia, United States, UPS delivers more than 15 million packages a day to 6.1 million customers in more than 220 countries and territories around the...

  • David Goodnow
    David Goodnow
    David Clay Goodnow was born in Vincennes, Indiana. He is a 1957 graduate of Vincennes Lincoln High School. Goodnow is a former CNN Headline News anchor. In the early 1990s, he anchored from 11pm to 3am ET. He is a member of the Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity...

    , Television
    Television
    Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

     News Broadcaster
  • William Henry Harrison
    William Henry Harrison
    William Henry Harrison was the ninth President of the United States , an American military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office. He was 68 years, 23 days old when elected, the oldest president elected until Ronald Reagan in 1980, and last President to be born before the...

    , Indiana Territorial Governor and 9th U.S. President
  • John Rice Jones
    John Rice Jones
    John Rice Jones was an American politician, jurist, and pioneer.-Early history:Jones was born in Mallwyd, Wales, the eldest of fourteen children to John Jones, an excise officer. According to family tradition Jones was educated in Oxford, but this is unconfirmed...

    , politician and jurist
  • Alvy Moore
    Alvy Moore
    Jack Alvin "Alvy" Moore was an American light comic actor best known for his role as scatterbrained county agricultural agent "Hank Kimball" on the television series Green Acres....

     (b. 1921-1997), Actor
  • Curtis Painter
    Curtis Painter
    Curtis Jeffrey Painter is a quarterback for the Indianapolis Colts. He was drafted in the sixth round of the 2009 NFL Draft. He played college football for the Purdue Boilermakers.-High school career:...

     (b.1985) American Football
    American football
    American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

     Player, Quarterback Purdue University
    Purdue University
    Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S., is the flagship university of the six-campus Purdue University system. Purdue was founded on May 6, 1869, as a land-grant university when the Indiana General Assembly, taking advantage of the Morrill Act, accepted a donation of land and...

    , Reserve Quarterback Indianapolis Colts
    Indianapolis Colts
    The Indianapolis Colts are a professional American football team based in Indianapolis. They are currently members of the South Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League ....

  • Red Skelton
    Red Skelton
    Richard Bernard "Red" Skelton was an American comedian who is best known as a top radio and television star from 1937 to 1971. Skelton's show business career began in his teens as a circus clown and went on to vaudeville, Broadway, films, radio, TV, night clubs and casinos, all while pursuing...

     (b.1913-1997), Comedian
  • Albert K. Dawson
    Albert K. Dawson
    Albert Knox Dawson was born in Vincennes, Indiana, on 20 September 1885. He was the oldest son of Thomas A. Dawson and Lida T. Knox. His father was a local bank officer and real estate manager....

     (b.1885-1967), photographer/film correspondent in the First World War
  • Dan Stryzinski
    Dan Stryzinski
    Daniel Thomas Stryzinski is a former American football punter who played fourteen seasons in the National Football League. He played in Super Bowl XXXIII as a member of the Atlanta Falcons. Originally from Vincennes Indiana, Dan has called Atlanta his home for the last 15 years. Dan has a Finance...

    , American Football
    American football
    American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

     Player, Punter Indiana University
    Indiana University
    Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. Indiana University has a combined student body of more than 100,000 students, including approximately 42,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University Bloomington campus and approximately 37,000...

  • Sarah Knox Taylor
    Sarah Knox Taylor
    Sarah Knox Taylor was the daughter of General Zachary Taylor, later President of the United States and Margaret Taylor, and was married to Jefferson Davis before he became President of the Confederate States of America.While living at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin where her father commanded Fort...

    , wife of Jefferson Davis
    Jefferson Davis
    Jefferson Finis Davis , also known as Jeff Davis, was an American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as President for its entire history. He was born in Kentucky to Samuel and Jane Davis...

    , daughter of Zachary Taylor
    Zachary Taylor
    Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States and an American military leader. Initially uninterested in politics, Taylor nonetheless ran as a Whig in the 1848 presidential election, defeating Lewis Cass...

  • Waller Taylor
    Waller Taylor
    Waller Taylor was an American military commander and politician.-Biography:Taylor was born in Lunenburg County, Virginia where he spent his entire childhood. He studied law and served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1800 to 1802.In 1804 he moved to Vincennes, Indiana and practiced law...

    , lawyer, Adjutant General
    Adjutant general
    An Adjutant General is a military chief administrative officer.-Imperial Russia:In Imperial Russia, the General-Adjutant was a Court officer, who was usually an army general. He served as a personal aide to the Tsar and hence was a member of the H. I. M. Retinue...

    , United States Senator from Indiana
  • Jan Fields Brocksmith, President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     of McDonald's
    McDonald's
    McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

     USA, LLC
  • Rodney Watts, Country Music Entertainer
    To The Fallen Records
    Active duty Army officer and Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran Captain Sean Gilfillan founded To the Fallen Records after returning from his tour of duty in January 2006. While in the military, the longtime music fan met many fellow soldiers who were also extremely talented musicians...

     and US Army Soldier

Attractions of Vincennes

  • George Rogers Clark National Historical Park
    George Rogers Clark National Historical Park
    George Rogers Clark National Historical Park, located in Vincennes on the banks of the Wabash River at what is believed to be the site of Fort Sackville, is a United States National Historical Park. A classical memorial here was authorized under President Calvin Coolidge and dedicated by President...

     The memorial and park built for the war hero George Rogers Clark.

  • St. Francis Xavier Cathedral and Library
    St. Francis Xavier Cathedral and Library
    The St. Francis Xavier Cathedral in Vincennes, Indiana is often referred to by locals as "The Old Cathedral". The St. Francis Xavier Cathedral was elevated to the status of Basilica on 14 March, 1970....

     The oldest Catholic church in the state of Indiana.
  • The Old Cathedral Library, Indiana's oldest library.
  • Grouseland
    Grouseland
    Grouseland, the William Henry Harrison Mansion and Museum, is a National Historic Landmark in architectural and historical fields. Grouseland is a large, two-story red brick home built for William Henry Harrison in Vincennes, Indiana, during his term as Governor of the Indiana Territory...

    , the mansion home of William Henry Harrison
    William Henry Harrison
    William Henry Harrison was the ninth President of the United States , an American military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office. He was 68 years, 23 days old when elected, the oldest president elected until Ronald Reagan in 1980, and last President to be born before the...

    , 9th United States President.
  • Fort Knox II: Outline of the fort is marked for self-guided tours.
  • Fort Sackville, one of the forts of Vincennes.
  • The U.S. Navy has named four ships
    USS Vincennes
    Four United States Navy ships have been named USS Vincennes, after the town of Vincennes, Indiana, site of an important Patriot victory in the American Revolution....

     in honor of Vincennes.
  • The Servant of God, Bishop Simon Bruté
    Simon Bruté
    Simon William Gabriel Bruté de Rémur, the first bishop of the Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, was born on March 20, 1779, at Rennes, France. His father was Simon-Guillaume-Gabriel Bruté de Remur, Superintendent of the Royal Domains in Brittany; and his mother, Jeanne-Renee Le Saulnier de Vauhelle...

     de Remur, first Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Vincennes.
  • The Indiana Territorial Capitol
    Indiana Territorial Capitol
    The Indiana Territorial Capitol is part of a state historical site in Vincennes, Indiana. Part of a row of buildings located across from Vincennes University, the building was once the center of government for the Indiana Territory from 1800 to 1813....

    . (Located near Grouseland
    Grouseland
    Grouseland, the William Henry Harrison Mansion and Museum, is a National Historic Landmark in architectural and historical fields. Grouseland is a large, two-story red brick home built for William Henry Harrison in Vincennes, Indiana, during his term as Governor of the Indiana Territory...

     and across from Vincennes University
    Vincennes University
    Vincennes University is a public university in Vincennes, Indiana, in the United States. Founded in 1801 as Jefferson Academy, VU is the oldest public institution of higher learning in Indiana. Since 1889, VU has been a two-year university, although baccalaureate degrees in seven select areas are...

    's Shircliff Humanities Building).
  • The Indiana Military Museum (indianamilitarymuseum.org)
  • Pantheon Theatre
    Pantheon Theatre
    The Pantheon Theatre was constructed in 1919 on the corner of 5th and Main Street in Vincennes, Indiana. It was built to hold 1200 people. One of the highest paid interior decorators in the world was hired to supervise the decorating of the theatre. The Pantheon's interior was highly embellished...


Television

  • WVUT
    WVUT
    WVUT is a television station and member of the Public Broadcasting Service , located in Vincennes, Indiana. It operates on digital channel 22 and is located at Vincennes University. The station's signal covers much of the Wabash Valley of southwestern Indiana and southeastern Illinois.The station...

     PBS
    Public Broadcasting Service
    The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

     (22) - 22.1 / 22.2 / 22.3 - Vincennes University
    Vincennes University
    Vincennes University is a public university in Vincennes, Indiana, in the United States. Founded in 1801 as Jefferson Academy, VU is the oldest public institution of higher learning in Indiana. Since 1889, VU has been a two-year university, although baccalaureate degrees in seven select areas are...


Radio

  • 91.1 FM
    FM broadcasting
    FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

     WVUB
    WVUB
    WVUB , is a college station in Vincennes, Indiana. It primarily features college radio content. It operates out of Davis Hall on the Vincennes University Main Campus. Its calls stand for Vincennes University Broadcasting. Its transmitter is located approximately 2 miles southeast of Vincennes near...

     "Blazer 91-1" - Vincennes University
    Vincennes University
    Vincennes University is a public university in Vincennes, Indiana, in the United States. Founded in 1801 as Jefferson Academy, VU is the oldest public institution of higher learning in Indiana. Since 1889, VU has been a two-year university, although baccalaureate degrees in seven select areas are...

  • 92.1 FM
    FM broadcasting
    FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

     WZDM "Wisdom 92-1" - The Original Company
  • 96.7 FM
    FM broadcasting
    FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

     WFML -
  • 1450 AM
    AM broadcasting
    AM broadcasting is the process of radio broadcasting using amplitude modulation. AM was the first method of impressing sound on a radio signal and is still widely used today. Commercial and public AM broadcasting is carried out in the medium wave band world wide, and on long wave and short wave...

     WAOV
    WAOV
    WAOV is a radio station broadcasting a News Talk Information format. Licensed to Vincennes, Indiana, USA. The station is currently owned by Old Northwest Broadcasting, Inc. and features programing from AP Radio, ESPN Radio and Premiere Radio Networks....

     - The Original Company

List of Vincennes's Firsts

  • Site of the First Catholic church in Indiana. (1749)
  • Home of the First newspaper in Indiana. (1799)
  • Site of the First Presbyterian church in Indiana. (1806)
  • Site of the First Masonic Lodge
    Masonic Lodge
    This article is about the Masonic term for a membership group. For buildings named Masonic Lodge, see Masonic Lodge A Masonic Lodge, often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge, is the basic organisation of Freemasonry...

     in Indiana. (1809)
  • Home of the First bank in Indiana. (1814)
  • Host to the First medical society in Indiana. (1817)
  • First Bishop of Vincennes, Simon Bruté
    Simon Bruté
    Simon William Gabriel Bruté de Rémur, the first bishop of the Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, was born on March 20, 1779, at Rennes, France. His father was Simon-Guillaume-Gabriel Bruté de Remur, Superintendent of the Royal Domains in Brittany; and his mother, Jeanne-Renee Le Saulnier de Vauhelle...

    . (1834)
  • First county hospital in Indiana. (Good Samaritan Hospital 1908)
  • First Post Office in Indiana.
  • First sheriff's department in Indiana.

State Championships


Vincennes High School or Vincennes Lincoln High School
  • 1923 and 1981 (IHSAA)
    Indiana High School Athletic Association
    The Indiana High School Athletic Association is the arbiter of interscholastic competition among public and private high schools in the State of Indiana. It monitors a system that divides athletically-competing high schools in Indiana based on the school's enrollment. The divisions, known as...

     State Basketball Champions.
  • 2002 IHSAA State Baseball Champions.


Rivet High School (Vincennes, Indiana)
Rivet High School (Vincennes, Indiana)
Jean Francis Rivet High School, Vincennes Rivet High School, or simply Rivet High School is a private, Roman Catholic high school in Vincennes, Indiana. It is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Evansville.-Background:...

  • 2011 IHSAA State Girls Basketball Champions.

External links