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Sled dog

Sled dog

Overview

Sled dogs, known also as sleigh man dogs, sledge dogs, or sleddogs, are highly trained types
Dog type
Dog types are broad categories of dogs based on function, with dogs identified primarily by specific function or style of work rather than by lineage or appearance....

 of dog
Dog
The domestic dog is a domesticated form of the gray wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The term is used for both feral and pet varieties. The dog may have been the first animal to be domesticated, and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and companion animal in...

s that are used to pull a dog sled
Dog sled
A dog sled is a sled pulled by one or more sled dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. Numerous types of sleds are used, depending on their function. They can be used for dog sled racing.-History:...

, a wheel-less vehicle on runners also called a sled
Sled
A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle with a smooth underside or possessing a separate body supported by two or more smooth, relatively narrow, longitudinal runners that travels by sliding across a surface. Most sleds are used on surfaces with low friction, such as snow or ice. In some cases,...

 or sleigh, over snow
Snow
Snow is a form of precipitation within the Earth's atmosphere in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Since snow is composed of small ice particles, it is a granular material. It has an open and therefore soft structure, unless packed by...

 or ice
Ice
Ice is water frozen into the solid state. Usually ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth's surface. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence of impurities or air inclusions...

, by means of harnesses
Dog harness
A dog harness is piece of equipment for dogs, generally similar to harness tack for horses. There are various designs depending on the type of use, whether it be for assistance to a disabled person, hauling a cart or sled, or pulling a human being, such as in skijoring or pulka...

 and lines.

Sled dogs have become a popular winter recreation and sport in North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

 and Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

; sled dogs are now found even in such unlikely places as Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

.
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Encyclopedia

Sled dogs, known also as sleigh man dogs, sledge dogs, or sleddogs, are highly trained types
Dog type
Dog types are broad categories of dogs based on function, with dogs identified primarily by specific function or style of work rather than by lineage or appearance....

 of dog
Dog
The domestic dog is a domesticated form of the gray wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The term is used for both feral and pet varieties. The dog may have been the first animal to be domesticated, and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and companion animal in...

s that are used to pull a dog sled
Dog sled
A dog sled is a sled pulled by one or more sled dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. Numerous types of sleds are used, depending on their function. They can be used for dog sled racing.-History:...

, a wheel-less vehicle on runners also called a sled
Sled
A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle with a smooth underside or possessing a separate body supported by two or more smooth, relatively narrow, longitudinal runners that travels by sliding across a surface. Most sleds are used on surfaces with low friction, such as snow or ice. In some cases,...

 or sleigh, over snow
Snow
Snow is a form of precipitation within the Earth's atmosphere in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Since snow is composed of small ice particles, it is a granular material. It has an open and therefore soft structure, unless packed by...

 or ice
Ice
Ice is water frozen into the solid state. Usually ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth's surface. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence of impurities or air inclusions...

, by means of harnesses
Dog harness
A dog harness is piece of equipment for dogs, generally similar to harness tack for horses. There are various designs depending on the type of use, whether it be for assistance to a disabled person, hauling a cart or sled, or pulling a human being, such as in skijoring or pulka...

 and lines.

Sled dogs have become a popular winter recreation and sport in North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

 and Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

; sled dogs are now found even in such unlikely places as Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. Several distinct dog breeds are used as sled dogs, however, dog drivers have a long history of using other breeds or crossbreed
Crossbreed
A crossbreed or crossbred usually refers to an animal with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. Crossbreeding refers to the process of breeding such an animal, often with the intention to create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages, or producing...

s as sled dogs. There are two main qualities that are expected in sled dogs: endurance
Endurance
Endurance is the ability for a human or animal to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue. In humans, it is usually used in aerobic or anaerobic exercise...

 and speed
Speed
In kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity ; it is thus a scalar quantity. The average speed of an object in an interval of time is the distance traveled by the object divided by the duration of the interval; the instantaneous speed is the limit of the average speed as...

. Racing sled dogs will travel up to an average 20 mph (8.9 m/s) over distances up to 25 mi (40.2 km). Although these dogs are very helpful, the origins of this arrangement are unknown.

History



Dog power has been utilized for hunting and travel for hundreds of years. As far back as the 10th century these dogs were contributing to human culture.

Dog sled teams are put together with great care. Putting a dog sled team together involves picking leader dogs, point dogs, swing dogs and wheel dogs. The lead dog is very treasured, and seldom will mushers
Mushing
Mushing is a general term for a sport or transport method powered by dogs, and includes carting, pulka, scootering, sled dog racing, skijoring, freighting, and weight pulling. More specifically, it implies the use of one or more dogs to pull a sled on snow or a rig on dry land...

 ever let these dogs out of their sight. Indeed, trained lead dogs become part of the family household. Important too is to have powerful wheel dogs to pull the sled out from the snow. Point dogs (optional) are located behind the leader dogs, swing dogs between the point and wheel dogs, and team dogs are all other dogs in between the wheel and swing dogs and are selected for their endurance, strength and speed as part of the team.

Overview



Several distinct dog breeds are in common use as sled dogs, although any sized breed may be used to pull a sled. Purebred
Purebred
Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding...

 sled dog breeds range from the well-known Siberian Husky
Siberian Husky
The Siberian Husky is a medium-size, dense-coat working dog breed that originated in north-eastern Siberia. The breed belongs to the Spitz genetic family...

 and Alaskan Malamute
Alaskan Malamute
The Alaskan Malamute is a generally large breed of domestic dog originally bred for use as a utilitarian dog and later an Alaskan sled dog. They are sometimes mistaken for a Siberian Husky, but in fact are quite different in many ways...

 to rarer breeds such as the Mackenzie River Husky
Mackenzie River Husky
The term Mackenzie River Husky describes several overlapping local populations of arctic and subarctic sleddog type dogs, none of which constitutes a breed. Most prominent and current of these are the sleddogs of Donna Dowling and others in the interior of Alaska. These dogs are described as...

 or the Canadian Eskimo Dog
Canadian Eskimo Dog
The Canadian Eskimo Dog is an Arctic breed of dog , which is often considered to be North America’s oldest and rarest remaining purebred indigenous domestic canine. Other names include Qimmiq...

 (Canadian Inuit Dog). Dog drivers, however, have a long history of using other breeds or crossbreeds as sled dogs. In the days of the Gold Rush
Klondike Gold Rush
The Klondike Gold Rush, also called the Yukon Gold Rush, the Alaska Gold Rush and the Last Great Gold Rush, was an attempt by an estimated 100,000 people to travel to the Klondike region the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1897 and 1899 in the hope of successfully prospecting for gold...

 in Yukon
Yukon
Yukon is the westernmost and smallest of Canada's three federal territories. It was named after the Yukon River. The word Yukon means "Great River" in Gwich’in....

, mongrel teams were the rule, but there were also teams of Foxhound
Foxhound
A foxhound is a type of large hunting hound. Foxhounds hunt in packs and, like all scent hounds, have a strong sense of smell. They are used in hunts for foxes, hence the name. When out hunting they are followed usually on horseback and will travel several miles to catch their target. These dogs...

s and Staghound
American Staghound
The American Staghound is a type of sighthound that is used in hunting to course stag. Although they have been bred for many years, the American Staghound is not currently recognized as a dog breed, nor is there interest in doing so.-Appearance:...

s. Today the unregistered hybridized Alaskan Husky
Alaskan Husky
The Alaskan husky is not a breed of dog rather it is a type or a category. It falls short of being a breed in that there is no preferred type of and no restriction as to ancestry; it is defined only by its purpose, which is that of a highly efficient sled dog...

 is preferred for dogsled racing
Dogsled racing
Sled dog racing is a winter dog sport most popular in the Arctic regions of the United States, Canada, Russia, and some European countries. It involves the timed competition of teams of sleddogs that pull a sled with the dog driver or musher standing on the runners...

, along with a variety of crossbreeds, the German Shorthaired Pointer
German Shorthaired Pointer
The German shorthaired pointer is a breed of dog developed in the 19th century in Germany for hunting.The breed is streamlined yet powerful with strong legs that make it able to move rapidly and turn quickly. It has moderately long floppy ears set high on the head. Its muzzle is long, broad, and...

 often being chosen as the basis for cross breeding. From 1988 through 1991, a team of Standard Poodle
Poodle
The Poodle is a breed of dog. The poodle breed is found officially in toy, miniature, and standard sizes, with many coat colors. Originally bred as a type of water dog, the poodle is highly intelligent and skillful in many dog sports, including agility, obedience, tracking, and even herding...

s competed in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.

Sled dogs are expected to demonstrate two major qualities in their work (apart from basic physical capability to pull the sled). Endurance is needed to travel the distances demanded in dogsled travel, which may be anything from 5 mile or more a day. Speed is needed to travel the distance in a reasonable length of time. Over longer distances, average traveling speed declines to 10 mile per hour. In poor trail conditions, sled dogs can still usually average 6 or. Sled dogs have been known to travel over 90 mi (145 km) in a 24 hour period while pulling 85 lb (39 kg) each.

Sled dogs pull various sorts of sleds, from the small 25 lb (11 kg) sprint-racing sleds, through the larger plastic-bottomed distance racing toboggan
Toboggan
A toboggan is a simple sled which is a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada. In modern times, it is used on snow to carry one or more people down a hill or other slope for recreation. Designs vary from simple, traditional models to modern engineered composites...

 sleds, to traditional ash, freighting sleds and the trapper's high-fronted narrow toboggan. Sled dogs are also used to pull skiers
Skiing
Skiing is a recreational activity using skis as equipment for traveling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding....

, kicksled
Kicksled
The kicksled or spark is a small sled consisting of a chair mounted on a pair of flexible metal runners which extend backward to about twice the chair's length. The sled is propelled by kicking the ground by foot. There is a handlebar attached to the top of the chair back...

s and to draw wheeled rigs when there is no snow. They have even been used to pull kick scooter
Kick scooter
A kick scooter or push scooter, originally scooter, is a human-powered vehicle with a handlebar, deck and wheels that is propelled by a rider pushing off the ground. The most common scooters today have two hard small wheels, are made primarily of aluminium and fold for convenience...

s in places where there is a lack of snow, a sport known as dog scootering
Dog scootering
Dog scootering is a sport where one or more dogs pull a human riding an unmotorized kick scooter. It is similar to mushing, which is done in the winter, but generally with fewer dogs and with a scooter instead of a dogsled. The dogs wear the same harnesses that sled dogs wear, and are hooked to...

. Modern teams are usually hitched in tandem, with harnessed pairs of sled dogs pulling on tug lines attached to a central gangline. Trappers in deep snow conditions using the toboggan will hitch their dogs in single file with traces on either side of the line of dogs. Dog teams of some Inuit
Inuit
The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada , Denmark , Russia and the United States . Inuit means “the people” in the Inuktitut language...

 are run in "fan hitch", each dog having its own tow line tied directly to the sled.

Sled dog breeds


  • Alaskan Husky
    Alaskan Husky
    The Alaskan husky is not a breed of dog rather it is a type or a category. It falls short of being a breed in that there is no preferred type of and no restriction as to ancestry; it is defined only by its purpose, which is that of a highly efficient sled dog...

     is not a breed
    Dog breed
    Dog breeds are groups of closely related and visibly similar domestic dogs, which are all of the subspecies Canis lupus familiaris, having characteristic traits that are selected and maintained by humans, bred from a known foundation stock....

    , but a category or type of dog.
  • Alaskan Malamute
    Alaskan Malamute
    The Alaskan Malamute is a generally large breed of domestic dog originally bred for use as a utilitarian dog and later an Alaskan sled dog. They are sometimes mistaken for a Siberian Husky, but in fact are quite different in many ways...

     was originally bred to be used as an Alaskan sled dog. It is generally a large and domesticated dog.
  • Canadian Inuit Dog is an Arctic
    Arctic
    The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

     breed and is considered to be the oldest and rarest of the remaining purebred indigenous domestic canines.
  • Chinook
    Chinook (dog)
    The Chinook is a rare dog breed of sleddog type, developed in the New England region of the United States in the early 20th century. They are recognized as the "New Hampshire State Dog."-Appearance:...

     is a rare New England
    New England
    New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

     sled dog breed of "in-between" type, neither a sprinter nor an endurance freighter; the original lead dog "Chinook" on whom the breed is based was a mixture from working sled dog lines and of a more mastiff-type build than most sled dogs, and the breed varies in appearance much more than most sled dog breeds and often superficially resembles a yellow German Shepherd Dog
    German Shepherd Dog
    The German Shepherd Dog , also known as an Alsatian or just the German Shepherd, is a breed of large-sized dog that originated in Germany. The German Shepherd is a relatively new breed of dog, with its origin dating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, the German Shepherd is a working dog...

     mix.
  • Eurohound
    Eurohound
    A Eurohound is a crossbred dog, from the Alaskan Husky and a Pointer. The Eurohound first successfully entered the competitive sled dog racing world in Scandinavia...

     is a crossbred dog, a mix between the Alaskan Husky and the Pointer
    Pointing breed
    A pointing breed is a type of gundog typically used in finding game. Gundogs are traditionally divided into three classes: retrievers, flushing dogs, and pointing breeds. The name pointer comes from the dog's instinct to point, by stopping and aiming its muzzle towards game. This demonstrates to...

    . It has both the Alaskan Husky's sledding ability and the Pointer's enthusiasm and athleticism. It is one of the most formidable sprint-racing sled dogs in the world.
  • Greenland Dog
    Greenland Dog
    The Greenland Dog is a large breed of husky-type dog kept as a sled dog and for hunting polar bear and seal. This is an ancient breed, thought to be directly descended from dogs brought to Greenland by the first Inuit settlers.-Appearance:The Greenland Dog is a powerful, heavy-built dog...

     is a large breed of husky-type dog kept as a sled dog and also used for hunting polar bear and seal.
  • Greyster sled dog type bred in Norway
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

    .
  • Labrador Husky
    Labrador Husky
    The Labrador Husky is a spitz type of dog that was bred for work as a very strong, fast sled dog; it is a purebred originating from Canada. Although the breed's name may be baffling, it is not a mix between a Labrador Retriever and a Husky...

     was bred as a strong, fast, working sled dog and originated in Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

    .
  • Mackenzie River Husky
    Mackenzie River Husky
    The term Mackenzie River Husky describes several overlapping local populations of arctic and subarctic sleddog type dogs, none of which constitutes a breed. Most prominent and current of these are the sleddogs of Donna Dowling and others in the interior of Alaska. These dogs are described as...

     is built for heavy freighting in single file through deep snow. Less a specific breed than a certain set of varieties of sled dog types from a specific geographic area, a mix of Arctic and subarctic
    Subarctic
    The Subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and northern Mongolia...

     sled dogs.
  • Sakhalin Husky
    Sakhalin Husky
    The Sakhalin Husky, also known as the , is a breed of dog used as a sled dog.-Appearance:This breed is a spitz type, related to other Japanese dogs such as the Akita Inu...

     is rarely used and usually lives in Japan.
  • Samoyed
    Samoyed (dog)
    The Samoyed dog takes its name from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. An alternate name for the breed, especially in Europe, is Bjelkier...

     is a pure or mostly-white spitz that was used for herding reindeer
    Reindeer
    The reindeer , also known as the caribou in North America, is a deer from the Arctic and Subarctic, including both resident and migratory populations. While overall widespread and numerous, some of its subspecies are rare and one has already gone extinct.Reindeer vary considerably in color and size...

     as well as pulling sleds.
  • Seppala Siberian Sleddog
    Seppala Siberian Sleddog
    A rare working dog breed, the Seppala Siberian Sleddog is developed for the purpose of pulling a sled in cold country. It is a moderate-sized dog averaging 40 to 50 pounds weight and 22 or 23 inches height. Colours and markings are considered of little importance; eyes may be brown, blue or any...

     is active and energetic, sharing the same ancestral base as the Siberian Husky.
  • Siberian Husky
    Siberian Husky
    The Siberian Husky is a medium-size, dense-coat working dog breed that originated in north-eastern Siberia. The breed belongs to the Spitz genetic family...

     originated in Siberia
    Siberia
    Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

    . They were originally meant to be sled dogs, but nowadays are mainly family pets and show dogs.
  • Tamaskan Dog
    Tamaskan dog
    The Tamaskan Dog is a rare dog breed of sleddog type, originating from Finland. It is a highly versatile breed that is known to excel in agility, obedience and working trials. It is also capable of pulling sleds, which is inherited from its Siberian Husky and Alaskan Malamute ancestors...

     originated in Finland
    Finland
    Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

     and bred to look like wolves. Not bred specifically for (though still capable of) sledding work, it excels in agility, obedience, and working trials.
  • Utonagan
    Utonagan
    The Utonagan is a breed of dog that resembles a wolf, but in fact is a mix of three breeds of domestic dog: Alaskan Malamute, German Shepherd, and Siberian Husky.-Appearance:...

     and Northern Inuit Dog
    Northern Inuit Dog
    The Northern Inuit Dog is a breed originating in the late 1980s, in an attempt to create a domestic dog breed more closely resembling the wolf.-Appearance:...

     are bred to resemble wolves, but are mixes between the Alaskan Malamute, German Shepherd
    German Shepherd Dog
    The German Shepherd Dog , also known as an Alsatian or just the German Shepherd, is a breed of large-sized dog that originated in Germany. The German Shepherd is a relatively new breed of dog, with its origin dating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, the German Shepherd is a working dog...

    , and Siberian Husky.


There were ten distinct husky breeds differentiated by region, height/weight and color: the Husky proper (recognised by the American Kennel Club
American Kennel Club
The American Kennel Club is a registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. Beyond maintaining its pedigree registry, this kennel club also promotes and sanctions events for purebred dogs, including the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show, an annual event which predates the official...

 under the name of Eskimo), the Alaskan Malamute
Alaskan Malamute
The Alaskan Malamute is a generally large breed of domestic dog originally bred for use as a utilitarian dog and later an Alaskan sled dog. They are sometimes mistaken for a Siberian Husky, but in fact are quite different in many ways...

, the Toganee, the Mackenzie River Husky
Mackenzie River Husky
The term Mackenzie River Husky describes several overlapping local populations of arctic and subarctic sleddog type dogs, none of which constitutes a breed. Most prominent and current of these are the sleddogs of Donna Dowling and others in the interior of Alaska. These dogs are described as...

, the Timber-Wolf Dog, the West Greenland Husky
Greenland Dog
The Greenland Dog is a large breed of husky-type dog kept as a sled dog and for hunting polar bear and seal. This is an ancient breed, thought to be directly descended from dogs brought to Greenland by the first Inuit settlers.-Appearance:The Greenland Dog is a powerful, heavy-built dog...

, the East Greenland Husky
Greenland Dog
The Greenland Dog is a large breed of husky-type dog kept as a sled dog and for hunting polar bear and seal. This is an ancient breed, thought to be directly descended from dogs brought to Greenland by the first Inuit settlers.-Appearance:The Greenland Dog is a powerful, heavy-built dog...

, the Baffinland Husky, the Chuchi (recognised by the American Kennel Club as the Siberian Husky), and the Ostiak.

The Husky or Eskimo dog is rare outside of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada.Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, and three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, and Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south...

. These are mostly used by trappers, explorers, Eskimo
Eskimo
Eskimos or Inuit–Yupik peoples are indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia , across Alaska , Canada, and Greenland....

s and Indians
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

; the Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay , sometimes called Hudson's Bay, is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada. It drains a very large area, about , that includes parts of Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, most of Manitoba, southeastern Nunavut, as well as parts of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota,...

 traders
Fur trade
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of world market for in the early modern period furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued...

, Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

, lumber-jacks
Lumberjack
A lumberjack is a worker in the logging industry who performs the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term usually refers to a bygone era when hand tools were used in harvesting trees principally from virgin forest...

, doctors, priests and others generally use what the Indians call the white dogs, or crossbred dogs which are half Husky and half Hound, Great Dane
Great Dane
The Great Dane , also known as German Mastiff or Danish Hound , is a breed of domestic dog known for its giant size...

, Newfoundland
Newfoundland (dog)
The Newfoundland is a breed of large dog. Newfoundlands can be black, brown, gray, or black and white. They were originally bred and used as a working dog for fishermen in the Dominion of Newfoundland, now part of Canada. They are known for their giant size, tremendous strength, calm dispositions,...

 or any other type that is handy.

The Toganee and Mackenzie River Dogs
Mackenzie River Husky
The term Mackenzie River Husky describes several overlapping local populations of arctic and subarctic sleddog type dogs, none of which constitutes a breed. Most prominent and current of these are the sleddogs of Donna Dowling and others in the interior of Alaska. These dogs are described as...

 were closely related to the true Husky and sometimes interbred. The Toganee had longer legs while the Mackenzie River Dog
Mackenzie River Husky
The term Mackenzie River Husky describes several overlapping local populations of arctic and subarctic sleddog type dogs, none of which constitutes a breed. Most prominent and current of these are the sleddogs of Donna Dowling and others in the interior of Alaska. These dogs are described as...

 had a longer coat. The Timber-Wolf Dog of the Yukon basin was a first-cross between the true Husky and the timber-wolf and used as a leader or "king" dog. The Baffinland Husky differed from the true Husky in having a black coat with white markings. The West Greenland Husky and the slightly smaller East Greenland Husky both had timber-wolf blood and were sometimes crossed with the Baffinland Husky. The East Greenland Husky (also called the Angmagssalik Husky) was considered the oldest and least diluted type. The comparatively small Ostiak or West Siberian Husky was used not only for sled hauling but also in hunting elk, bear and wolf. The tenth recognised type was the Chuchi (Siberian Husky) first imported into Alaska in 1909.

See also



  • Dog sled racing
  • Balto
    Balto
    Balto was a Siberian Husky sled dog who led his team on the final leg of the 1925 serum run to Nome, in which diphtheria antitoxin was transported from Anchorage, Alaska, to Nenana, Alaska, by train and then to Nome by dog sled to combat an outbreak of the disease. The run is commemorated by the...

  • List of sled dog races
  • 1925 serum run to Nome
    1925 serum run to Nome
    During the 1925 serum run to Nome, also known as the "Great Race of Mercy," 20 mushers and about 150 sled dogs relayed diphtheria antitoxin by dog sled across the U.S. territory of Alaska in a record-breaking five and a half days, saving the small city of Nome and the surrounding communities from...

  • Sled dog race at the 1932 Winter Olympics
    Sled dog race at the 1932 Winter Olympics
    A sled dog race was included as a demonstration event at the 1932 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. 5 contestants from Canada and 7 contestants from the United States competed. The event, run under the rules of the New England Sled Dog Club, ran twice over a 25.1 mile long course...


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