Silicate minerals

Silicate minerals

Overview
The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming mineral
Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids and does not...

s, constituting approximately 90 percent of the crust of the Earth. They are classified based on the structure of their silicate
Silicate
A silicate is a compound containing a silicon bearing anion. The great majority of silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate and other anions are also included. This article focuses mainly on the Si-O anions. Silicates comprise the majority of the earth's crust, as well as the other...

 group. Silicate minerals all contain silicon
Silicon
Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. A tetravalent metalloid, it is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly above it in the periodic table, but more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table...

 and oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

.

Nesosilicates (from Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 νησος nēsos, island), or orthosilicates, have isolated (insular) [SiO4]4− tetrahedra
Tetrahedron
In geometry, a tetrahedron is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. A regular tetrahedron is one in which the four triangles are regular, or "equilateral", and is one of the Platonic solids...

 that are connected only by interstitial cations.
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Encyclopedia
The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming mineral
Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids and does not...

s, constituting approximately 90 percent of the crust of the Earth. They are classified based on the structure of their silicate
Silicate
A silicate is a compound containing a silicon bearing anion. The great majority of silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate and other anions are also included. This article focuses mainly on the Si-O anions. Silicates comprise the majority of the earth's crust, as well as the other...

 group. Silicate minerals all contain silicon
Silicon
Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. A tetravalent metalloid, it is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly above it in the periodic table, but more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table...

 and oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

.

Nesosilicates or orthosilicates


Nesosilicates (from Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 νησος nēsos, island), or orthosilicates, have isolated (insular) [SiO4]4− tetrahedra
Tetrahedron
In geometry, a tetrahedron is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. A regular tetrahedron is one in which the four triangles are regular, or "equilateral", and is one of the Platonic solids...

 that are connected only by interstitial cations. Nickel-Strunz classification
Strunz classification
Nickel–Strunz classification is a scheme for categorizing minerals based upon their chemical composition, introduced by German mineralogist Karl Hugo Strunz in his 1941 Mineralogische Tabellen. The 4th edition was edited by Christel Tennyson too . It was followed by A.S...

: 09.A
  • Phenakite group
    • Phenakite
      Phenakite
      Phenakite or phenacite is a fairly rare nesosilicate mineral consisting of beryllium orthosilicate, Be2SiO4. Occasionally used as a gemstone, phenakite occurs as isolated crystals, which are rhombohedral with parallel-faced hemihedrism, and are either lenticular or prismatic in habit: the...

       - Be2SiO4
    • Willemite
      Willemite
      Willemite is a zinc silicate mineral and a minor ore of zinc. It is highly fluorescent under shortwave ultraviolet light.It occurs in all different colors in daylight, in fibrous masses, solid brown masses , and apple green gemmy masses.It was discovered in 1830 and named after William I of the...

       - Zn2SiO4
  • Olivine
    Olivine
    The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula 2SiO4. It is a common mineral in the Earth's subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface....

     group
    • Forsterite
      Forsterite
      Forsterite is the magnesium rich end-member of the olivine solid solution series. Forsterite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with cell parameters a 4.75 Å , b 10.20 Å and c 5.98 Å .Forsterite is associated with igneous and metamorphic rocks and has also been found in meteorites...

       - Mg2SiO4
    • Fayalite
      Fayalite
      Fayalite is the iron-rich end-member of the olivine solid-solution series. In common with all minerals in the olivine group, fayalite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with cell parameters a 4.82 Å, b 10.48 Å and c Å 6.09.Iron rich olivine is a relatively common constituent of acidic and...

       - Fe2SiO4
  • Garnet
    Garnet
    The garnet group includes a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. The name "garnet" may come from either the Middle English word gernet meaning 'dark red', or the Latin granatus , possibly a reference to the Punica granatum , a plant with red seeds...

     group
    • Pyrope
      Pyrope
      The mineral pyrope is a member of the garnet group. Pyrope is the only member of the garnet family to always display red colouration in natural samples, and it is from this characteristic that it gets its name: from the Greek for fire and eye. Despite being less common than most garnets, it is a...

       - Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
    • Almandine
      Almandine
      Almandine , also known incorrectly as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet Group. The name is a corruption of alabandicus, which is the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet,...

       - Fe3Al2(SiO4)3
    • Spessartine
      Spessartine
      Spessartine previously named spessartite, is a nesosilicate, manganese aluminium garnet species, Mn3Al23.The name is a derivative of Spessart in Bavaria, Germany, the type locality of the mineral. It occurs most often in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low grade metamorphic...

       - Mn3Al2(SiO4)3
    • Grossular
      Grossular
      Grossular or grossularite is a calcium-aluminium mineral species of the garnet group with the formula Ca3Al23, though the calcium may in part be replaced by ferrous iron and the aluminium by ferric iron. The name grossular is derived from the botanical name for the gooseberry, grossularia, in...

       - Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
    • Andradite
      Andradite
      Andradite is a species of the garnet group. It is a nesosilicate, with formula Ca3Fe2Si3O12.Andradite includes three varieties:* Melanite: Black in color, referred to as "titanian andradite"....

       - Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3
    • Uvarovite
      Uvarovite
      Uvarovite is a chromium-bearing garnet group species with the formula: Ca3Cr23. It was discovered in 1832 by Germain Henri Hess who named it after Count Sergei Semenovitch Uvarov , a Russian statesman and amateur mineral collector....

       - Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
    • Hydrogrossular
      Hydrogrossular
      Hydrogrossular, is a calcium aluminium garnet series . The endmembers of the hydrogarnet family depend on the degree of substitution :...

       - Ca3Al2Si2O8(SiO4)3-m(OH)4m
  • Zircon group
    • Zircon
      Zircon
      Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4. A common empirical formula showing some of the range of substitution in zircon is 1–x4x–y...

       - ZrSiO4
    • Thorite
      Thorite
      Thorite, SiO4, is a rare nesosilicate of thorium that crystallizes in the tetragonal system and is isomorphous with zircon and hafnon. It is the most common mineral of thorium and is nearly always strongly radioactive. It was named in 1829 to reflect its thorium content...

       - (Th,U)SiO4

  • Al2SiO5 group
    • Andalusite
      Andalusite
      Andalusite is an aluminium nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5.The variety chiastolite commonly contains dark inclusions of carbon or clay which form a checker-board pattern when shown in cross-section....

       - Al2SiO5
    • Kyanite
      Kyanite
      Kyanite, whose name derives from the Greek word kuanos sometimes referred to as "kyanos", meaning deep blue, is a typically blue silicate mineral, commonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock. Kyanite in metamorphic rocks generally indicates pressures higher than...

       - Al2SiO5
    • Sillimanite
      Sillimanite
      Sillimanite is an alumino-silicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. Sillimanite is named after the American chemist Benjamin Silliman . It was first described in 1824 for an occurrence in Chester, Middlesex County, Connecticut, USA....

       - Al2SiO5
    • Dumortierite
      Dumortierite
      Dumortierite is a fibrous variably colored aluminium boro-silicate mineral, Al7BO33O3. Dumortierite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system typically forming fibrous aggregates of slender prismatic crystals. The crystals are vitreous and vary in color from brown, blue, and green to more rare violet...

       - Al6.5-7BO3(SiO4)3(O,OH)3
    • Topaz
      Topaz
      Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO42. Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces.-Color and varieties:...

       - Al2SiO4(F,OH)2
    • Staurolite
      Staurolite
      Staurolite is a red brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate mineral with a white streak.-Properties:It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, has a Mohs hardness of 7 to 7.5 and a rather complex chemical formula: 2Al94O204...

       - Fe2Al9(SiO4)4(O,OH)2
  • Humite
    Humite
    Humite is a mineral found in the volcanically ejected masses of Vesuvius. It was first described in 1813 and named for Abraham Hume .-See also:* Jerrygibbsite* Chondrodite* Clinohumite* Alleghanyite...

     group - (Mg,Fe)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2
    • Norbergite - Mg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2
    • Chondrodite
      Chondrodite
      Chondrodite is a nesosilicate mineral with formula 522. Although it is a fairly rare mineral, it is the most frequently encountered member of the humite group of minerals. It is formed in hydrothermal deposits from locally metamorphosed dolomite. It is also found associated with skarn and...

       - Mg5(SiO4)(F,OH)2
    • Humite
      Humite
      Humite is a mineral found in the volcanically ejected masses of Vesuvius. It was first described in 1813 and named for Abraham Hume .-See also:* Jerrygibbsite* Chondrodite* Clinohumite* Alleghanyite...

       - Mg7(SiO4)(F,OH)2
    • Clinohumite
      Clinohumite
      Clinohumite is an uncommon member of the humite group, a magnesium silicate according to the chemical formula 942. Most commonly found as tiny indistinct grains, large euhedral clinohumite crystals are sought by collectors and occasionally fashioned into bright, yellow-orange gemstones...

       - Mg9(SiO4)(F,OH)2
  • Datolite
    Datolite
    Datolite is a calcium boron hydroxide nesosilicate, CaBSiO4. It was first observed by Jens Esmark in 1806, and named by him from δατεῖσθαι, "to divide," and λίθος, "stone," in allusion to the granular structureof the massive mineral....

     - CaBSiO4(OH)
  • Titanite
    Titanite
    Titanite, or sphene , is a calcium titanium nesosilicate mineral, CaTiSiO5. Trace impurities of iron and aluminium are typically present...

     - CaTiSiO5
  • Chloritoid
    Chloritoid
    Chloritoid is a silicate mineral of metamorphic origin. It is an iron magnesium manganese alumino-silicate hydroxide with formula: 2Al4Si2O104. It occurs as greenish grey to black platy micaceous crystals and foliated masses. Its Mohs hardness is 6.5, unusually high for a platy mineral, and it has...

     - (Fe,Mg,Mn)2Al4Si2O10(OH)4

Sorosilicates


Sorosilicates have isolated double tetrahedra groups with (Si2O7)6− or a ratio of 2:7. Nickel-Strunz classification: 09.B
  • Hemimorphite
    Hemimorphite
    Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. It was often assumed to be the same mineral and both were classed under the same name of calamine...

     (calamine
    Calamine (mineral)
    Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc. The name calamine was derived from the Belgian town of Kelmis, whose French name is "La Calamine", which is home to a zinc mine...

    ) - Zn4(Si2O7)(OH)2·H2O
  • Lawsonite
    Lawsonite
    Lawsonite is a hydrous calcium aluminium sorosilicate mineral with formula CaAl2Si2O72·H2O. Lawsonite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system in prismatic, often tabular crystals. Crystal twinning is common. It forms transparent to translucent colorless, white, and bluish to pinkish grey glassy to...

     - CaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2·H2O
  • Ilvaite
    Ilvaite
    Ilvaite is a sorosilicate of iron and calcium with formula: CaFe2+2Fe3+Si2O7O. Both manganese and magnesium substitute in the structure. Ilvaite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system in black prismatic crystals and columnar masses. It is black to brownish black to gray and opaque. It has a Mohs...

     - CaFe2+2Fe3+O(Si2O7)(OH)
  • Epidote group (has both (SiO4)4− and (Si2O7)6− groups)
    • Epidote
      Epidote
      Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral, Ca2Al2O, crystallizing in the monoclinic system. Well-developed crystals are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit, the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. The faces are often...

       - Ca2(Al,Fe)3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
    • Zoisite
      Zoisite
      Zoisite is a calcium aluminium hydroxy sorosilicate belonging to the epidote group of minerals. Its chemical formula is Ca2Al3O...

       - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
    • Clinozoisite
      Clinozoisite
      Clinozoisite is a mineral, a complex sorosilicate of calcium and aluminium and is usually a grey green colour.Its formula is Ca2Al3[O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7]....

       - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
    • Tanzanite
      Tanzanite
      Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite which was discovered in the Mererani Hills of Northern Tanzania in 1967, near the city of Arusha and Mount Kilimanjaro. It is used as a gemstone...

       - Ca2Al3O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
    • Allanite
      Allanite
      Allanite is a sorosilicate group of minerals within the broader epidote group that contain a significant amount of rare earth elements. The mineral occurs mainly in metamorphosed clay rich sediments and felsic igneous rocks...

       - Ca(Ce,La,Y,Ca)Al2(Fe2+,Fe3+)O(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)
    • Dollaseite-(Ce)
      Dollaseite-(Ce)
      Dollaseite- is a sorosilicate end-member epidote mineral, with the formula CaREE+3Mg2AlSi3O11F, where cerium is the dominant rare earth element . It also includes lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium, samarium, and gadolinium, and since cerium is the dominant REE, it is placed in the name and...

       - CaCeMg2AlSi3O11F(OH)
  • Vesuvianite
    Vesuvianite
    Vesuvianite, also known as idocrase, is a green, brown, yellow, or blue silicate mineral. Vesuvianite occurs as tetragonal crystals in skarn deposits and limestones that have been subjected to contact metamorphism...

     (idocrase
    Vesuvianite
    Vesuvianite, also known as idocrase, is a green, brown, yellow, or blue silicate mineral. Vesuvianite occurs as tetragonal crystals in skarn deposits and limestones that have been subjected to contact metamorphism...

    ) - Ca10(Mg,Fe)2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2O7)2(OH)4

Cyclosilicates


Cyclosilicates, or ring silicates, have linked tetrahedra with (SixO3x)2x- or a ratio of 1:3. These exist as 3-member (Si3O9)6-, 4-member (Si4O12)8- and 6-member (Si6O18)12- rings. Nickel-Strunz classification: 09.C
  • 3-member ring
    • Benitoite
      Benitoite
      Benitoite is a rare blue barium titanium silicate mineral, found in hydrothermally altered serpentinite. Benitoite fluoresces under short wave ultraviolet light, appearing bright blue to bluish white in color. The more rarely seen clear to white benitoite crystals fluoresce red under long-wave UV...

       - BaTi(Si3O9)
  • 4-member ring
    • Axinite
      Axinite
      Axinite is a brown to violet-brown, or reddish-brown bladed group of minerals composed of calcium aluminium boro-silicate, 3Al2BO3Si4O12OH...

       - (Ca,Fe,Mn)3Al2(BO3)(Si4O12)(OH)
  • 6-member ring
    • Beryl
      Beryl
      The mineral beryl is a beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al26. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. Terminated crystals are relatively rare...

      /Emerald
      Emerald
      Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the 10 point Mohs scale of mineral hardness...

       - Be3Al2(Si6O18)
    • Cordierite
      Cordierite
      Cordierite or iolite is a magnesium iron aluminium cyclosilicate. Iron is almost always present and a solid solution exists between Mg-rich cordierite and Fe-rich sekaninaite with a series formula: 2 to 2...

       - (Mg,Fe)2Al3(Si5AlO18)
    • Tourmaline
      Tourmaline
      Tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classified as a semi-precious stone and the gem comes in a wide variety of colors...

       - (Na,Ca)(Al,Li,Mg)3-(Al,Fe,Mn)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)4

Inosilicates



Inosilicates (from Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 ις [genitive: ινος inos], fibre), or chain silicates, have interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra with either SiO3, 1:3 ratio, for single chains or Si4O11, 4:11 ratio, for double chains. Nickel-Strunz classification: 09.D

Single chain inosilicates

  • Pyroxene
    Pyroxene
    The pyroxenes are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. They share a common structure consisting of single chains of silica tetrahedra and they crystallize in the monoclinic and orthorhombic systems...

     group
    • Enstatite - orthoferrosilite series
      • Enstatite
        Enstatite
        Enstatite is the magnesium endmember of the pyroxene silicate mineral series enstatite - ferrosilite . The magnesium rich members of the solid solution series are common rock-forming minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks...

         - MgSiO3
      • Ferrosilite - FeSiO3
    • Pigeonite
      Pigeonite
      Pigeonite is a mineral in the clinopyroxene group. It has a general formula of Si2O6. The calcium cation fraction can vary from 5% to 25%, with iron and magnesium making up the rest of the cations....

       - Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)1.75Si2O6
    • Diopside - hedenbergite series
      • Diopside
        Diopside
        Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6. It forms complete solid solution series with hedenbergite and augite, and partial solid solutions with orthopyroxene and pigeonite. It forms variably colored, but typically dull green crystals in the monoclinic prismatic class...

         - CaMgSi2O6
      • Hedenbergite
        Hedenbergite
        Hedenbergite, CaFeSi2O6, is the iron rich end member of the pyroxene group having a monoclinic crystal system. The mineral is extremely rarely found as a pure substance, and usually has to be synthesized in a lab. It was named in 1819 after M.A. Ludwig Hedenberg, who was the first to define...

         - CaFeSi2O6
      • Augite
        Augite
        Augite is a single chain inosilicate mineral, 2O6. The crystals are monoclinic and prismatic. Augite has two prominent cleavages, meeting at angles near 90 degrees.-Characteristics:Augite is a solid solution in the pyroxene group...

         - (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)2O6
    • Sodium pyroxene series
      • Jadeite
        Jadeite
        Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral with composition NaAlSi2O6. It is monoclinic. It has a Mohs hardness of about 6.5 to 7.0 depending on the composition. The mineral is dense, with a specific gravity of about 3.4. Jadeite forms solid solutions with other pyroxene endmembers such as augite and diopside ,...

         - NaAlSi2O6
      • Aegirine
        Aegirine
        Aegirine is a member of the clinopyroxene group of inosilicates. Aegirine is the sodium endmember of the aegirine-augite series. Aegirine has the chemical formula NaFeSi2O6 in which the iron is present as Fe3+. In the aegirine-augite series the sodium is variably replaced by calcium with iron and...

         (Acmite) - NaFe3+Si2O6
    • Spodumene
      Spodumene
      Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate, LiAl2, and is a source of lithium. It occurs as colorless to yellowish, purplish, or lilac kunzite , yellowish-green or emerald-green hiddenite, prismatic crystals, often of great size...

       - LiAlSi2O6
  • Pyroxenoid group
    • Wollastonite
      Wollastonite
      Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium, and manganese substituting for calcium. It is usually white. It forms when impure limestone or dolostone is subjected to high temperature and pressure sometimes in the presence of silica-bearing fluids...

       - CaSiO3
    • Rhodonite
      Rhodonite
      Rhodonite is a manganese inosilicate, SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system...

       - MnSiO3
    • Pectolite
      Pectolite
      Pectolite is a white to gray mineral, NaCa2Si3O8, sodium calcium inosilicate hydroxide. It crystallizes in the triclinic system typically occurring in radiated or fibrous crystalline masses. It has a Mohs hardness of 4.5 to 5 and a specific gravity of 2.7 to 2.9. The gemstone variety, larimar, is a...

       - NaCa2(Si3O8)(OH)

Double chain inosilicates

  • Amphibole
    Amphibole
    Amphibole is the name of an important group of generally dark-colored rock-forming inosilicate minerals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.-Mineralogy:...

     group
    • Anthophyllite
      Anthophyllite
      Anthophyllite is an amphibole mineral: 7Si8O222, magnesium iron inosilicate hydroxide. Anthophyllite is polymorphic with cummingtonite. Some forms of anthophyllite are lamellar or fibrous and are used as asbestos...

       - (Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2
    • Cumingtonite series
      • Cummingtonite
        Cummingtonite
        Cummingtonite is a metamorphic amphibole with the chemical composition 7Si8O222, magnesium iron silicate hydroxide.Monoclinic cummingtonite is compositionally similar and polymorphic with orthorhombic anthophyllite, which is a much more common form of magnesium-rich amphibole, the latter being...

         - Fe2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
      • Grunerite
        Grunerite
        Grunerite is a mineral of the amphibole group of minerals with formula Fe7Si8O222. It is the iron endmember of the grunerite-cummingtonite series. It forms as fibrous, columnar or massive aggregates of crystals. The crystals are monoclinic prismatic. The luster is glassy to pearly with colors...

         - Fe7Si8O22(OH)2
    • Tremolite series
      • Tremolite
        Tremolite
        Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: Ca2Mg5Si8O222. Tremolite forms by metamorphism of sediments rich in dolomite and quartz. Tremolite forms a series with actinolite and ferro-actinolite. Pure magnesium tremolite is creamy white, but the color grades...

         - Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
      • Actinolite
        Actinolite
        Actinolite is an amphibole silicate mineral with the chemical formula .-Etymology:The name actinolite is derived from the Greek word aktis , meaning "beam" or "ray", because of the mineral's fibrous nature...

         - Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2
    • Hornblende
      Hornblende
      Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals .It is not a recognized mineral in its own right, but the name is used as a general or field term, to refer to a dark amphibole....

       - (Ca,Na)2-3(Mg,Fe,Al)5Si6(Al,Si)2O22(OH)2
    • Sodium amphibole group
      • Glaucophane
        Glaucophane
        Glaucophane is a mineral belonging to the amphibole group, chemical formula []Na2]Mg3Al2][2|Si8O22].-Name:It is named from its typical blue color . Glaucophane crystallizes in the monoclinic system....

         - Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)2
      • Riebeckite
        Riebeckite
        Riebeckite is a sodium-rich member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals, chemical formula [][Na2][32][2|Si8O22]. It forms a series with magnesioriebeckite. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, usually as long prismatic crystals showing a diamond-shaped cross section, but also in...

         (asbestos
        Asbestos
        Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals used commercially for their desirable physical properties. They all have in common their eponymous, asbestiform habit: long, thin fibrous crystals...

        ) - Na2Fe2+3Fe3+2Si8O22(OH)2
      • Arfvedsonite
        Arfvedsonite
        Arfvedsonite is a sodium amphibole mineral with composition: [Na][Na2][4Fe3+][2|Si8O22]. It crystallizes in the monoclinic prismatic crystal system and typically occurs as greenish black to bluish grey fibrous to radiating or stellate prisms....

         - Na3(Fe,Mg)4FeSi8O22(OH)2

Phyllosilicates



Phyllosilicates (from Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 φύλλον phyllon, leaf), or sheet silicates, form parallel sheets of silicate tetrahedra with Si2O5 or a 2:5 ratio. Nickel-Strunz classification: 09.E


  • Serpentine group
    • Antigorite - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
    • Chrysotile
      Chrysotile
      Chrysotile or white asbestos is the most commonly encountered form of asbestos, accounting for approximately 95% of the asbestos in place in the United States and a similar proportion in other countries. It is a soft, fibrous silicate mineral in the serpentine group of phyllosilicates; as such, it...

       - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
    • Lizardite - Mg3Si2O5(OH)4
  • Clay mineral group
    • Halloysite
      Halloysite
      Halloysite is a 1:1 aluminosilicate clay mineral with the empirical formula Al2Si2O54. Its main constituents are aluminium , silicon , and hydrogen . Halloysite typically forms by hydrothermal alteration of alumino-silicate minerals. It can occur intermixed with dickite, kaolinite, montmorillonite...

       - Al2Si2O5(OH)4
    • Kaolinite
      Kaolinite
      Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O54. It is a layered silicate mineral, with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra...

       - Al2Si2O5(OH)4
    • Illite
      Illite
      Illite is a non-expanding, clay-sized, micaceous mineral. Illite is a phyllosilicate or layered alumino-silicate. Its structure is constituted by the repetition of tetrahedron – octahedron – tetrahedron layers. The interlayer space is mainly occupied by poorly hydrated potassium cations...

       - (K,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10[(OH)2,(H2O)]
    • Montmorillonite
      Montmorillonite
      Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that typically form in microscopic crystals, forming a clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite family, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has 2 tetrahedral sheets sandwiching a central...

       - (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2·nH2O
    • Vermiculite
      Vermiculite
      Vermiculite is a natural mineral that expands with the application of heat. The expansion process is called exfoliation and it is routinely accomplished in purpose-designed commercial furnaces. Vermiculite is formed by weathering or hydrothermal alteration of biotite or phlogopite...

       - (MgFe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2·4H2O
    • Talc
      Talc
      Talc is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg34 or Mg3Si4O102. In loose form, it is the widely-used substance known as talcum powder. It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses, its crystals being so rare as to be almost unknown...

       - Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
    • Palygorskite
      Palygorskite
      Palygorskite or attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate with formula 2Si4O10·4 which occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States. It is one of the types of fuller's earth.-Name:...

       - (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)·4(H2O)
    • Pyrophyllite
      Pyrophyllite
      Pyrophyllite is a phyllosilicate mineral composed of aluminium silicate hydroxide: Al2Si4O102. It occurs in two more or less distinct varieties, namely, as crystalline folia and as compact masses; distinct crystals are not known....

       - Al2Si4O10(OH)2
  • Mica
    Mica
    The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition...

     group
    • Biotite
      Biotite
      Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula . More generally, it refers to the dark mica series, primarily a solid-solution series between the iron-endmember annite, and the magnesium-endmember phlogopite; more aluminous endmembers...

       - K(Mg,Fe)3(AlSi3)O10(OH)2
    • Muscovite
      Muscovite
      Muscovite is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl22, or 236. It has a highly-perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably-thin laminæ which are often highly elastic...

       - KAl2(AlSi3)O10(OH)2
    • Phlogopite
      Phlogopite
      Phlogopite is a yellow, greenish, or reddish-brown member of the mica family of phyllosilicates. It is also known as magnesium mica.Phlogopite is the magnesium endmember of the biotite solid solution series, with the chemical formula KMg3AlSi3O102. Iron substitutes for magnesium in variable amounts...

       - KMg3(AlSi3)O10(OH)2
    • Lepidolite
      Lepidolite
      Lepidolite Lepidolite Lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2 is a lilac-gray or rose-colored phyllosilicate mineral of the mica group that is a secondary source of lithium. It is associated with other lithium-bearing minerals like spodumene in pegmatite bodies. It is one of the major sources of the...

       - K(Li,Al)2-3(AlSi3)O10(OH)2
    • Margarite
      Margarite
      Margarite is a calcium rich member of the mica group of the phyllosilicates with formula: CaAl2O102. It forms white to pinkish or yellowish gray masses or thin laminae. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. It typically has a specific gravity of around 3 and a Mohs hardness of 4...

       - CaAl2(Al2Si2)O10(OH)2
    • Glauconite
      Glauconite
      Glauconite is an iron potassium phyllosilicate mineral of characteristic green color with very low weathering resistance and very friable.It crystallizes with a monoclinic geometry...

       - (K,Na)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
  • Chlorite group
    Chlorite group
    The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorites can be described by the following four endmembers based on their chemistry via substitution of the following four elements in the silicate lattice; Mg, Fe, Ni, and Mn....

    • Chlorite - (Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2•(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6

Tectosilicates



Tectosilicates, or "framework silicates," have a three-dimensional framework of silicate tetrahedra with SiO2 or a 1:2 ratio. This group comprises nearly 75% of the crust
Crust (geology)
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle...

 of the Earth
Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

. Tectosilicates, with the exception of the quartz group, are aluminosilicate
Aluminosilicate
Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations. They are a major component of kaolin and other clay minerals....

s. Nickel-Strunz classification: 09.F and 09.G, 04.DA (Quartz/ silica family)



  • Quartz group
    • Quartz
      Quartz
      Quartz is the second-most-abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz,...

       - SiO2
    • Tridymite
      Tridymite
      Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of quartz and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal triclinic crystals, or scales, in cavities in acidic volcanic rocks. Its chemical formula is SiO2. Tridymite was first described in 1868 and the type location is in Hidalgo,...

       - SiO2
    • Cristobalite
      Cristobalite
      The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure. Both quartz and cristobalite are polymorphs with all the members of the quartz group which also include coesite, tridymite and stishovite...

       - SiO2
  • Feldspar
    Feldspar
    Feldspars are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust....

     family
    • Alkali-feldspars
      • Potassium-feldspars
        • Microcline
          Microcline
          Microcline is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. It is a potassium-rich alkali feldspar. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. It is common in granite and pegmatites. Microcline forms during slow cooling of orthoclase; it is more stable at lower temperatures...

           - KAlSi3O8
        • Orthoclase
          Orthoclase
          Orthoclase is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. The name is from the Greek for "straight fracture," because its two cleavage planes are at right angles to each other. Alternate names are alkali feldspar and potassium feldspar...

           - KAlSi3O8
        • Sanidine
          Sanidine
          Sanidine is the high temperature form of potassium feldspar 4O8. Sanidine most typically occurs in felsic volcanic rocks such as obsidian, rhyolite and trachyte. Sanidine crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. Orthoclase is a monoclinic polymorph stable at lower temperatures...

           - KAlSi3O8
      • Anorthoclase
        Anorthoclase
        The mineral anorthoclase is a crystalline solid solution in the alkali feldspar series, in which the sodium-aluminium silicate member exists in larger proportion. It typically consists of between 10 and 36 percent of KAlSi3O8 and between 64 and 90 percent of NaAlSi3O8....

         - (Na,K)AlSi3O8
    • Plagioclase
      Plagioclase
      Plagioclase is an important series of tectosilicate minerals within the feldspar family. Rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a solid solution series, more properly known as the plagioclase feldspar series...

       feldspars
      • Albite
        Albite
        Albite is a plagioclase feldspar mineral. It is the sodium endmember of the plagioclase solid solution series. As such it represents a plagioclase with less than 10% anorthite content. The pure albite endmember has the formula NaAlSi3O8. It is a tectosilicate. Its color is usually pure white, hence...

         - NaAlSi3O8
      • Oligoclase
        Oligoclase
        Oligoclase is a rock-forming mineral belonging to the plagioclase feldspars. In chemical composition and in its crystallographic and physical characters it is intermediate between albite and anorthite . The albite:anorthite molar ratio ranges from 90:10 to 70:30.Oligoclase is a high sodium...

         - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 (Na:Ca 4:1)
      • Andesine
        Andesine
        Andesine is a silicate mineral, a member of the plagioclase feldspar solid solution series. Its chemical formula is 4O8, where Ca/ is between 30%-50%...

         - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 (Na:Ca 3:2)
      • Labradorite
        Labradorite
        Labradorite , a feldspar mineral, is an intermediate to calcic member of the plagioclase series. It is usually defined as having "%An" between 50 and 70. The specific gravity ranges from 2.68 to 2.72. The streak is white, like most silicates. The refractive index ranges from 1.559 to 1.573....

         - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 (Na:Ca 2:3)
      • Bytownite
        Bytownite
        Bytownite is a calcium rich member of the plagioclase solid solution series of feldspar minerals. It is usually defined as having "%An" between 70 and 90. Like others of the series, bytownite forms grey to white triclinic crystals commonly exhibiting the typical plagioclase twinning and associated...

         - (Na,Ca)(Si,Al)4O8 (Na:Ca 1:4)
      • Anorthite
        Anorthite
        Anorthite is the calcium endmember of plagioclase feldspar. Plagioclase is an abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. The formula of pure anorthite is CaAl2Si2O8.-Mineralogy :...

         - CaAl2Si2O8
  • Feldspathoid
    Feldspathoid
    The feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content. They occur in rare and unusual types of igneous rocks....

     family
    • Nosean
      Nosean
      Nosean, also known as Noselite, is a mineral of the feldspathoid group with formula: Na8Al6Si6O24. It forms isometric crystals of variable color: white, grey, blue, green, to brown. It has a Mohs hardness of 5.5 to 6 and a specific gravity of 2.3 to 2.4. It is fluorescent. It is found in low silica...

       - Na8Al6Si6O24(SO4)
    • Cancrinite
      Cancrinite
      Cancrinite is a complex carbonate and silicate of sodium, calcium and aluminium with the formula Na6Ca2[2|Al6Si6O24]·2H2O. It is classed as a member of the feldspathoid group of minerals; the alkali feldspars that are poor in silica. Yellow, orange, pink, white or even blue, it has a vitreous or...

       - Na6Ca2(CO3,Al6Si6O24).2H2O
    • Leucite
      Leucite
      Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate K[AlSi2O6]. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra but, as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821, they are not optically isotropic, and are therefore pseudo-cubic. Goniometric measurements made by...

       - KAlSi2O6
    • Nepheline
      Nepheline
      Nepheline, also called nephelite , is a feldspathoid: a silica-undersaturated aluminosilicate, Na3KAl4Si4O16, that occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks with low silica, and in their associated pegmatites...

       - (Na,K)AlSiO4
    • Sodalite
      Sodalite
      Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental gemstone. Although massive sodalite samples are opaque, crystals are usually transparent to translucent...

       - Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2
      • Hauyne
        Hauyne
        Hauyne, haüyne or hauynite was first described in 1807 from samples discovered in Vesuvian lavas in Monte Somma, Italy, and was named in 1807 by Brunn-Neergard for the French crystallographer René Just Haüy . It is a tectosilicate mineral with sulfate, with endmember formula Na3CaO12. As much as...

         - (Na,Ca)4-8Al6Si6(O,S)24(SO4,Cl)1-2
    • Lazurite
      Lazurite
      Lazurite is a tectosilicate mineral with sulfate, sulfur and chloride with formula: 8[2|]. It is a feldspathoid and a member of the sodalite group. Lazurite crystallizes in the isometric system although well formed crystals are rare. It is usually massive and forms the bulk of the gemstone lapis...

       - (Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(SO4,S,Cl)2
  • Petalite
    Petalite
    Petalite, also known as castorite, is a lithium aluminium tectosilicate mineral LiAlSi4O10, crystallizing in the monoclinic system. Petalite is a member of the feldspathoid group. It occurs as colorless, grey, yellow, yellow grey, to white tabular crystals and columnar masses. Occurs in...

     - LiAlSi4O10
  • Scapolite
    Scapolite
    Scapolite , is a group of rock-forming silicate minerals composed of aluminium, calcium, and sodium silicate with chlorine, carbonate and sulfate.-Properties:...

     group
    • Marialite
      Marialite
      Marialite is a silicate mineral with a chemical composition of Na4Al3Si9O24Cl if a pure endmember or Na43 with increasing meionite content. Marialite is a member of the scapolite group and a solid solution exists between marialite and meionite, the calcium endmember. It is a rare mineral usually...

       - Na4(AlSi3O8)3(Cl2,CO3,SO4)
    • Meionite
      Meionite
      Meionite is a silicate mineral belonging to the scapolite group with the formula Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3. Some samples may also contain a sulfate group. It was first discovered in 1801 on Mt Somma, Vesuvius, Italy....

       - Ca4(Al2Si2O8)3(Cl2CO3,SO4)
  • Analcime - NaAlSi2O6•H2O
  • Zeolite
    Zeolite
    Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents. The term zeolite was originally coined in 1756 by Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who observed that upon rapidly heating the material stilbite, it produced large amounts of steam from water that...

     group
    • Natrolite
      Natrolite
      Natrolite is a tectosilicate mineral species belonging to the zeolite group. It is a hydrated sodium and aluminium silicate with the formula . The type locality is Hohentwiel, Hegau, Germany....

       - Na2Al2Si3O10•2H2O
    • Chabazite
      Chabazite
      Chabazite is a tectosilicate mineral of the zeolite group, closely related to gmelinite, with formula Al2Si4O12·6H2O. Recognized varieties include Chabazite-Ca, Chabazite-K, Chabazite-Na, and Chabazite-Sr, depending on the prominence of the indicated cation.Chabazite crystallizes in the triclinic...

       - CaAl2Si4O12•6H2O
    • Heulandite
      Heulandite
      Heulandite is the name of a series of tecto-silicate minerals of the zeolite group. Prior to 1997, heulandite was recognized as a mineral species, but a reclassification in 1997 by the International Mineralogical Association changed it to a series name, with the mineral species being named:*...

       - CaAl2Si7O18•6H2O
    • Stilbite
      Stilbite
      Stilbite is the name of a series of tectosilicate minerals of the zeolite group. Prior to 1997, stilbite was recognized as a mineral species, but a reclassification in 1997 by the International Mineralogical Association changed it to a series name, with the mineral species being named:*...

       - NaCa2Al5Si13O36•17H2O

See also


  • Classification of minerals - Non silicates
    Classification of minerals - Non silicates
    This list gives an overview of the classification of minerals and includes mostly IMA recognized minerals and its groupings. This list complements the alphabetical list on List of minerals and List of minerals. Rocks, ores, mineral mixtures, not IMA approved minerals, not named minerals are...

  • Classification of minerals - Silicates
    Classification of minerals - Silicates
    This list gives an overview of the classification of minerals and includes mostly IMA recognized minerals and its groupings. This list complements the alphabetical list on List of minerals and List of minerals. Rocks, ores, mineral mixtures, not IMA approved minerals, not named minerals are...

  • Silicate mineral paint
    Silicate mineral paint
    Silicate mineral paints or silicate emulsion paints are mineral based coatings formulated with potassium silicate or sodium silicate, otherwise known as waterglass as the binder, combined with inorganic, alkaline-resistant pigments. Traditionally, they have been fully inorganic and are...