The Senate of the Republic
, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union
' onMouseout='HidePop("50836")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Mexico">Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...
's bicameral Congress
The Congress of the Union is the legislative branch of the Mexican government...
After a series of reforms during the 1990s, it is now made up of 128 senators:
- Two for each of the 31 states
The United Mexican States is a federal republic formed by 32 federal entities .According to the Constitution of 1917, the states of the federation are free and sovereign. Each state has their own congress and constitution, while the Federal District has only limited autonomy with a local Congress...
and two for the Federal District elected under the principle of relative majority;
- One for each of the 31 states and one for the Federal District, assigned under the principle of first minority (i.e. awarded to the party who had won the second highest number of votes within the state or Federal District);
- Thirty-two national senators-at-large, divided among the parties in proportion to their share of the national vote.
In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together
by direct vote. The party of the two candidates that won the second highest vote within the state or the Federal District then assigns a senator to occupy the third seat (first minority seat), according to the list of candidates that the party registered with the Federal Electoral Institute
The Federal Electoral Institute is an autonomous, public organization responsible for organizing federal elections in Mexico, that is, those related to the election of the President of the United Mexican States and to the election of the members of the Lower and Upper Chambers that constitute the ...
Senators serve six-year terms, running concurrently with the President of Mexico
The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces...
. Special elections are rare, as substitutes are chosen at every election.
The Senate is completely renewed every six years, since senators are barred from immediate reelection.
Term and current composition
- See main article: LXI Legislature of the Mexican Congress
The LXI Legislature of the Congress of Mexico meets from September 1, 2009, to August 31, 2012. Members of the upper house of the Congress were selected in the elections of July 2006 while members of the lower house of the Congress were selected in the elections of July 2009....
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...
, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...
of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term.
The current session (whose term lasts from 2009 to 2012) is known as the LXI Legislatura
Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current Senators (who were elected in the general election
A general election was held in Mexico on Sunday, July 2, 2006. Voters went to the polls to elect, on the federal level:*A new President of the Republic to serve a six-year term, replacing then Mexican President Vicente Fox .*500 members to serve for a...
of July 2, 2006) will serve during the 60th
and 61st Legislatures
of the Chamber of Deputies.
External links Official Website of the Mexican Senate